Sonny Liston

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Sonny Liston
Charles Sonny Liston.jpg
Liston in 1963
Statistics
Real name Charles L. Liston
Nickname(s) Sonny
The Big Bear
Rated at Heavyweight
Height 6 ft 0.5 in (1.84 m)
Reach 84 in (2.13 m)[1][2]
Nationality American
Born unknown
Sand Slough, Arkansas, USA
Died December 30, 1970(1970-12-30)
Las Vegas, Nevada
Stance Orthodox
Boxing record
Total fights 54
Wins 50
Wins by KO 39
Losses 4
Draws 0
No contests 0

Charles L. "Sonny" Liston (unknown – December 30, 1970) was an American professional boxer known for his toughness, punching power and intimidating appearance. He became World Heavyweight Champion in 1962 by knocking out Floyd Patterson in the first round. Liston failed to live up to his fearsome reputation when he lost the title in 1964 to 7-1 underdog Muhammad Ali (then known as Cassius Clay). Underworld connections and an early death—along with his unrecorded date of birth—added to the enigma. The Ring magazine ranked Liston as the 7th greatest heavyweight of all-time in 1998 and the 15th greatest puncher of all-time in 2003.

Birth date controversy[edit]

There is no official record of his birth. He was born on a farm in Arkansas, a state which did not require mandatory birth certificates until 1965. Liston told sportswriter Jerry Izenberg that his date of birth was carved on a tree, but it was chopped down.

When Liston was arrested for robbery in 1950, he gave his age as 22. When he filed for a birth certificate for legal reasons in 1953, he said his date of birth as May 8, 1932. And when he testified before a U.S. Senate subcommittee in 1960, he said he was born in 1933.[3]

Liston's mother said he was born on January 8, 1932. She said the date was recorded in a family Bible, but the Bible was lost somewhere along the way. Sometimes she said the date was January 18. "I know he was born in January," she recalled. "It was cold in January." Liston biographer Nick Tosches found that a sibling’s birth was registered as January 8th and supposed that she mixed them up. Other times she said Sonny was born between 1929 and 1930. She also said she thought he was born in 1927. Boxing writer Springs Toledo believes she confused the year of his birth with the birth year of another sibling, which was 1927. Another time, she said she believed his birthday was July 22.[4]

Liston biographer Paul Gallender and the Encyclopedia Britannica list his year of birth as 1917.[5]

By the time Liston won the world title, an aged appearance added credence to rumors that he was several years older than he claimed. Jack McKinney, a sportswriter and columnist with the Philadelphia Daily News who befriended Liston, said Liston “was so sensitive on the issue of his age because he did not really know how old he was. When guys would write that he was 32 going on 50, it had more of an impact on him that anybody realized. Sonny didn’t know who he was.”[6]

When the records from the 1930 United States Census were released in 2002—access to personally identifiable information from census records is restricted for 72 years—Liston's name was absent. Ten years later, when the 1940 Census records became available, Charles L. Liston was listed on the Liston family card. His age was listed as 10.[7]

Based on the census information and statements from Liston's mother, Springs Toledo believes Liston may have been born on July 22, 1930.[8]

Early life[edit]

Charles "Sonny" Liston was born into a sharecropping family who farmed the poor land of Morledge Plantation near Johnson Township, St. Francis County, Arkansas. His father, Tobe Liston, was in his mid-40s when he and his wife, Helen Baskin, who was nearly 30 years younger than Tobe, moved to Arkansas from Mississippi in 1916. Helen had one child before she married Tobe, and Tobe had 13 children with his first wife. Tobe and Helen had 12 children together. Sonny was the second youngest child: he had a younger brother named Wesley.[9][10]

Tobe Liston inflicted whippings so severe on Sonny that the scars were still visible decades later. "The only thing my old man ever gave me was a beating," Liston said.[11] Helen Baskin moved to St. Louis, Missouri, with some of her children, leaving Liston—aged around 13, according to his later reckonings—in Arkansas with his father. Sonny thrashed the pecans from his brother-in-law's tree and sold them in Forrest City. With the proceeds he traveled to St. Louis and reunited with his mother and siblings. Liston tried going to school but quickly left after jeers about his illiteracy; the only employment he could obtain was sporadic and exploitative.[9]

Liston turned to crime and led a gang of toughs who committed muggings and armed robberies. He became known to the St. Louis police as the "Yellow Shirt Bandit," due to the shirt he wore during robberies. Liston was caught in January 1950. He gave his age as 20, while the St. Louis Globe-Democrat reported that he was 22.[9] Liston was convicted and sentenced to five years in Missouri State Penitentiary. His time in prison started on the first day of June 1950.[4]

Liston never complained about prison, saying he was guaranteed three meals every day.[12] The athletic director at Missouri State Penitentiary, Father Alois Stevens, suggested to Liston that he try boxing, and his obvious aptitude, along with an endorsement from the priest, aided Liston in getting an early parole. Father Stevens organized a sparring session with a professional heavyweight named Thurman Wilson to showcase Liston's potential. After two rounds, Wilson had taken enough. "Better get me out of this ring, he is going to kill me!" he exclaimed.[13]

Amateur boxing career[edit]

After he was released from prison on October 31, 1952, Liston had a brief amateur career which spanned less than a year. Liston captured the Chicago Golden Gloves Tournament of Champions on March 6, 1953, with a victory over 1952 Olympic Heavyweight Champion Ed Sanders. He then outpointed Julius Griffin, winner of the New York Golden Gloves Tournament of Champions, to capture the Intercity Golden Gloves Championship on March 26. Liston was dropped in the first round, but he came back to control the next two rounds and had Griffin hanging on at the end.

Liston competed in the 1953 National Amateur Athletic Union Tournament and lost in the quarterfinals to 17-year-old Jimmy McCarter on April 15. Liston would later employ McCarter as a sparring partner. It has been reported that Liston raped a hotel maid while in Boston, and mob bosses in St. Louis used their influence to ensure that he escaped jail, thereby keeping him permanently in their debt.[14]

Liston boxed in an International Golden Gloves competition at Kiel Auditorium in St. Louis on June 23, and knocked out Hermann Schreibauer of West Germany at 2:16 of the first round. The previous month, Schreibauer had won a bronze medal in the European Championships.[15] At this time, the head coach of the St. Louis Golden Gloves team, Tony Anderson, stated that Liston was the strongest fighter he had ever seen.

Liston signed his first professional contract in September 1953, only exclaiming during the signing, "Whatever you tell me to do, I'll do."[13] Frank Mitchell, publisher of the St. Louis Argus, and Monroe Harrison, a former Joe Louis sparring partner, served as his first managers. Mitchell needed money to further Liston's career so he turned to mobster John Vitale, who gave Liston a job at his concrete manufacturing company. However, Vitale really employed Liston as a bill collector.[16]

Professional boxing career[edit]

Liston made his professional debut on September 2, 1953, knocking out Don Smith in the first round in St. Louis, where he fought his first five bouts. Dubbed the "Big Bear," Liston stood 6 ft 1 in (1.85 m) and weighed 212 lb (96.16 kg). He was exceptionally powerful and had a disproportionately long reach at 84 inches (2.13 m), 11 inches (28 cm) greater than his height.[1][17] Liston's fists measured 15 inches (38 cm) around, the largest of any heavyweight champion. Sports Illustrated writer Mort Sharnik said his hands "looked like cannonballs when he made them into fists." Liston's noticeably more muscular left arm, crushing left jab and powerful left hook lent credence to the widely held belief that he was left-handed but utilized an orthodox stance.

Early in his career, Liston faced capable opponents. In his sixth bout, he faced John Summerlin (18-1-2) on national television and won by an eight-round decision. In his next fight, he had a rematch with Summerlin and again won an eight-round decision. Both fights were in Summerlin's hometown of Detroit, Michigan.[18]

Liston suffered his first defeat in his eighth fight on September 7, 1954, losing against Marty Marshall, a journeyman with an awkward style. In the third round, Marshall nailed Liston—reportedly while he was laughing—and broke his jaw. A stoic Liston finished the fight but lost by an eight-round split decision. On April 21, 1956, Liston defeated Marshall in a rematch, dropping him four times en route to a sixth-round knockout. They had a rubber match on March 6, 1956, which Liston won by a lopsided ten-round unanimous decision.

Liston's criminal record, compounded by a personal association with a notorious labor racketeer, led to the police stopping him on sight, and he began to avoid main streets. On May 5, 1956, a cop confronted Liston and a friend about a cab parked near Liston's home. Liston assaulted the officer, breaking his knee and gashing his face. He also took his gun. Liston claimed the officer used racial slurs. A widely publicized account of Liston resisting arrest—even after nightsticks were allegedly broken over his skull—added to the public perception of him as a nightmarish "monster" who was impervious to punishment. He was paroled after serving six months of a nine-month sentence and prohibited from boxing during 1957. After repeated overnight detention by the St. Louis police and a thinly veiled threat to his life, Liston left for Philadelphia.[19]

In 1958, Liston returned to boxing. He won eight fights that year, six by knockout. Liston also got a new manager in 1958: Joseph "Pep" Barone, who was a front man for mobsters Frankie Carbo and Frank "Blinky" Palermo.

The year 1959 was a banner one for Liston: after knocking out contender Mike DeJohn in six rounds, he faced Cleveland Williams, a fast-handed fighter who was billed as the hardest-hitting heavyweight in the world. Against Williams, Liston showed remarkable durability and punching power. He also revealed heretofore-unsuspected boxing skills, nullifying Williams' best work before stopping him in the third round of an incredible contest that many still regard as his most impressive performance. He rounded out the year by stopping Nino Valdez and Willi Besmanoff.

In 1960, Liston won five more fights, including a rematch with Williams, who lasted only two rounds. Liston's imposing appearance was artificially enhanced with towels under his robe when he entered the ring. His opponents would often be intimidated by the impact of his massive physique and baleful gaze. Roy Harris, who had gone 13 rounds with Floyd Patterson in a title match, was crushed in one round by Liston. Top contender Zora Folley was stopped in three rounds and the run of knockouts led to Liston being touted as a "champion in waiting."

Liston's streak of nine straight knockout victories ended when he won a unanimous twelve-round decision against the skilled and seasoned Eddie Machen on September 7, 1960. Machen's mobility enabled him to go the distance. However, Machen's taunting and his spoiling tactics of dodging and grappling—at one point almost heaving Liston over the ropes—so alienated the audience that Liston received unaccustomed support from the crowd.[20] Before his bout with Liston, Muhammad Ali consulted Machen and was advised that the key to success was to make Liston lose his temper.[20]

Style review from Sports Illustrated[edit]

In a Sports Illustrated article about his win over Folley, writer Gilbert Rogin opined that Liston was not a quick hitter, not particularly nifty on his feet, relied too much on his ability to take a punch and could be vulnerable to an opponent with more hand speed. "But can he hit!" Rogin wrote. "There is power in both his left and his right, even though the fists move with the languor of motoring royalty or as if passing through a gaseous envelope more dense than air." Rogin called Liston's body "awesome—arms like fence posts, thighs like silos." His defense was described as "the gate-crossing of arms a la Archie Moore."[21]

Title challenge delay[edit]

Liston became the No. 1 contender in 1960, but the handlers of World Heavyweight Champion Floyd Patterson refused to give him a shot at the title because of Liston's links to organized crime.[22] Ironically, Patterson's manager, Cus D'Amato, associated with racketeers and had his manager's license revoked by the New York State Athletic Commission for alleged misconduct in connection with the Floyd Patterson-Ingemar Johansson title fight in June 1959.[23]

Civic leaders were also reluctant, worrying that Liston's unsavory character would set a bad example to youth. The NAACP had urged Patterson not to fight Liston, fearing that a Liston victory would hurt the civil rights movement.[24] Many African-Americans disdained Liston. Asked by a young white reporter why he wasn't fighting for freedom in the South. Liston deadpanned, "I ain't got no dog-proof ass."[25] However, in the aftermath of the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing, Liston broke off a European boxing exhibition tour to return home and was quoted as saying he was "ashamed to be in America."[26]

United States President John F. Kennedy also did not want Patterson to fight Liston. When Patterson met with the president in January 1962, Kennedy suggested that Patterson avoid Liston, citing Justice Department concerns over Liston's ties to organized crime.[27]

Jack Dempsey spoke for many when he was quoted as saying that Sonny Liston should not be allowed to fight for the title. Liston angrily responded by questioning whether Dempsey's failure to serve in World War I qualified him to moralize.[28] Frustrated, Liston changed his management in 1961 and applied pressure through the media by remarking that Patterson, who had faced mostly white challengers since becoming champion, was drawing the color line against his own race.[29]

Liston vs. Patterson[edit]

Patterson finally signed to meet Liston for the world title on September 25, 1962, in Comiskey Park in Chicago, Illinois.[30] Leading up to the fight, Liston was a 8-5 betting favorite, though many picked Patterson to win. In an Associated Press poll, 64 of 102 reporters picked Patterson. Sports Illustrated predicted a Patterson victory in 15 rounds, stating: "Sonny has neither Floyd's speed nor the versatility of his attack. He is a relatively elementary, one-track fighter." Former champions James J. Braddock, Jersey Joe Walcott, Ezzard Charles, Rocky Marciano and Ingemar Johansson all picked Patterson to win. Muhammad Ali (at the time a rising contender named Cassius Clay) predicted a knockout by Liston in the first five rounds.

The fight turned out to be a mismatch. Liston, with a 25-pound weight advantage (214 lb (97.07 kg) to 189 lb (85.73 kg)), knocked out Patterson at 2:06 of the first round. putting him down for the count with a powerful left hook to the jaw. Sports Illustrated writer Gilbert Rogin wrote: "that final left hook crashed into Patterson's cheek like a diesel rig going downhill, no brakes." It was the third-fastest knockout in a world heavyweight title fight and the first time the champion had been knocked out in round one.

Rogin wrote that Patterson backers expected him to "go inside on Liston, fire away and then run like a thief in the night. He would not close in until the accumulated inside damage and Liston's own frustration had sapped the challenger's strength and will." Patterson's mistake was that he "did not punch enough and frequently tried to clinch with Liston....In these feckless clinches he only managed to tie up one of Liston's arms. A grateful Liston found there was no need to give chase. The victim sought out the executioner." Rogin discounted speculation that Patterson had thrown the fight, writing: "The genesis of all this wide-eyed theorizing and downright baloney was the fact that many spectators failed to see the knockout blows."[31][32]

Heavyweight Champion of the World[edit]

On winning the Heavyweight Championship of the World, Liston had a speech prepared for the crowd that friends had assured him would meet him at the Philadelphia airport. But on arriving, Liston was met by only a handful of reporters and public relations staff. Writer Jack McKinney said, "I watched Sonny. His eyes swept the whole scene....You could feel the deflation, see the look of hurt in his eyes....He had been deliberately snubbed. Philadelphia wanted nothing to do with him."

During an era when white journalists were still able to describe black sportsmen in stereotypes, Liston had long been a target of racially charged slurs; he was called a "gorilla" and "a jungle beast" in print. Larry Merchant, then a writer with the Philadelphia Daily News, wrote: "A celebration for Philadelphia’s first heavyweight champ is now in order....Emily Post would probably recommend a ticker-tape parade. For confetti we can use torn-up arrest warrants." He also wrote that Liston's win over Patterson proved that "in a fair fight between good and evil, evil must win." Some writers thought Liston brought bad press on himself by a surly and hostile attitude toward journalists. He also had a reputation for bullying people such as porters and waitresses.[33]

Liston's run-ins with the police had continued in Philadelphia. He particularly resented a 1961 arrest by a black patrolman for loitering, claiming to have merely been signing autographs and chatting with fans outside a drug store.[34] One month later, Liston was accused of impersonating a police officer by using a flashlight to wave down a female motorist in Fairmount Park, although all charges were later dropped. Subsequently, Liston spent some months in Denver where a Catholic priest who acted as his spiritual adviser attempted to help bring his drinking under control. After he won the title, Liston relocated to Denver permanently, saying, "I'd rather be a lamppost in Denver than the mayor of Philadelphia."[25]

Liston vs. Patterson II[edit]

Patterson and Liston had a rematch clause in their contact. Patterson wanted a chance to redeem himself, so they had a rematch on July 22, 1963, in Las Vegas, Nevada. Patterson, a 4-1 betting underdog, was knocked down three times and counted out at 2:10 of the first round. The fight lasted four seconds longer than the first one.[25] Liston's victory was loudly booed. "The public is not with me now," Liston said afterward, "but they'll have to swing along until somebody beats me."[33]

Liston vs. Ali[edit]

Liston made his second title defense against Muhammad Ali—at the time Cassius Clay—on February 25, 1964, in Miami Beach, Florida. Liston was a 7–1 betting favorite. In a pre-fight poll, 43 of 46 sportswriters picked Sonny Liston to win by knockout. Some were surprised during the referee's instructions to see that Ali was a couple of inches taller than Liston, the so-called "Big Bear."

Liston charged Ali at the opening bell, looking to end the fight quickly and decisively. However, Ali's superior speed and movement was immediately evident, as he slipped most of Liston's lunging punches, making the champion look awkward. Ali clearly gained confidence as the round progressed. He hit Liston with a combination that electrified the crowd with about 30 seconds left in the round and began scoring repeatedly with his left jab (the round lasted an extra 20 seconds because referee Barney Felix didn't hear the bell).

Liston settled down somewhat in round two. At one point, he cornered Ali against the ropes and hit him with a hard left hook. Ali later confessed that he was hurt by the punch, but Liston failed to press his advantage. Two of the official scorers awarded the round to Liston and the other had it even.

In the third round, Ali began to take control of the fight. At about 30 seconds into the round, he hit Liston with several combinations, causing a bruise under Liston's right eye and a cut under his left, which eventually required eight stitches to close. It was the first time in his career that Liston had been cut. At one point in this attack, Liston's knees buckled and he almost went down as he was driven to the ropes.[35] A clearly angered Liston rallied at the end of the round, as Ali seemed tired, and delivered punishing shots to Ali's body. It was probably Liston's best moment in the entire fight.[36] Sitting on his stool between rounds, Liston was breathing heavily as his cornermen worked on his cut.

During the fourth round, Ali coasted, keeping his distance. However, when he returned to his corner, he started complaining that there was something burning in his eyes and he could not see. "I didn't know what the heck was going on," Angelo Dundee, Ali's trainer, recalled on an NBC special 25 years later. "He said, 'cut the gloves off. I want to prove to the world there's dirty work afoot.' And I said, 'whoa, whoa, back up baby. C'mon now, this is for the title, this is the big apple. What are you doing? Sit down!' So I get him down, I get the sponge and I pour the water into his eyes trying to cleanse whatever's there, but before I did that I put my pinkie in his eye and I put it into my eye. It burned like hell. There was something caustic in both eyes."

The commotion wasn't lost on referee Barney Felix, who was walking toward Ali's corner. Felix later said Ali was seconds from being disqualified.[37] The challenger, his arms held high in surrender, was demanding that the fight be stopped and Dundee, fearing the fight might indeed be halted, gave his charge a one-word order: "Run!"

Many theorized that a substance used on Liston's cuts by Joe Pollino, his cutman, may have inadvertently caused the irritation. However, Pollino allegedly confessed to reporter Jack McKinney years later that Liston ordered him to rub an astringent compound on his gloves before the fourth round. Pollino complied, and Liston shoved his gloves into Ali's face in the fourth.[38]

Ali later said he could only see a faint shadow of Liston during most of the round, but by circling and moving he managed to avoid Liston and somehow survive. At one point, Ali was wiping his eyes with right hand while extending his left arm—"like a drunk leaning on a lamppost" Bert Sugar wrote—to keep Liston at bay.[39] By the sixth round, Ali's sight had cleared, and he began landing combinations of punches seemingly at will.[40]

Liston failed to answer the bell for the seventh round, and Ali was declared the winner by technical knockout. It was the first time since 1919—when Jack Dempsey defeated Jess Willard—that a World Heavyweight Champion had quit on his stool. Liston said he quit because of a shoulder injury. Dr. Alexander Robbins, chief physician for the Miami Beach Boxing Commission, diagnosed Liston with a torn tendon in his left shoulder. However, David Remnick, for his book, King of the World: Muhammad Ali and the Rise of an American Hero, spoke with one of Liston's cornermen, who told him that Liston could have continued: "[The shoulder] was all BS. We had a return bout clause with Clay, but if you say your guy just quit, who is gonna get a return bout. We cooked up that shoulder thing on the spot."[41] Hall of Fame matchmaker Teddy Brenner also disputed the shoulder injury, claiming he saw Liston use the same arm to throw a chair in his dressing room after the match.[42]

Liston vs. Ali II[edit]

Liston trained hard for the rematch, which was scheduled to take place November 13, 1964, in Boston, Massachusetts. Time magazine said Liston had worked himself into the best shape of his career. However, there were again rumors of alcohol abuse in training.[43] The extent to which Liston's heavy drinking and possible drug use may have contributed to his surprisingly poor performances against Ali is not known.[11]

Three days before the fight, Ali needed emergency surgery for a strangulated hernia. The bout would need to be delayed by six months.[44] The new date was set for May 25, 1965. But as it approached, there were fears that the promoters were tied to organized crime and Massachusetts officials, most notably Suffolk County District Attorney Garrett Byrne, began to have second thoughts. Byrne sought an injunction blocking the fight in Boston because Inter-Continental Promotions was promoting the fight without a Massachusetts license. Inter-Continental said local veteran Sam Silverman was the promoter. On May 7, backers of the rematch ended the court battle by pulling the fight out of Boston.[45] The promoters needed a new location quickly, whatever the size, to rescue their closed circuit television commitment around the country. Governor John H. Reed of Maine stepped forward, and within a few hours, the promoters had a new site: Lewiston, Maine, a mill town with a population of about 41,000 located 140 miles (230 km) north of Boston.

The ending of the fight remains one of the most controversial in boxing history. Midway through the first round, Liston threw a left jab and Ali went over it with a fast right, knocking the former champion down. Liston went down on his back. He rolled over, got to his right knee and then fell on his back again. Many in attendance did not see Ali deliver the punch. The fight quickly descended into chaos. Referee Jersey Joe Walcott, a former World Heavyweight Champion himself, had a hard time getting Ali to go to a neutral corner. Ali initially stood over his fallen opponent, gesturing and yelling at him, "Get up and fight, sucker!"

When Walcott got back to Liston and looked at the knockdown timekeeper, Francis McDonough, to pick up the count, Liston had fallen back on the canvas. Walcott never did pick up the count. He said he could not hear McDonough, who did not have a microphone. Also, McDonough did not bang on the canvas or motion a number count with his fingers. McDonough, however, claimed Walcott was looking at the crowd and never at him. After Liston arose, Walcott wiped off his gloves. He then left the fighters to go over to the McDonough. "The timekeeper was waving both hands and saying, 'I counted him out—the fight is over,'" Walcott said after the fight. "Nat Fleischer [editor of The Ring] was seating beside McDonough and he was waving his hands, too, saying it was over." Walcott then rushed back to the fighters, who had resumed boxing, and stopped the fight—awarding Ali a first-round knockout victory.[46]

The fight ranks as one of the shortest heavyweight title bouts in history. Many in the small crowd had not even settled in their seats when the fight was stopped. The official time of the stoppage was announced as 1:00 into the first round, which was wrong. Liston went down at 1:44, got up at 1:56, and Walcott stopped the fight at 2:12.

Numerous fans booed and started yelling, "Fix!" Many did not see the punch land and some of those who did see it land, didn't think it was powerful enough to knock Liston out. Skeptics called the knockout blow "the phantom punch." Ali called it "the anchor punch." He said it was taught to him by comedian and film actor Stepin Fetchit, who learned it from Jack Johnson.

There were some, however, who believed the fight was legitimate. World Light Heavyweight Champion José Torres said, "It was a perfect punch." Jim Murray of the Los Angeles Times wrote that it was "no phantom punch." And Tex Maule of Sports Illustrated wrote, "The blow had so much force it lifted Liston's left foot, upon which most of his weight was resting, well off the canvas."

Some found it hard to believe that the punch could have floored a man like Liston. Hall of Fame announcer Don Dunphy said, "Here was a guy who was in prison and the guards use to beat him over the head with clubs and couldn't knock him down." But others contend that he wasn't the same Liston. Dave Anderson of the New York Times said Liston "looked awful" in his last workout before the fight. Liston's handlers secretly paid sparring partner Amos Lincoln an extra $100 to take it easy on him. Arthur Daley of the New York Times wrote that Liston's handlers knew he "didn't have it anymore."[47]

Former champions Jack Dempsey, Joe Louis, Floyd Patterson and Gene Tunney, as well as contender George Chuvalo all stated that they considered the fight to be a fake. Ali biographer Wilfrid Sheed opines in his book, Muhammad Ali: A Portrait in Words and Photographs, that Liston planned to throw the fight by using an actual knockdown as the opportunity to do so. However, Sheed says that the punch that knocked Liston down "may have been genuine, but when referee Joe Walcott blew the count and gave him all evening to get up, Liston's rendition of a coma wouldn't have fooled a possum.”

While Liston publicly denied taking a dive, Sports Illustrated writer Mark Kram said that years later Liston told him, “That guy [Ali] was crazy. I didn’t want anything to do with him. And the Muslims were coming up. Who needed that? So I went down. I wasn’t hit.”[48]

Subsequent fights[edit]

After the second loss to Ali, Liston stayed out of the ring for more than a year. He returned with four consecutive knockout victories in Sweden between July 1966 and April 1967, all four co-promoted by former World Heavyweight Champion Ingemar Johansson. One of the victories was over Amos Johnson, who had recently defeated British champion Henry Cooper.

Liston returned to the United States and won seven fights, all by knockout, in 1968. America's first look at Liston since the Ali rematch was when he fought fifth–ranked Henry Clark in a nationally broadcast bout in July 1968. Liston won by a seventh-round technical knockout and seemed on the verge of making a comeback to the big time. He talked of a fight with Joe Frazier, claiming, "It'd be like shooting fish in a barrel." Liston won fourteen consecutive bouts, thirteen by knockout, before fighting third-ranked Leotis Martin in December 1969. Liston decked Martin with a left hook in the fourth round and dominated most of the fight, but Martin comeback and knocked Liston out cold in the ninth round. Unfortunately for Martin, his career ended after that fight because of a detached retina he suffered during the bout.

Liston won his final fight, a tough match against future world title challenger Chuck Wepner in June 1970.[49] The bout was stopped after the ninth round due to cuts over both of Wepner's eyes. Wepner needed 72 stitches and suffered a broken cheekbone and nose.

Personal life[edit]

Liston married Geraldine Clark in St. Louis, Missouri, on September 3, 1957. Geraldine had a daughter from a previous relationship, and the Listons subsequently adopted a boy from Sweden. Liston biographer Paul Gallender claims that Liston fathered several children, though none with his wife. Geraldine remembered her husband as, "Great with me, great with the kids. He was a gentle man."[25]

Death[edit]

Following the win over Wepner, Liston was going to face Canadian champion George Chuvalo, but the fight never happened. “When I signed to fight him (in December 1970) he’d been dead for a week," Chuvalo stated years later. "He passed away after I’d sent a telegram to the promoter, agreeing terms to the fight at the Montreal Forum. A day or so later a news report flashes up saying former heavyweight champion of the world Sonny Liston found dead at his Las Vegas home. I’d actually signed a contract to face a dead man.”[50]

Liston was found dead by his wife, Geraldine, in their Las Vegas home on January 5, 1971.[51] On returning home from a two-week trip, Geraldine had smelled a foul odor emanating from the main bedroom and on entering saw Sonny slumped up against the bed, a broken foot bench on the floor. Authorities theorized that he was undressing for bed when he fell over backward with such force that he broke the rail of the bench. Geraldine called Sonny's attorney and his doctor but didn't notify the police until two to three hours later.[52]

Sergeant Dennis Caputo of the Clark County Sheriff’s Department was one of the first officers on the scene. Caputo found a quarter-ounce of heroin in a balloon in the kitchen and a half-ounce of marijuana in Liston's pants pocket, but no syringes or needles. Some found it suspicious that authorities could not locate any drug paraphernalia that Liston presumably would have needed to inject the fatal dose, such as a spoon to cook the heroin or a tourniquet to wrap around his arm. However, former Las Vegas police sergeant Gary Beckwith said, "It wasn't uncommon for family members in these cases to go through and tidy up...to save family embarrassment."[53]

Following an investigation, Las Vegas police concluded that there were no signs of foul play and declared Liston's death a heroin overdose. “It was common knowledge that Sonny was a heroin addict,” said Caputo. “The whole department knew about it.” The date of death listed on his death certificate is December 30, 1970, which police estimated by judging the number of milk bottles and newspapers at the front door.

Coroner Mark Herman said traces of heroin byproducts were found in Liston’s system, but not in amounts large enough to have caused his death. Also, scar tissue, possibly from needle marks, was found in the left bend of Liston's elbow. The toxicology report said his body was too decomposed for the tests to be conclusive. Officially, Liston died of lung congestion and heart failure.[54] He had been suffering from hardening of the heart muscle and lung disease before his death.[55] Liston had been hospitalized in early December, complaining of chest pains.[56]

Many people who knew Liston insisted that he was afraid of needles and never would have used heroin. “He had a deadly fear of needles,” said Davey Pearl, a boxing referee and friend of Liston's. “There was nothing Sonny feared more than a needle. I know!” said Liston’s Philadelphia dentist, Dr. Nick Ragni. “He was afraid of needles,” echoed Father Edward Murphy. “He would do everything to avoid taking shots.” According to Liston’s trainer, Willie Reddish, Liston cancelled a planned tour to Africa in 1963 because he refused to get the required inoculations. Liston's wife also reported that her husband would refuse basic medical care for common colds because of his dislike of needles.[57]

"The month before he died, some guy ran into Sonny while he was making a left turn. He had a whiplash, so they took him to the hospital," said boxing trainer Johnny Tocco. "He said: 'Look what they did!' and he was pointing at some little bandage over the needle mark in his arm. He was more angry about that shot than he was about the car wreck. A couple weeks later, he was still complainin' about that needle mark. To this day, I'm convinced that's what the coroner saw in his exam—that hospital needle mark."[58]

Many believe Liston was murdered. There are several theories as to why: (1) Publicist Harold Conrad and others believed that Liston was deeply involved as a bill collector in a loan-sharking ring in Las Vegas. When he tried to muscle in for a bigger share of the action, Conrad surmised that his employers got him very drunk, took him home, and stuck him with a needle. (2) Professional gambler Lem Banker insists that Liston was murdered by drug dealers with whom he’d become involved. Banker said he was told by police that Liston had been seen at a house that would be the target of a drug raid. Banker said, "Sheriff [Ralph] Lamb told me, ‘Tell your pal Sonny to stay away from the West Side because we’re going to bust the drug dealers.'" Banker later learned that the police told Liston the same thing to his face. He apparently was at the dealers’ house shortly before they got busted. Because of that, the dealers may have thought Sonny ratted on them and they shot him with a hot dose as retribution. (3) The mob promised Liston some money to throw the second Ali fight but they never paid him. As the years passed and Liston’s financial situation worsened, he got angry and told the mob he’d go public with the story unless they gave him the money. That got him killed. (4) Liston was supposed to take a dive when he fought Chuck Wepner six months earlier, and killing him was payback for his failure to do so.[59]

Some believe the police covered up what happened. On January 1, Liston's wife called Johnny Tocco and said she hadn’t heard from her husband in three days and was worried. A few years before he died, Johnny Tocco allegedly told his good friend, Tony Davi, that he went to Liston’s house and found the door locked and his car in the driveway. Tocco called the police, and they broke into the house. Tocco said that the living room furniture was in disarray but the house did not yet smell of death. He said they found Sonny lying on his bed with a needle sticking out of his arm. Johnny left the house before the police did. “Johnny wasn’t a braggart,” Davi told Liston biographer Paul Gallender. “He told me in the strictest confidence, but it was like he wanted to get it off his chest.” Gallender claims, "A lot of officers knew Sonny was dead before Geraldine returned home on January 5, but they chose to let him rot."[60]

Sonny Liston is interred in Paradise Memorial Gardens in Las Vegas, Nevada. His headstone bears the simple epitaph: "A Man."

Professional boxing record[edit]

50 Wins (39 knockouts, 11 decisions), 4 Losses (3 knockouts, 1 decision), 0 Draws[61]
Res. Record Opponent Type Round Date Location Notes
Win 50–4 United States Chuck Wepner RTD 9 (10) 29/06/1970 United States Armory, Jersey City, New Jersey, United States Wepner was down in the 5th round from a body punch. The fight was stopped by the ring doctor after round 9 because of multiple cuts on Wepner's face.
Loss 49–4 United States Leotis Martin KO 9 (12) 06/12/1969 United States International Hotel & Casino, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States For the vacant NABF Heavyweight title. Martin was down in round 4 and was behind on points when he KO'd Liston. Martin was forced to retire shortly afterward, as he suffered a detached retina in this bout.
Win 49–3 United States Sonny Moore KO 3 (10) 23/09/1969 United States Sam Houston Coliseum, Houston, Texas, United States
Win 48–3 United States George Johnson TKO 7 (10) 19/05/1969 United States Convention Hall, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States
Win 47–3 United States Billy Joiner UD 10 28/03/1969 United States Kiel Auditorium, St. Louis, Missouri, United States
Win 46–3 United States Amos Lincoln KO 2 (10) 10/12/1968 United States Civic Center, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Win 45–3 United States Roger Rischer KO 3 (10) 12/11/1968 United States Civic Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States Main event of a benefit card for Ben Anolik, Pennsylvania's first heart transplant patient.
Win 44–3 United States Willis Earls KO 2 (10) 03/11/1968 Mexico Bull Ring, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico
Win 43–3 United States Sonny Moore TKO 3 (10) 14/10/1968 United States Veteran's Memorial Coliseum, Phoenix, Arizona, United States
Win 42–3 United States Henry Clark TKO 7 (10) 06/07/1968 United States Cow Palace, Daly City, California, United States
Win 41–3 United States Billy Joiner RTD 7 (10) 23/05/1968 United States Grand Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles, California, United States Joiner was down in the 3rd round. Joiner retired in his corner after round 7.
Win 40–3 United States Bill McMurray KO 4 (10) 16/03/1968 United States Coliseum, Reno, Nevada, United States
Win 39–3 United States Elmer Rush TKO 6 (10) 28/04/1967 Sweden Johanneshov, Stockholm, Sweden Rush was down twice in the 4th round, three times in 5th and four times in 6th.
Win 38–3 United States Dave Bailey KO 1 (10) 30/03/1967 Sweden Masshallen, Gothenburg, Sweden
Win 37–3 United States Amos Johnson KO 3 (10) 19/08/1966 Sweden Ullevi, Gothenburg, Sweden
Win 36–3 Germany Gerhard Zech KO 7 (10) 01/07/1966 Sweden Johanneshov, Stockholm, Sweden
Loss 35–3 United States Muhammad Ali KO 1 (15) 25/05/1965 United States St. Dominic's Hall, Lewiston, Maine, United States For World Heavyweight title.
Loss 35–2 United States Muhammad Ali RTD 6 (15) 25/02/1964 United States Convention Hall, Miami Beach, Florida, United States Lost World Heavyweight title. Liston retired on his stool after round 6 citing an injured shoulder. Named 1964 Fight of the Year by The Ring magazine.
Win 35–1 United States Floyd Patterson KO 1 (15) 22/07/1963 United States Las Vegas Convention Center, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States Retained World Heavyweight Title. Patterson was knocked down three times.
Win 34–1 United States Floyd Patterson KO 1 (15) 25/09/1962 United States Comiskey Park, Chicago, Illinois, United States Won World Heavyweight Title. Liston made history by becoming the first man to win the heavyweight title with a first-round knockout.
Win 33–1 Germany Albert Westphal KO 1 (10) 04/12/1961 United States Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States This was the first time Westphal was knocked down in his career.
Win 32–1 United States Howard King TKO 3 (10) 08/03/1961 United States Auditorium, Miami Beach, Florida, United States
Win 31–1 United States Eddie Machen UD 12 07/09/1960 United States Sick's Stadium, Seattle, Washington, United States Liston was penalized three points for low blows.
Win 30–1 United States Zora Folley KO 3 (12) 18/07/1960 United States Coliseum, Denver, Colorado, United States Liston's sledge-hammer hands smashed Folley to the canvas twice in the 2nd round.
Win 29–1 United States Roy Harris TKO 1 (10) 25/04/1960 United States Sam Houston Coliseum, Houston, Texas, United States Harris was down three times.
Win 28–1 United States Cleveland Williams TKO 2 (10) 21/03/1960 United States Sam Houston Coliseum, Houston, Texas, United States Williams was down for an 8-count before the knockout.
Win 27–1 United States Howard King TKO 8 (10) 23/02/1960 United States Auditorium, Miami Beach, Florida, United States
Win 26–1 Germany Willi Besmanoff TKO 7 (10) 09/12/1959 United States Arena, Cleveland, Ohio, United States Besmanoff absorbed a barrage of punches in the 6th round and was bleeding from several bad gashes over his eyes. The referee stopped the bout between rounds 6 and 7.
Win 25–1 Cuba Nino Valdez KO 3 (10) 05/08/1959 United States Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, United States
Win 24–1 United States Cleveland Williams TKO 3 (10) 15/04/1959 United States Auditorium, Miami Beach, Florida, United States Williams was knocked down twice in the 3rd round.
Win 23–1 United States Mike DeJohn TKO 6 (10) 18/02/1959 United States Exhibition Hall, Miami Beach, Florida, United States
Win 22–1 United States Ernie Cab TKO 8 (10) 18/11/1958 United States Auditorium, Miami Beach, Florida, United States The ring doctor stopped the bout due to Cab's left eye and nose being cut.
Win 21–1 United States Bert Whitehurst UD 10 24/10/1958 United States Arena, St. Louis, Missouri, United States Whitehurst was knocked through the ropes and was attempting to climb back into the ring as the final bell rang at the count of seven.
Win 20–1 United States Frankie Daniels KO 1 (10) 07/10/1958 United States Auditorium, Miami Beach, Florida, United States
Win 19–1 United States Wayne Bethea TKO 1 (10) 06/08/1958 United States Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, United States
Win 18–1 Cuba Julio Mederos RTD 2 (10) 14/05/1958 United States Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, United States
Win 17–1 United States Bert Whitehurst PTS 10 03/04/1958 United States Kiel Auditorium, St. Louis, Missouri, United States
Win 16–1 United States Ben Wise TKO 4 (10) 11/03/1958 United States Midwest Gymnasium, Chicago, Illinois, United States
Win 15–1 United States Billy Hunter TKO 2 (10) 29/01/1958 United States Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, United States
Win 14–1 United States Marty Marshall UD 10 06/03/1956 United States Pittsburgh Gardens, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States Marshall substituted on four days notice for Harold Johnson, who injured his shoulder in training.
Win 13–1 United States Larry Watson TKO 4 (10) 13/12/1955 United States Alnad Temple, East St. Louis, Illinois, United States
Win 12–1 United States Johnny Gray TKO 6 (10) 13/09/1955 United States Victory Field, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
Win 11–1 United States Calvin Butler TKO 2 (8) 25/05/1955 United States Arena, St. Louis, Missouri, United States
Win 10–1 United States Emil Brtko TKO 5 (10) 05/05/1955 United States Duquesne Gardens, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
Win 9–1 United States Marty Marshall TKO 6 (10) 21/04/1955 United States Kiel Auditorium, St. Louis, Missouri, United States Marshall was down once in round 5 and three times in round 6.
Win 8–1 United States Neal Welch PTS 8 01/03/1955 United States Masonic Temple, St. Louis, Missouri, United States
Loss 7–1 United States Marty Marshall SD 8 07/09/1954 United States Motor City Arena, Detroit, Michigan, United States Liston suffered a broken jaw during round 4.
Win 7–0 United States Johnny Summerlin SD 8 10/08/1954 United States Motor City Arena, Detroit, Michigan, United States
Win 6–0 United States Johnny Summerlin UD 8 29/06/1954 United States Motor City Arena, Detroit, Michigan, United States Summerlin had suffered a fractured nose in a sparring session shortly before this fight.
Win 5–0 United States Stanley Howlett PTS 6 31/03/1954 United States Arena, St. Louis, Missouri, United States
Win 4–0 United States Martin Lee TKO 6 (6) 25/01/1954 United States Masonic Temple, St. Louis, Missouri, United States
Win 3–0 United States Bennie Thomas SD 6 21/11/1953 United States Kiel Auditorium, St. Louis, Missouri, United States
Win 2–0 United States Ponce de Leon PTS 4 17/09/1953 United States Kiel Auditorium, St. Louis, Missouri, United States
Win 1–0 United States Don Smith TKO 1 (4) 02/09/1953 United States Arena, St. Louis, Missouri, United States Smith apparently did not have a chance, as Liston swarmed all over him. After Referee Jimmy Parker halted the fight, it was discovered that Smith also was sporting a badly lacerated right eye.

In popular culture[edit]

Acting[edit]

Liston played a fist fighter in the 1965 film Harlow, made a cameo appearance in the 1968 film Head, which starred The Monkees, and played the part of a farmer in the 1970 film Moonfire, which starred Richard Egan and Charles Napier. Also in 1970, Liston appeared on an episode of the TV series Love, American Style and in a television commercial for Braniff Airlines with Andy Warhol.[4]

Portrayal in film[edit]

In the 2001 film Ali, Liston was portrayed by former WBO Heavyweight Champion Michael Bentt.

Liston was the subject of a 2008 feature film based upon his life titled Phantom Punch. The film starred Ving Rhames as Liston and was produced by Rhames, Hassain Zaidi and Marek Posival.

Portrayal in fiction[edit]

Liston appears as a character in James Ellroy's novel The Cold Six Thousand. In the novel, Liston not only drinks but also pops pills and works as a sometime enforcer for a heroin ring in Las Vegas. Liston also appears in the sequel, Blood's a Rover.

Thom Jones titled his 2000 collection of short stories Sonny Liston Was a Friend of Mine.[62]

Music[edit]

Liston has been referenced in many songs by artists such as Sun Kil Moon, The Animals, Tom Petty, Mark Knopfler, Phil Ochs, Morrissey, The Mountain Goats, Freddy Blohm, Chuck E. Weiss, This Bike is a Pipe Bomb, The Roots, Wu-Tang Clan, Gone Jackals, Billy Joel, The Mountain Goats, Roll Deep, UCL, and Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds. Mark Knopfler's tribute to Liston, "Song for Sonny Liston," appeared on his 2004 album Shangri-La.

"Sonny Liston" is also the name of an indie folk band from Oxford, England.[63]

A wax model of Liston appears in the front row of the iconic sleeve cover of The Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. He is seen in the far left part of the row, wearing a white and gold robe, standing beside the original-look Beatle figures.

Print[edit]

Liston appeared on the December 1963 cover of Esquire magazine (cover photograph by Carl Fischer) "the last man on earth America wanted to see coming down its chimney".[64]

Elizabeth Bear wrote the short story "Sonny Liston Takes the Fall," published in The Del Rey Book of Science Fiction and Fantasy in 2008.[65] The story speculates that Liston threw the Ali match for the social good.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Facts-Figures". Milwaukee Sentinel. February 25, 1964. p. 3-part 2. 
  2. ^ Jersey Joe Walcott: A Boxing Biography, James Curl, 2012. Page 194 "Liston stood just slightly over six feet, ... reach of 84” ... fists that measured over 15” around"
  3. ^ Tallent, Aaron (2 February 2005). "The Mysterious Birth of Sonny Liston". Retrieved 11 July 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c Tosches, Nick (2000). The Devil And Sonny Liston. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-89775-2. 
  5. ^ Hanson, Jr., George H. (2012). "Exhuming the Bear". 
  6. ^ Puma, Mike (2007). "Liston was trouble in and out of ring". 
  7. ^ ""United States Census, 1940," Charlie I Liston in household of Tobbie Liston, Smith Township, Cross, Arkansas, United States"". National Archives and Records Administration. April 23, 1940. Retrieved August 13, 2012. "Charlie I Liston in household of Tobbie Liston, Smith Township, Cross, Arkansas, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 19-12B, sheet 13B, family 205, line 42" 
  8. ^ Toledo, Springs (31 August 2012). "A Birthday for Sonny Liston". Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  9. ^ a b c Remnick, David (1998). King of the World: Muhammad Ali and the Rise of an American Hero. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-330-37189-4. 
  10. ^ Mee, Bob (2011). Ali and Liston: The Boy Who Would Be King and the Ugly Bear. New York: Skyhorse. ISBN 1616083697. 
  11. ^ a b Reputations: Sonny Liston: The Champion Nobody Wanted (2001), 50 min, BBC Documentary
  12. ^ Sares, Ted (November 22, 2006). "Boxing's Hard Times, Good Times". East Side Boxing. 
  13. ^ a b Mee, Bob (2010). Liston and Ali: The Ugly Bear and the Boy Who Would Be King. London: Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84596-622-5. 
  14. ^ "Jacob’s Beach by Kevin Mitchell: review". The Telegraph. September 20, 2009. 
  15. ^ "Sonny Liston - From The Big House To The Big Time". Retrieved 11 July 2012. 
  16. ^ Hudson, Jr., David L. (2012). Boxing in America. Santa Barbara: Praeger. ISBN 0313379726. 
  17. ^ Jersey Joe Walcott: A Boxing Biography, James Curl, 2012. Page 194 "Liston stood just slightly over six feet, ... reach of 84” ... fists that measured over 15” around"
  18. ^ Kisner, Ronald (21 January 1971). "Death Voids Court". Jet: 52–55. Retrieved 11 July 2012. 
  19. ^ Ebony Aug 1962
  20. ^ a b Watson, Emmett (19 September 1960). "Really A Hug Fest". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 11 July 2012. 
  21. ^ Rogin, Gilbert (1 August 1960). "Heavyweight In Waiting". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 11 July 2012. 
  22. ^ "Sonny Liston names George Katz manager". Ellensburg Daily Record. 11 May 1961. Retrieved 20 March 2014. 
  23. ^ "Dismayed D'Amato Is Expecting To Get Back Manager's License". Ocala Star-Banner. 23 November 1959. Retrieved 20 March 2014. 
  24. ^ Boyd, Todd. "Esquire covers commemorate boxing's prime". Retrieved 11 July 2012. 
  25. ^ a b c d Nack, William (14 February 1994). "O Unlucky Man". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 11 July 2012. 
  26. ^ Jet, 3 Oct 1963, p. 57.
  27. ^ Stratton, W.K. (2012). Floyd Patterson: The Fighting Life of Boxing's Invisible Champion. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 0151014302. 
  28. ^ Ebony, Aug 1962, Page 50
  29. ^ Ebony Aug 1962, page 52
  30. ^ Mailer: A Biography By Mary V. Dearborn, page 186
  31. ^ The Facts About The Big Fight http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1147918/index.htm
  32. ^ Sonny Liston: The Facts http://www.thesweetscience.com/news/articles/705-sonny-liston-the-facts
  33. ^ a b Klapp, Orrin (2006). Symbolic Leaders: Public Dramas and Public Men. Transaction Publishers. p. 47. ISBN 0202308677. Retrieved February 27, 2013. 
  34. ^ Ebony Aug 1962, Page 52
  35. ^ Muhammed Ali, Thomas Hauser
  36. ^ interview with Alex Haley in Muhammed Ali by Thomas Hauser,
  37. ^ Gallender, op cit
  38. ^ Groves, Lee. "Cassius Clay-Sonny Liston I: 50 Years Later". RingTV.com. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  39. ^ Sugar, Bert Randolph (1981). The Great Fights: A Pictorial History of Boxing's Greatest Bouts. Rutledge Press; First Thus edition. ISBN 083173972X. 
  40. ^ Remnick, King of the World
  41. ^ David Remnick, King of the World, pg. 202
  42. ^ Only the Ring Was Square, Teddy Brenner, 1981, Prentice Hall Trade
  43. ^ Kram, Mark (2 November 1964). "The Prefight Moods Of Sonny Liston". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 11 July 2012. 
  44. ^ "'Champ' Has Operation For Hernia". The Pittsburgh Press. 14 November 1964. Retrieved 11 July 2012. 
  45. ^ "Clay-Liston Fight Goes To Lewiston, ME". Gettysburg Times. May 8, 1965. 
  46. ^ "Did Anybody See It?". The Evening Independent. May 26, 1965. 
  47. ^ "The Unwanted". The Telegraph. May 11, 1965. 
  48. ^ A TV documentary around 2000 detailed much the same with Liston's widow advising Sonny had told her similar. "Sonny Liston comments on Phantom Punch.". boxingmemories.com. Retrieved 2011-03-16. 
  49. ^ Conger, C. (2012). Lineage Unbroken: The Complete Lineal Tracing of World Heavyweight Championship Boxing (Post-Marciano Era) 1956–2003. CreateSpace. ISBN 9781470024574. Retrieved May 7, 2012. 
  50. ^ "Best I've Faced: George Chuvalo". RingTV.com. March 20, 2014. 
  51. ^ Dettloff, William. "The Sad Legacy of Sonny Liston". Retrieved 11 July 2012. 
  52. ^ Gustkey, Earl (30 December 1970). "Like Fights Against Ali, Liston Death a Mystery". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 11 July 2012. 
  53. ^ HBO Documentary Sonny Liston: The Mysterious Life and Death of a Champion
  54. ^ "Video". CNN. February 4, 1991. 
  55. ^ Jet 4 Feb 1971, P.51
  56. ^ Gallender, Paul (9 September 2013). "The Death of Sonny Liston". Boxing.com. Retrieved 22 March 2014. 
  57. ^ Steen, Rob (2008). Sonny Liston: His Life, Strife and the Phantom Punch. London: JR. ISBN 978-1-906217-81-5. 
  58. ^ Gustkey, Earl (22 February 1989). "19 YEARS LATER: Liston Death Remains Mystery to His Friends". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 22 March 2014. 
  59. ^ Gallender, Paul (9 September 2013). "The Death of Sonny Liston". Boxing.com. Retrieved 22 March 2014. 
  60. ^ Gallender, Paul (9 September 2013). "The Death of Sonny Liston". Boxing.com. Retrieved 22 March 2014. 
  61. ^ Sonny Liston's Professional Boxing Record – BoxRec.com
  62. ^ Jones, Thom (2000). Sonny Liston Was a Friend of Mine: Stories. Back Bay Books. ISBN 0316472409. 
  63. ^ "Official blog for Sonny Liston". Retrieved 11 July 2012. 
  64. ^ "December 1963 cover". Esquire Magazine. Retrieved 11 July 2012. 
  65. ^ Bear, Elizabeth (2008). The Del Rey Book of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Sixteen Original Works by Speculative Fiction's Finest Voices. Del Rey; First Edition. ISBN 0345496329. 

External links[edit]

Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Floyd Patterson
World Heavyweight Champion
September 25, 1962 – February 25, 1964
Succeeded by
Cassius Clay (Muhammad Ali)