From top: PlayStation logo, original model with DualShock controller
|Manufacturer||Sony Computer Entertainment|
|Type||Video game console|
|Generation||Fifth generation era|
|Discontinued||PlayStation: December 31, 2006
PSone: December 31, 2006
|Units sold||Worldwide: 102.49 million|
|CPU||MIPS R3000A-family R3051
|Storage capacity||Memory card|
|Input||PlayStation Controller, Dual Analog Controller, DualShock|
|Best-selling game||Gran Turismo, 10.85 million shipped (as of April 30, 2008)|
The PlayStation, officially abbreviated as PS, at the time referred to as PSX (not to be confused with the PSX console) and also more commonly known as PS1 is a 32-bit video game console first released by Sony Computer Entertainment in Japan on December 3, 1994, with Western releases in September 1995. The PlayStation was the first of the PlayStation series of consoles and handheld game devices. As part of the fifth-generation of gaming, it primarily competed with the Nintendo 64 and the Sega Saturn. In 2000, a re-designed "slim" version called the PSone was released, replacing the original grey console and named appropriately to avoid confusion with its successor, the PlayStation 2.
The PlayStation was the first "computer entertainment platform" to ship 100 million units, which it had reached 9 years and 6 months after its initial launch. The last PSone units were sold on Christmas 2004 before it was finally discontinued, for a total of 102 million units shipped since its launch 10 years earlier. Games continued to sell until Sony ceased production of PlayStation games on March 23, 2006 – over 11 years after it was released, and less than a year before the debut of the PlayStation 3.
The first conceptions of the PlayStation date back to 1986. Nintendo had been attempting to work with disc-based technology since the Famicom, but the medium had problems. The Famicom Disk System's rewritable magnetic discs could be easily erased (thus leading to a lack of durability), and they lacked any sort of copy protection, thus were vulnerable to piracy. Consequently, when details of CD-ROM XA (which had neither of those problems) were released to the public, Nintendo was interested. Simultaneously developed by Sony and Philips, CD-ROM/XA was an extension of the CD-ROM format that combines compressed audio, visual, and computer data, allowing all to be accessed simultaneously. Nintendo approached Sony to develop a CD-ROM add-on, tentatively titled the "SNES-CD". A contract was signed, and work began. Nintendo's choice of Sony was due to a prior dealing: Ken Kutaragi, the person who would later be dubbed "The Father of the PlayStation", was the individual who had sold Nintendo on using the Sony SPC-700 processor for use as the eight-channel ADPCM sound set in the Super Famicom/SNES console through an impressive demonstration of the processor's capabilities.
Ironically, Kutaragi was nearly fired by Sony because he was originally working with Nintendo on the side without Sony's knowledge (while still employed by Sony). It was then-CEO, Norio Ohga, who recognized the potential in Kutaragi's chip, and in working with Nintendo on the project. Ohga kept Kutaragi on at Sony, and it wasn't until Nintendo decided to not move forward with the project that Sony decided to develop its own console
Sony also planned to develop a Super Nintendo-compatible, Sony-branded console, but one which would be more of a home entertainment system playing both Super Nintendo cartridges and a new CD format which Sony would design. This was also to be the format used in SNES-CDs, giving a large degree of control to Sony despite Nintendo's leading position in the video gaming market.
The product, dubbed the "Play Station" was to be announced at the May 1991 Consumer Electronics Show (CES). However, when Nintendo's Hiroshi Yamauchi read the original 1988 contract between Sony and Nintendo, he realized that the earlier agreement essentially handed Sony complete control over any and all titles written on the SNES CD-ROM format. Yamauchi decided that the contract was totally unacceptable and he secretly canceled all plans for the joint Nintendo-Sony SNES CD attachment. Instead of announcing a partnership between Sony and Nintendo, at 9 am the day of the CES, Nintendo chairman Howard Lincoln stepped onto the stage and revealed that Nintendo was now allied with Philips, and Nintendo was planning on abandoning all the previous work Nintendo and Sony had accomplished. Lincoln and Minoru Arakawa had, unbeknownst to Sony, flown to Philips headquarters in Europe and formed an alliance of a decidedly different nature—one that would give Nintendo total control over its licenses on Philips machines.
After the collapse of the joint project, Sony considered halting their research, but ultimately the company decided to use what they had developed so far and make it into a complete, stand-alone console. As a result, Nintendo filed a lawsuit claiming breach of contract and attempted, in U.S. federal court, to obtain an injunction against the release of what was originally christened the "Play Station", on the grounds that Nintendo owned the name. The federal judge presiding over the case denied the injunction and, in October 1991, the first incarnation of the aforementioned brand new game system was revealed. However, it is theorized that only 200 or so of these machines were ever produced.
By the end of 1992, Sony and Nintendo reached a deal whereby the "Play Station" would still have a port for SNES games, but Nintendo would own the rights and receive the bulk of the profits from the games, and the SNES would continue to use the Sony-designed audio chip. However, Sony decided in early 1993 to begin reworking the "Play Station" concept to target a new generation of hardware and software. As part of this process the SNES cartridge port was dropped and the space between the names "Play Station" was removed becoming "PlayStation", thereby ending Nintendo's involvement with the project. The PlayStation was also known as the PS-X during development. This led to the console sometimes being referred to as PSX upon its release, although this was not endorsed by Sony as the PSX name was intended only as a provisional codename. In 2003, an entirely different console with the name PSX was released in Japan.
The PlayStation was launched in Japan on December 3, 1994, North America on September 9, 1995, Europe on September 29, 1995, and Oceania on November 15, 1995. The launch price in the American market was US$299 and Sony enjoyed a very successful launch with titles of almost every genre, including Battle Arena Toshinden, Doom, Warhawk, Air Combat, Philosoma, Ridge Racer and Rayman. Almost all of Sony's and Namco's launch titles went on to spawn numerous sequels.
Critics praised the console for the quality of its 3-dimensional graphics. Then Microsoft chairman, Bill Gates, preferred Sony's console to the competition from Sega, saying "Our game designer likes the Sony machine." Microsoft would later compete with Sony with its Xbox console. In a special Game Machine Cross Review in May 1995, Famicom Tsūshin would score the PlayStation console a 19 out of 40.[why?]
In addition to playing games, the PlayStation has the ability to read and play audio CDs or Video CDs. The CD player has the ability to shuffle the playback order, play the songs in a programmed order, and repeat one song or the entire disk. This function, as well as a memory card manager, can be accessed by starting the console either without inserting a game or keeping the CD tray open, thereby accessing a GUI for the PlayStation BIOS. The actual GUI for both PSone and PlayStation differ graphically depending on firmware versions. If the CD lid is closed with a game inside at any time while at the menu, the game will immediately start.
As of September 30, 2007, a total of 7,918 software titles have been released worldwide (counting games released in multiple regions as separate titles). As of March 31, 2007, the cumulative software shipment was at 962 million units. The very last game for the system released in the United States was FIFA Football 2005. However, it can be noted that on July 26, 2007 in Japan and March 18, 2008 in the U.S., Metal Gear Solid: The Essential Collection was released, which contained new printings of the game Metal Gear Solid in the original PlayStation format. Also in 2011, Capcom released Resident Evil 15th Anniversary Collection, which contains reprinted PlayStation copies of Resident Evil, 2 and 3.
The OK and Cancel buttons on most of the Japanese PlayStation games are reversed in their North American and European releases. In Japan, the button (maru, right) is used as the OK button, while the button (batsu, wrong) is used as Cancel. North American and European releases have the button or the buttons as the OK button, while either the or the button is used as Cancel (some titles like Xenogears used the button for cancelling actions and selections, along with the PlayStation 2 system browser and the XrossMedia Bar on the PlayStation 3 and the PSP). However, a few games, such as Square's Vagrant Story, Final Fantasy VII (which used the button as cancel) and Final Fantasy Tactics, Namco's Ridge Racer Type 4, and Konami's Metal Gear Solid, use the Japanese button layout worldwide. Some other games, like the Japanese version of Gran Turismo, had used different controls that are similar to North American games. These Japanese button layouts still apply to other PlayStation consoles. This is because in the early years Sony America (SCEA), Sony Europe (SCEE), and Sony Japan (SCEJ) had different development and testing documents (TRCs) for their respective territories.
With the early units, particularly the early 100x models, many gamers experienced skipping full-motion video or physical "ticking" noises coming from their PlayStations. The problem appears to have come from poorly placed vents leading to overheating in some environments—the plastic moldings inside the console would warp very slightly and create knock-on effects with the laser assembly. The solution was to ensure the console sat on a surface which dissipated heat efficiently in a well vented area, or raise the unit up slightly by propping something at its edges. A common fix for already affected consoles was to turn the PlayStation sideways or upside-down (thereby using gravity to cancel the effects of the warped interior).
The first batch of PlayStations used a KSM-440AAM laser unit whose case and all movable parts were completely made out of plastic. Over time, friction caused the plastic tray to wear out—usually unevenly. The placement of the laser unit close to the power supply accelerated wear because of the additional heat, which made the plastic even more vulnerable to friction. Eventually, the tray would become so worn that the laser no longer pointed directly at the CD and games would no longer load. Sony eventually fixed the problem by making the tray out of die-cast metal and placing the laser unit farther away from the power supply on later models of the PlayStation.
Prior to the PlayStation, the reproduction of copyrighted material for gaming consoles was restricted to either enthusiasts with exceptional technical ability, or others that had access to CD manufacturers. However, the increased availability of cheap CD burners at this time led Sony to introduce a special wobble pressed into PlayStation formatted discs. As a result any discs that did not contain the wobble such as CD-R copies or standard pirated discs could not boot on the console.
The installation of a modchip allowed the PlayStation to play games recorded on a regular CD-R. It also allowed the console's capabilities to be expanded in other ways, such as playing games from other regions. By the end of the system's life cycle almost anyone with minimal soldering experience was able to perform these modifications. This created a wave of games developed without official approval using free, unofficial tools, as well as the reproduction of original discs. With the introduction of such devices the console became very attractive to programmers and illegal copiers alike, as well as those who merely wished to protect the lifespan of their lawful, original discs.
Some companies (notably Datel) did manage to produce discs that booted on unmodified retail units, but this required special equipment.
The PlayStation went through a number of variants during its production run. From an external perspective, the most notable change was the gradual reduction in the number of external connectors on the unit.
A version of the PlayStation called the Net Yaroze was also produced. It was more expensive than the original PlayStation, colored black instead of the usual gray, and most importantly, came with tools and instructions that allowed a user to be able to program PlayStation games and applications without the need for a full developer suite, which cost many times the amount of a PlayStation and was only available to approved video game developers. Naturally, the Net Yaroze lacked many of the features the full developer suite provided. It was unique in that it was the only officially retailed PlayStation with no regional lockout; it would play games from any territory.
The PSone is Sony's smaller, redesigned version of its PlayStation video game console. The PSone is considerably smaller than the original PlayStation. It was released on July 7, 2000, and went on to outsell all other consoles throughout the remainder of the year—including Sony's own PlayStation 2 (yet the PlayStation 2 overtook this eventually). The PSone is fully compatible with all PlayStation software.
Sony also released a version with a 5" LCD screen called the Combo pack.
Sony's successor to the PlayStation is the PlayStation 2, which is backwards compatible with its predecessor in that it can play almost every PlayStation game. The third generation of the PlayStation, the PlayStation 3, was launched on November 11, 2006 in Japan, November 17, 2006 in North America, and March 23, 2007 in Europe. Like the PlayStation 2, the PlayStation 3 is able to play most original PlayStation games (with some early models also able to play PlayStation 2 games). While PlayStation 3 games are not region-locked, PlayStation and PlayStation 2 games are only playable on PlayStation 3 consoles from the same region. A third successor, the PlayStation 4, was announced by Sony on February 20, 2013 and is set to be released in the US on November 15 while European gamers will have to wait just a little longer until November 29, 2013.
The PlayStation Portable, or PSP, is a handheld game console first released in late 2004. The PSP is capable of playing PlayStation games downloaded via Sony's online store, and can also play any PlayStation game by using the PlayStation 3's remote play feature while the disc is in the PlayStation 3. Sony hopes to release nearly all PlayStation games on a gradual basis. It is also possible to convert original PlayStation disc images into executable binaries using freely available software. These games are then playable on PSPs that have been modified to run unsigned code.
The successor to the PSP, the PlayStation Vita, was introduced as a part of the 8th generation of video game consoles.
Sony Computer Entertainment was an upstart in the video game industry in 1994, as the early 1990s were dominated by Nintendo and Sega. Nintendo had been the clear leader in the video game industry since the introduction of the NES in 1985 and the Nintendo 64 was initially expected to maintain this position for Nintendo. Sony focused on a broader base of audiences including adults, and marketed the PlayStation for newcomers and an older age group but ignored the younger audience below 15 who were perceived to be staunch in their loyalty to Nintendo and Sega. By the late 1990s, Sony became a highly regarded console brand due to the PlayStation, with a significant lead over second-place Nintendo while Sega was relegated to a distant third.
The PlayStation's lead in installed base and developer support paved the way for the success of the next-generation PlayStation 2, which overcame an early launch from the Sega Dreamcast and then fended off competition from the Microsoft Xbox and Nintendo GameCube.
The success of the PlayStation is widely believed to have influenced the demise of the cartridge-based home console. While not the first system to utilize an optical disc format, it was the first success story, and ended up going head-to-head with the last major home console to rely on proprietary cartridges—the Nintendo 64.
Nintendo was very public about its skepticism toward using CDs and DVDs to store games, citing longer load times and durability issues. It was widely speculated that the company was even more concerned with copyright infringement, given its substantial reliance on licensing and exclusive titles for its revenue. Piracy was rampant on the PlayStation due to the relative ease of the installation of a modchip, allowing the PlayStation to play games region free and/or recorded on a regular CD-R, making the console very attractive to programmers and illegal copiers alike.
The increasing complexity of games (in content, graphics, and sound) pushed cartridges to their storage limits and this gradually turned off third-party developers. Also, CDs were appealing to publishers due to the fact that they could be produced at a significantly lower cost and offered more production flexibility to meet demand. As a result, most third-party developers switched to the PlayStation, such as Squaresoft, whose Final Fantasy VII, and Enix (later merged with Squaresoft to create Square Enix), whose Dragon Quest VII titles were initially pre-planned for the N64, while some who remained released fewer games to the Nintendo 64 (Konami, releasing only thirteen N64 games but over fifty on the PlayStation). While new games were coming out rapidly for the PlayStation, new Nintendo 64 game releases were infrequent and that system's biggest successes were developed by either Nintendo itself or by second-parties of Nintendo, such as Rare.
- List of PlayStation games
- Chronology of PlayStation games
- PlayStation Demo Discs
- PlayStation palmar hidradenitis
- PlayStation Sound Format
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to PlayStation.|
- PlayStation Home (Europe)
- PlayStation Home (US)
- PlayStation Home (Japan)
- Canadian PlayStation Website Home
- SCEA PlayStation Products Home
- PlayStation 1 Homebrew Development Scene
- PlayStation at the Open Directory Project