Sophie Friederike Mereau (27 March 1770 in Altenburg – 31 October 1806 in Heidelberg) was a writer of the German romantic school. Her maiden name was Schubart, but she did most of her work under the married name of Mereau. She also later married a second time, to writer Clemens Brentano, and took her husband's surname as her own.
Mereau first gained notoriety in 1791, and she was the only female student in Johann Gottlieb Fichte's private seminars. She was critical of some of his ideas on women, and her first novel in 1794 demonstrated his influence as well as the differences in her thinking. She was also a contemporary of Immanuel Kant. Her life-story, in part, has led her to be referred to as "one of the most fascinating figures of German Classism and Romanticism." She died in childbirth at age 36.