Sophie of Württemberg
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|Sophie of Württemberg|
|Portrait by Franz Xaver Winterhalter (1861)|
Grand Duchess of Luxembourg
Duchess of Limburg
|Tenure||7 March 1849 – 3 June 1877|
|William, Prince of Orange
Alexander, Prince of Orange
|Sophie Frederika Mathilde|
|Father||William I of Württemberg|
|Mother||Catherine Pavlovna of Russia|
17 June 1818|
Ludwigsburg Palace, Stuttgart
|Died||3 June 1877
Huis ten Bosch, The Hague
|Burial||Nieuwe Kerk, Delft|
She was born in Stuttgart; her parents were King William I of Württemberg and Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia, the fourth eldest daughter of Tsar Paul I. Sophie and William were first cousins as their mothers were sisters. Shortly after Sophie’s birth, her mother died, and she was cared for by her aunt, Catharina of Württemberg. She was niece of tsars Alexander I and Nicholas I of Russia and a cousin of Tsar Alexander II, George V of Hanover and England's Queen Victoria.
Prior to her marriage, King Otto of Greece and Duke William of Brunswick were possible suitors for Princess Sophie. The engagement with the first came to nothing because Princess Sophie's ambitious father had no confidence in the newly established Greek monarchy of Otto. Chance prevented a proposal by the second candidate because her father let it be known that Princess Sophie was already betrothed.
She married the Prince of Orange (later King William III) in Stuttgart on 18 June 1839 with the idea that she would in the end succeed in dominating him. The couple returned to the Netherlands and established themselves at the Plein Palace and -after they became king and queen- at the Noordeinde Palace. They had three children. The marriage was not a success. King William's mother, whom he completely relied on, was totally against the marriage to a daughter of the sister she loathed and treated her daughter-in-law and niece with disdain. Intellectually, Queen Sophie was superior to her husband. She, on the other hand didn't fit his sensual character. While he loved contemporary painting, music and theatre, she was a lady of letters with a specific interest in history. William III had several extramarital relations. She let it be publicly known that she found him inferior and unsuitable to be king and that she would do better as a regent for her son.
Queen Sophie tried to separate from him, but this was refused; the state interest had to prevail. From 1855 the couple lived separately during the summer season, he at Het Loo Palace and she at Huis ten Bosch Palace. She also spent time in Stuttgart, with her own family. Queen Sophie died at Huis ten Bosch Palace in the Hague. She was buried in her wedding dress, because, in her own view, her life had ended on the day she married.
Queen Sophie corresponded with several European scholars and maintained warm ties with Emperor Napoleon III and Queen Victoria. She protected and stimulated the arts, supported several charities, including animal protection and construction of public parks. She was the 540th Dame of the Royal Order of Queen Maria Luisa.
- Prince William (1840–1879), Prince of Orange from 1849 until 1879.
- Prince Maurice (1843–1850) died in childhood.
- Prince Alexander (1851–1884), Prince of Orange from 1879 until 1884.
Titles and styles
- 17 June 1818 - 18 June 1839 Her Royal Highness Princess Sophie of Württemberg
- 18 June 1939 - 7 October 1840 Her Royal Highness Princess Sophie of The Netherlands
- 7 October 1840 - 7 March 1849 Her Royal Highness The Princess of Orange
- 7 March 1849 – 3 June 1877 Her Majesty The Queen of the Netherlands
- Dame of the Royal Order of Queen Maria Luisa
Sophie of WürttembergBorn: 17 June 1818 Died: 3 June 1877
Anna Pavlovna of Russia
|Queen consort of the Netherlands
Grand Duchess consort of Luxembourg
Title next held byEmma of Waldeck and Pyrmont