Viral pharyngitis, the most common cause of a sore throat.
A sore throat (or throat pain) is pain or irritation of the throat. A common physical symptom, it is usually caused by acute pharyngitis (inflammation of the throat), although it can also appear as a result of trauma, diphtheria, or other conditions. A sore throat may cause mild to extreme pain.
A sore throat is pain anywhere in the throat.
A sore throat is usually from irritation or inflammation. The most common cause (80%) is acute viral pharyngitis, a viral infection of the throat. Other causes include other infections (such as streptococcal pharyngitis), trauma, and tumors. Gastroesophageal (acid) reflux disease can cause stomach acid to back up into the throat and also cause the throat to become sore. In children streptococcal pharyngitis is the cause of 37% of sore throats.
Signs and symptoms
- painful and swollen tonsils
- tender and swollen glands in neck
- painful, tender sensation at the back of throat
- discomfort when swallowing
Other symptoms associated with common infectious conditions may be experienced, such as:
- a high temperature (fever)
- aching muscles
- runny nose
- general feeling of being unwell
In young children:
- refusing to feed
- frequent crying
- high temperature
- difficulty sleeping
- runny nose
- tiredness and feeling generally unwell
Analgesics such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and paracetamol (acetaminophen) help in the management of pain. The Mayo Clinic advises gargling with salty warm water, and resting the voice. Symptoms without active treatment usually last two to seven days. Other remedies include throat lozenges, cough syrups, and chicken soup.
- Marx, John (2010). Rosen's emergency medicine: concepts and clinical practice 7th edition. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby/Elsevier. p. Chapter 30. ISBN 978-0-323-05472-0.
- Shaikh N, Leonard E, Martin JM (September 2010). "Prevalence of streptococcal pharyngitis and streptococcal carriage in children: a meta-analysis". Pediatrics 126 (3): e557–64. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-2648. PMID 20696723.
- Thomas M, Del Mar C, Glasziou P (October 2000). "How effective are treatments other than antibiotics for acute sore throat?". Br J Gen Pract 50 (459): 817–20. PMC 1313826. PMID 11127175.
- Hayward, G; Thompson, MJ; Perera, R; Glasziou, PP; Del Mar, CB; Heneghan, CJ (Oct 17, 2012). Thompson, Matthew J, ed. "Corticosteroids as standalone or add-on treatment for sore throat". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 10: CD008268. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008268.pub2. PMID 23076943.
- Thompson, M; Vodicka, TA; Blair, PS; Buckley, DI; Heneghan, C; Hay, AD; TARGET Programme, Team (Dec 11, 2013). "Duration of symptoms of respiratory tract infections in children: systematic review.". BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 347: f7027. doi:10.1136/bmj.f7027. PMC 3898587. PMID 24335668.