Soul cake

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Souling was a Christian practice carried out in many English towns on Halloween and Christmas

A soul cake is a small round cake which is traditionally made for All Saints Day or All Souls' Day to celebrate the dead.[1] The cakes, often simply referred to as souls, were given out to soulers (mainly consisting of children and the poor) who would go from door to door on Halloween singing and saying prayers for the dead. Each cake eaten would represent a soul being freed from Purgatory. The practice of giving and eating soul cakes is often seen as the origin of modern trick-or-treating. In Lancashire and in the North-east of England they were also known as Harcakes.[2]

History[edit]

The tradition of giving soul cakes was celebrated in Britain or Ireland during the Middle Ages,[3] although similar practices for the souls of the dead were found as far south as Italy.[4]

The cakes were usually filled with allspice, nutmeg, cinnamon, ginger or other sweet spices, raisins or currants, and before baking were topped with the mark of a cross to signify that these were alms. They were traditionally set out with glasses of wine on All Hallows' Eve as an offering for the dead, and on All Saints' Day and All Souls' Day children would go "souling",[5] or ritually begging for cakes door to door. In 1891, Rev. M. P. Holme of Tattenhall, Cheshire, collected the song traditionally sung during souling, from a little girl at the local school.[6] Two years later, the text and tune were published by folklorist Lucy Broadwood, who commented that souling was still practised at that time in Cheshire and Shropshire.[7] Further recordings of the traditional soul-cake song were collected in various parts of England until the 1950s.[8] Versions collected later may have been influenced by folk revival recordings of the song by such groups as The Watersons.

The 1891 song contains the following lyrics:

A soul! a soul! a soul-cake!
Please good Missis, a soul-cake!
An apple, a pear, a plum, or a cherry,
Any good thing to make us all merry.
One for Peter, two for Paul
Three for Him who made us all.

In 1963, the American folk group Peter, Paul and Mary recorded a version of this traditional song, titled "A' Soalin", whose verses include the following:

Soul, soul, a soul cake!
I pray thee, good missus, a soul cake!
One for Peter, two for Paul,
Three for Him what made us all!
Soul cake, soul cake, please good missus, a soul cake.
An apple, a pear, a plum, or a cherry, any good thing to make us all merry.
One for Peter, two for Paul, and three for Him who made us all.

American Hallowe'en composer Kristen Lawrence found two historical tunes associated with soul cakes as she was researching souling songs for her 2009 A Broom With A View album. As Lawrence heard the traditional Cheshire tune, she was struck that the beginning notes were the same as the mediaeval plainchant Dies Irae, "Day of Judgment", calling the people to repent and pray for the dead. It seemed plausible that the Cheshire tune could be a folk corruption of the chant as children and beggars asked for cakes in return for praying for the dead.[9]

The song "Soul Cake" from British rock musician Sting's 2009 album If on a Winter's Night... seems to be an adaptation of the Peter, Paul, and Mary version, in that both depart from historical accuracy by referring to Christmas rather than All Saints' Day or All Souls' Day.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Simoons, Frederick J. (1998). Plants of Life, Plants of Death. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-15904-3. 
  2. ^ Ditchfield, Peter Hampson (1896). Old English Customs Extant at the Present Time. pp. 165–166. 
  3. ^ Rogers, Nicholas (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. Oxford University Press. pp. 28–30. ISBN 0-19-514691-3. 
  4. ^ Castella, Krystina (2010). A World of Cakes: 150 Receipes for Sweet Traditions from Cultures Near and Far. Storey Publishing. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-60342-576-6. 
  5. ^ Bogle, Joanna (1993). A Book of Feasts and Seasons. Gracewing Publishing. p. 193. ISBN 0-85244-217-3. 
  6. ^ Gregory, E. David (2010). The Late Victorian Folklore Revival. Scarecrow Press. p. 315. ISBN 978-0-8108-6988-2. 
  7. ^ Broadwood, Lucy (1893). English County Songs: Words and Music. Leadenhall Press. p. 185. 
  8. ^ "Roud Folksong Index entry on "Souling Song (Roud 304)"". Ralph Vaughan Williams Memorial Library, English Folk Dance and Song Society. 
  9. ^ Lawrence, Kristen (2009). "Hallowe'en Carols – Music for the Autumnal Season". In A Broom With A View [CD Booklet]. Santa Ana: Vörswell Music. 

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