|Mouse River, Rivière Souris|
The Souris River in the town of Souris, Manitoba.
|Countries||Canada, United States|
|States/Provinces||Saskatchewan, North Dakota, Manitoba|
|Part of||Red River drainage basin|
|Cities||Minot, ND, Souris, MB, Weyburn, SK, Melita, MB|
|Source||north of Weyburn|
|- location||Manitoba, Canada|
|Length||435 mi (700 km)|
|Basin||23,600 sq mi (61,124 km2)|
The Souris River (French: rivière Souris) or Mouse River (as it is alternatively known in the U.S.) is a river in central North America. It is about 700 km (435 mi) in length and drains about 23,600 square miles (61,100 km2). It rises in the Yellow Grass Marshes north of Weyburn, Saskatchewan. It wanders south through North Dakota beyond Minot to its most southern point at the city of Velva, ND and then back north into Manitoba. The river passes through the communities of Melita, Hartney, Souris and Wawanesa and on to its confluence with the Assiniboine River at Treesbank, about 25 miles (40 km) south east of Brandon. The main tributaries which flow into the Souris in Manitoba are the Antler River, the Gainsborough and Plum Creeks. Much of its drainage basin is fertile silt and clay deposited by former glacial Lake Souris.
The channel capacity of the river in Manitoba varies from about 150 cubic feet per second (4.2 m3/s) near the border, to about 1,400 cubic feet per second (40 m3/s) through Melita, to about 1,100 cubic feet per second (31 m3/s) near Lauder and 1,700 cubic feet per second (48 m3/s) near Hartney. North of Hartney the capacity increases to more than 3,000 cubic feet per second (85 m3/s). The drop between the border and Hartney is only about 6 inches per mile (9.5 cm/km).
During the period from 1930 to 1941 severe drought conditions prevailed and PFRA constructed four stock watering dams. In 1937 the Snyder and Ross Dams were built near Melita. In 1938 the Napinka Dam was built and the Hartney Dam was built in 1941. These were all stop log dams with a total capacity of 2,400 acre feet (3,000,000 m3). The Souris Dam was originally built in 1911 and was rebuilt in 1935. The Wawanesa Dam was completed in 1951 storing about 320 acre feet (390,000 m3) of water.
Most of the annual flow of the Souris River comes from snow melt and spring rains. The annual flow volume varies dramatically from 3,400 acre feet (4,200,000 m3) in 1937 to 2,100,000 acre feet (2.59 km3) in 1976. It is expected that the total runoff for 2011 at Wawanesa will exceed 3,800,000 acre feet (4.69 km3) about a one in 500 year event. The average annual runoff is equivalent to 3 mm over the entire Souris River watershed.
In summer 2011, a historic flood affected much of the Souris River basin, overtopping levees and causing the evacuation of about 11,000 residents in Minot as well as significant damage to farmland and other property along the length of the river.
Flow rates and flood potential
|Location||1882 Peak Flow (cfs) (Estimated) ||1976 Peak Flow (cfs) ||2011 Peak Flow (cfs) |
- Long Creek
- Short Creek
- Moose Mountain Creek
- Des Lacs River
- Livingston Creek
- Wintering River
- Deep River
- Willow Creek
- Stoney Creek
- Boundary Creek (North Dakota)
- Antler River
- Gainsborough Creek
Cities along the river
- Weyburn, Saskatchewan
- Estevan, Saskatchewan
- Roche Percee, Saskatchewan
- Oxbow, Saskatchewan
- Burlington, North Dakota
- Minot, North Dakota
- Velva, North Dakota
- Towner, North Dakota
- Westhope, North Dakota
- Melita, Manitoba
- Souris, Manitoba
- Wawanesa, Manitoba
Rural Municipalities along the river
- "Natural Resources Canada-Canadian Geographical Names (Souris River)". Retrieved 2014-08-29.
- "Atlas of Canada Toporama". Retrieved 2014-08-29.
- Archived data from Water Survey Canada
- Rannie, William .F. (2002). "The Role of the Assiniboine River in the 1826 and 1852 Red River Floods". In B.D. Thraves. Prairie Perspectives: Geographical Essays (Regina: University of Regina, Department of Geography) 5: 56–75.
- Eugene F. Kozera, P. Eng. (2011). "Recent Flooding and Flood Mitigation in Manitoba". Province of Manitoba.
- "Water Survey of Canada - SOURIS RIVER AT MELITA (05NF001)". Environment Canada.
- "Water Survey of Canada - SOURIS RIVER AT WAWANESA (05NG001)". Environment Canada.
- "Daily Water Levels and Forecasts Souris River May 23, 2011". Province of Manitoba. 2011.
- "Mouse River Enhanced Flood Protection Plan - Preliminary Engineering Report". North Dakota State Water Commission. February 29, 2012.
- "2011 Post-Flood Report for the Souris River Basin – Revised March 2012". US Army Corps of Engineers St. Paul District. March 2012.
- "Daily Flood Sheet Souris River July 12, 2014". Province of Manitoba. 2014.
- Converted from 646 (m3/s)
- Estimated from graph
- Converted from 850 (m3/s)
- Converted from 1130 (m3/s)