Soursop

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For the herbaceous plant, see Oxalis pes-caprae.
Annona muricata var. subonica
Soursop fruit, whole and in longitudinal section
Soursop, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 276 kJ (66 kcal)
16.84 g
Sugars 13.54 g
Dietary fiber 3.3 g
0.3 g
1 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(6%)
0.07 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(4%)
0.05 mg
Niacin (B3)
(6%)
0.9 mg
(5%)
0.253 mg
Vitamin B6
(5%)
0.059 mg
Folate (B9)
(4%)
14 μg
Choline
(2%)
7.6 mg
Vitamin C
(25%)
20.6 mg
Trace metals
Calcium
(1%)
14 mg
Iron
(5%)
0.6 mg
Magnesium
(6%)
21 mg
Phosphorus
(4%)
27 mg
Potassium
(6%)
278 mg
Sodium
(1%)
14 mg
Zinc
(1%)
0.1 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
A. muricata flower
Soursop fruit on a tree

Soursop is the fruit of Annona muricata, a broadleaf, flowering, evergreen tree native to Mexico, Cuba, Central America, the Caribbean, and northern South America, primarily Colombia, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Puerto Rico. Soursop is also produced in some parts of Africa, especially in Eastern Nigeria, Southeast Asia and the Pacific. It is in the same genus as the chirimoya and the same family as the pawpaw.

The soursop is adapted to areas of high humidity and relatively warm winters; temperatures below 5 °C (41 °F) will cause damage to leaves and small branches, and temperatures below 3 °C (37 °F) can be fatal. The fruit becomes dry and is no longer good for concentrate.

Other common names include: Coração de Boi (Mozambique), Evo (Ewe, Volta Region, Ghana), Ekitafeeli (Uganda), Stafeli (Swahili), Aluguntugui (Ga, Greater Accra Region, Ghana), guanábana (Spanish), graviola (Brazilian Portuguese, pronounced: [ɡɾɐviˈɔlɐ]), anona (European Portuguese), graviolo (Esperanto), corossol (French), kowosòl (Haitian Creole), කටු අනෝදා (Katu Anoda) (Sinhalese), sorsaka (Papiamento), adunu (Acholi), Brazilian pawpaw, guyabano, guanavana, toge-banreisi, durian benggala, durian belanda, nangka blanda, ทุเรียนเทศ [turi:jen te:k] (Thai), sirsak (Indonesia), zuurzak (Dutch), tomoko (Kiswahili), and nangka londa.[1] In Malayalam, it is called Mullatha, literally thorny custard apple. The other lesser-known Indian names are shul-ram-fal and Lakshmana Phala, and in Harar (Ethiopia) in Harari language known for centuries as Amba Shoukh (Thorny Mango or Thorny Fruit).

The flavour has been described as a combination of strawberry and pineapple, with sour citrus flavour notes contrasting with an underlying creamy flavour reminiscent of coconut or banana.

Soursop is widely promoted (sometimes as "graviola") as an alternative cancer treatment. There is, however, no medical evidence that it is effective.[2]

Cultivation[edit]

The plant is grown as a commercial herb crop for its 20–30 cm (7.9–11.8 in) long, prickly, green fruit, which can have a mass of up to 15 lb (6.8 kg),[3] making it probably the second biggest annona after the junglesop.

Fruit and leaves of Annona muricata

Away from its native area, some limited production occurs as far north as southern Florida within USDA Zone 10; however, these are mostly garden plantings for local consumption. It is also grown in parts of Southeast Asia and abundant on the Island of Mauritius. The soursop will reportedly fruit as a container specimen, even in temperate climates, if protected from cool temperatures.[citation needed]

Uses[edit]

The flesh of the fruit consists of an edible, white pulp, some fiber, and a core of indigestible, black seeds. The species is the only member of its genus suitable for processing and preservation.[citation needed]

The pulp is also used to make fruit nectar, smoothies, fruit juice drinks, as well as candies, sorbets, and ice cream flavorings.

Due to the fruit’s widespread cultivation and popularity in parts of Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific, soursop and its derivative products are consumed across the world, also via branded food and beverage products available in many countries, including Brazil,[4] Mexico,[5] Canada,[6][7] the United States,[8][9][10] the UK, Ireland and Continental Europe,[9][11][12][13][14] Indonesia,[15] Japan,[16] Malaysia,[17][18] Singapore[19][20] and Vietnam.[21][22]

In Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and Harar (Ethiopia), it is a common fruit, often used for dessert as the only ingredient, or as an agua fresca beverage; in Colombia and Venezuela, it is a fruit for juices, mixed with milk. Ice cream and fruit bars made of soursop are also very popular. The seeds are normally left in the preparation, and removed while consuming, unless a blender is used for processing.

In Indonesia, dodol sirsak, a sweetmeat, is made by boiling soursop pulp in water and adding sugar until the mixture hardens. Soursop is also a common ingredient for making fresh fruit juices that are sold by street food vendors. In the Philippines, it is called guyabano, derived from the Spanish guanabana, and is eaten ripe, or used to make juices, smoothies, or ice cream. Sometimes, they use the leaf in tenderizing meat. In Vietnam, this fruit is called mãng cầu Xiêm in the south, or mãng cầu in the north, and is used to make smoothies, or eaten as is. In Cambodia, this fruit is called tearb barung, literally "western custard-apple fruit." In Malaysia, it is known in Malay as durian belanda and in East Malaysia, specifically among the Dusun people of Sabah, it is locally known as lampun. Popularly, it is eaten raw when it ripens, or used as one of the ingredients in Ais Kacang or Ais Batu Campur. Usually the fruits are taken from the tree when they mature and left to ripen in a dark corner, whereby they will be eaten when they are fully ripe. It has a white flower with a very pleasing scent, especially in the morning. While for people in Brunei Darussalam this fruit is popularly known as "Durian Salat", widely available and easily planted. It was most likely brought from Mexico to the Philippines by way of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade.[citation needed]

In Australia a variant (Annona reticulata) called "custard apple" is consumed as desert.

Properties[edit]

Annonacin is a neurotoxin found in soursop seeds

The fruit contains significant amounts of vitamin C, vitamin B1 and vitamin B2.[23]

Laboratory and field research suggests that soursop-derived substances may have potential for various future applications, since they have shown antileishmanial and cytotoxic,[24][25] antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory,[26] anti-diabetic[27] and anticancer[28] effects in laboratory experiments. Large-scale studies in humans have not been done.[29]

Health[edit]

Neurotoxicity[edit]

The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center cautions, "alkaloids extracted from graviola may cause neuronal dysfunction and degeneration leading to symptoms of Parkinson's disease".[29] The compound annonacin, which is contained in the seeds of soursop, is a neurotoxin associated with neurodegenerative disease,[30] and research has suggested a connection between consumption of soursop and atypical forms of Parkinson's disease due to high concentrations of annonacin.[31]

In 2010 the French food safety agency (Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments) concluded that, based on the available research findings, "it is not possible to confirm that the observed cases of atypical Parkinson syndrome […] are linked to the consumption of Annona muricata," calling for further study on potential risks to human health.[32]

Alternative cancer treatment[edit]

The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center lists cancer treatment as one of the "purported uses" of soursop.[29] According to Cancer Research UK, "Many sites on the internet advertise and promote graviola capsules as a cancer cure, but none of them are supported by any reputable scientific cancer organisations" and "there is no evidence to show that graviola works as a cure for cancer" and consequently they do not support its use as a treatment for cancer.[2]

In 2008 a court case relating to the sale in the UK of Triamazon, a soursop product, resulted in the criminal conviction of a man under the terms of the UK Cancer Act for offering to treat people for cancer. A spokesman for the council that instigated the action stated, "it is as important now as it ever was that people are protected from those peddling unproven products with spurious claims as to their effects."[33]

The Federal Trade Commission in the United States determined that there was "no credible scientific evidence" that the extract of soursop sold by Bioque Technologies "can prevent, cure, or treat cancer of any kind."[34]

Cancer Research UK[35] also released a statement about the alleged cancer "cure" that included these sentences: "Overall, there is no evidence to show that graviola works as a cure for cancer. In laboratory studies, graviola extracts can kill some types of liver and breast cancer cells that are resistant to particular chemotherapy drugs. But there haven’t been any large scale studies in humans. So we don't know yet whether it can work as a cancer treatment or not. Many sites on the internet advertise and promote graviola capsules as a cancer cure, but none of them are supported by any reputable scientific cancer organisations. We do not support the use of graviola to treat cancer. "

The idea that graviola is an effective cancer fighter comes from research at Purdue University's School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences on the active components of the tree, unique substances known as annonaceous acetogenins. The Purdue investigators found them to be potent inhibitors of cancer cells while leaving normal cells alone. They also found the compounds to be effective against drug-resistant cancer cells.

But these were in vitro results - that is, the results of adding the annona derivatives to cancer cells growing in test tubes. This is a long way from clinical trials to determine the safety and efficacy of these compounds in people with cancer." [36]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Graviola (Soursop)". Blackherbals. Retrieved 30 January 2012. [unreliable source?]
  2. ^ a b "Can graviola cure cancer?". Cancer Research UK. 
  3. ^ http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/soursop.html
  4. ^ Frutos do Brasil. http://www.frutosdobrasil.com.br/en/produtos/sorvetes/graviolalight. Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  5. ^ Jumex. http://www.jumex.com/index.php/en/our-brands/juice-nectars. Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  6. ^ Tropical Treets. http://www.tropicaltreets.com. Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  7. ^ Sweet ‘n Nice. http://www.sweetnnice.ca/?page_id=10#3. Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  8. ^ Jumex. http://www.walmart.com/ip/Jumex-Guanabana-Nectar-11.3-oz-Pack-of-24/17194301. Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  9. ^ a b Goya. http://www.goya.com/english/product_subcategory/Beverages/Nectars-Juices. Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  10. ^ Jans Food. http://www.jansfood.com/beverage-sm_beverage.html. Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  11. ^ JUNA. http://www.junafruits.com/range/guanabana. Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  12. ^ Rubicon Exotic. http://www.rubiconexotic.com/#/guanabana. Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  13. ^ True Fruits. http://www.true-fruits.com/smoothie-saft/pink/. Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  14. ^ Moriba. http://www.moriba.fr/fr/12-jus-de-fruits. Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  15. ^ Pokka Indonesia. https://www.facebook.com/PokkaIndonesia. Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  16. ^ Tropical Maria. http://www.tropicalmaria.com/. Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  17. ^ Pokka Malaysia. http://www.pokka.com.my. Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  18. ^ Yeo’s. http://tfisher2014.soup.io/post/438224975/Read-more-about-soursop. Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  19. ^ CKL / Sagiko. http://www.chiakhimlee.com/products.html. Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  20. ^ Pokka Singapore. http://www.pokka.com.sg. Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  21. ^ Rita. http://www.rita.com.vn/index.php/product/index?cid=15&page=2. Accessed: 2013-11-12.
  22. ^ Wonderfarm. http://www.wonderfarmonline.com/index.php/products/view/wonderfarm#01. Accessed 2013-11-12.
  23. ^ Morton, Julia F. (1987). "Soursop (Annona muricata)". Fruits of warm climates. Purdue University. pp. 75–80. Retrieved 28 October 2012. 
  24. ^ Jaramillo, MC; Arango, GJ; González, MC; Robledo, SM; Velez, ID (2000). "Cytotoxicity and antileishmanial activity of Annona muricata pericarp". Fitoterapia 71 (2): 183–6. doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(99)00138-0. PMID 10727816. 
  25. ^ Liaw, CC; Chang, FR; Lin, CY; Chou, CJ; Chiu, HF; Wu, MJ; Wu, YC (2002). "New cytotoxic monotetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins from Annona muricata". Journal of Natural Products 65 (4): 470–5. doi:10.1021/np0105578. PMID 11975482. 
  26. ^ De Sousa OV; Vieira GD; De Jesus RG; De Pinho J; Yamamoto CH; Alves MS. "Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Annona muricata L. Leaves in Animal Models". International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2010 May 6:11(5):2067-78. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20559502.
  27. ^ Adeyemi DO; Komolafe OA; Adewole OS; Obuotor EM; Adenowo TK. "Anti hyperglycemic activities of Annona muricata (Linn)". African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 2008 Oct 25:6(1):62-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20162043.
  28. ^
  29. ^ a b c "Graviola". Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Retrieved November 2013. 
  30. ^ Le Ven, J.; Schmitz-Afonso, I.; Touboul, D.; Buisson, D.; Akagah, B.; Cresteil, T.; Lewin, G.; Champy, P. (2011). "Annonaceae fruits and parkinsonism risk: Metabolisation study of annonacin, a model neurotoxin; evaluation of human exposure". Toxicology Letters 205: S50. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2011.05.197. 
  31. ^
    • Lannuzel, A; Michel, P.P; Höglinger, G.U; Champy, P; Jousset, A; Medja, F; Lombès, A; Darios, F; Gleye, C; Laurens, A; Hocquemiller, R; Hirsch, E.C; Ruberg, M (2003). "The mitochondrial complex I inhibitor annonacin is toxic to mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons by impairment of energy metabolism". Neuroscience 121 (2): 287–96. doi:10.1016/S0306-4522(03)00441-X. PMID 14521988. 
    • Champy, Pierre; Melot, Alice; Guérineau Eng, Vincent; Gleye, Christophe; Fall, Djibril; Höglinger, Gunter U.; Ruberg, Merle; Lannuzel, Annie; Laprévote, Olivier; Laurens, Alain; Hocquemiller, Reynald (2005). "Quantification of acetogenins inAnnona muricata linked to atypical parkinsonism in guadeloupe". Movement Disorders 20 (12): 1629–33. doi:10.1002/mds.20632. PMID 16078200. 
    • Lannuzel, A.; Höglinger, G. U.; Champy, P.; Michel, P. P.; Hirsch, E. C.; Ruberg, M. (2006). "Is atypical parkinsonism in the Caribbean caused by the consumption of Annonacae?". Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementa. Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementa 70 (70): 153–7. doi:10.1007/978-3-211-45295-0_24. ISBN 978-3-211-28927-3. PMID 17017523. 
    • Caparros-Lefebvre, Dominique; Elbaz, Alexis (1999). "Possible relation of atypical parkinsonism in the French West Indies with consumption of tropical plants: A case-control study". The Lancet 354 (9175): 281–6. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)10166-6. PMID 10440304. 
  32. ^ "Avis de l'Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments relatif aux risques liés à la consommation de corossol et de ses préparations" (pdf). Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments. 28 April 2010. Retrieved August 2013. 
  33. ^ "Man convicted over cancer 'cure'". BBC News. 10 September 2008. 
  34. ^ "FTC Sweep Stops Peddlers of Bogus Cancer Cures". FTC. 18 September 2008. 
  35. ^ http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/cancers-in-general/cancer-questions/can-graviola-cure-cancer
  36. ^ http://www.drweil.com/drw/u/QAA400299/graviola-a-worthwhile-botanical-against-cancer

External links[edit]