South African Army

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South Africa Army
SA Army Badge.png
Active 1912 – present (from law creating the Union Defence Force)
Country South Africa
Type Army
Size 39,445 (Active)
12,300 (In Reserve)
Part of South African National Defence Force
Headquarters Pretoria, Gauteng
Engagements World War I
World War II
Border War
Central African Republic conflict
Minister of Defence and Veteran Affairs Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula
Chief of the Army Lt Gen Vusumuzi Masondo
Deputy CARMY Maj Gen L Rudman
Sergeant Major of the Army Senior Chief Warrant Officer Charles Laubscher[1]
SANDF Army Flag Current.gif

The South African Army is the army of South Africa, first formed after the Union of South Africa was created in 1910. The current chief of the South African Army is Lt. General Vusumuzi Masondo.[2]

The South African military evolved within the tradition of frontier warfare fought by commando forces, reinforced by the Afrikaners' historical distrust of large standing armies.[3] It then fought as part of the wider British effort in World War II, but afterwards was cut off from its long-standing Commonwealth ties with the introduction of apartheid in South Africa after 1948. The apartheid regime's opposition to communism and the ANC led to friction with neighbouring states that helped to spark the border wars in South West Africa, now Namibia, from 1966. The role of the Army was fundamentally changed by the upheavals of the early 1990s and after 1994 the Army became part of the new South African National Defence Force. It is now becoming increasingly involved in peacekeeping efforts in southern Africa, often as part of wider African Union operations.


After the Union of South Africa was formed in 1910, General Jan Smuts, the Union's first Minister of Defence, placed a high priority on creating a unified military out of the separate armies of the union's four provinces. The Defence Act (No. 13) of 1912 established a Union Defence Force (UDF) that included a Permanent Force (or standing army) of career soldiers, an Active Citizen Force (ACF) of temporary conscripts and volunteers as well as a Cadet organization.[4] The 1912 law also obligated all white males between seventeen and sixty years of age to serve in the military, but this was not strictly enforced as there were a large number of volunteers. Instead, half of the white males aged from 17 to 25 were drafted by lots into the ACF.

Initially, the Permanent Force consisted of five regular mounted regiments and a small artillery section. In 1913 and 1914, the new 23,400-member Citizen Force was called on to suppress several industrial strikes on the Witwatersrand.

World War I[edit]

When World War I broke out in 1914, the South African government chose to join the war on the side of the Allies. General Louis Botha, the then prime minister, faced widespread Afrikaner opposition to fighting alongside Great Britain so soon after the Second Boer War and had to put down a revolt by some of the more militant elements before he could send an expeditionary force of some 67,000 troops to invade German South-West Africa (now Namibia). The German troops stationed there eventually surrendered to the South African forces in July 1915. (In 1920 South Africa received a League of Nations mandate to govern the former German colony and to prepare it for independence within a few years.)

Cap badge of 1st SA Infantry Brigade

Later, an infantry brigade and various other supporting units were shipped to France in order to fight on the Western Front. The 1st South African Brigade – as this infantry brigade was named – consisted of four infantry battalions, representing men from all four provinces of the Union of South Africa as well as Rhodesia: the 1st Regiment was from the Cape Province, the 2nd Regiment was from Natal and the Orange Free State and the 3rd Regiment was from Transvaal and Rhodesia. The 4th Regiment was called the South African Scottish and was raised from members of the Transvaal Scottish and the Cape Town Highlanders; they wore the Atholl Murray tartan.

The supporting units included five batteries of heavy artillery, a field ambulance unit, a Royal Engineers signals company and a military hospital.

The most costly action that the South African forces on the Western Front fought in was the Battle of Delville Wood in 1916 – of the 3,000 men from the brigade who entered the wood, only 768 emerged unscathed.

Another tragic loss of life for the South African forces during the war was the Mendi sinking on 21 February 1917, when the troopship Mendi – while transporting 607 members of the 802nd South African Native Labour Corps from Britain to France – was struck and cut almost in half by another ship.

In addition, the war against the German and Askari forces in German East Africa also involved more than 20,000 South African troops; they fought under General Jan Smuts's command when he directed the British campaign against there in 1915. (During the war, the army was led by General Smuts, who had rejoined the army from his position as Minister of Defence on the outbreak of the war.)

South Africans also saw action with the Cape Corps in Palestine.

More than 146,000 whites, 83,000 blacks and 2,500 people of mixed race ("Coloureds") and Asians served in South African military units during the war, including 43,000 in German South-West Africa and 30,000 on the Western Front. An estimated 3,000 South Africans also joined the Royal Flying Corps.

The total South African casualties during the war was about 18,600 with over 12,452 killed – more than 4,600 in the European theater alone.

The interwar period[edit]

Wartime casualties and postwar demobilization weakened the UDF. New legislation in 1922 re-established conscription for white males[5] over the age of 21 for four years of military training and service and re-constituted the Permanent Force. UDF troops assumed internal security tasks in South Africa and quelled several revolts against South African domination in South-West Africa. South Africans suffered high casualties, especially in 1922, when an independent group of Khoikhoi – known as the Bondelswart-Herero for the black bands that they wore into battle – led one of numerous revolts; in 1925, when a mixed-race population – the Basters – demanded cultural autonomy and political independence; and in 1932, when the Ovambo (Ambo) population along the border with Angola demanded an end to South African domination.

As a result of its conscription policies, the UDF increased its active-duty forces to 56,000 by the late 1930s; 100,000 men also belonged to the National Riflemen's Reserve, which provided weapons training and practice.

World War II[edit]

South Africa's contribution to World War II consisted mainly of supplying troops, men and material for the North African and Italian campaigns. Numerous volunteers also flew for the Royal Air Force. The 1st South African Infantry Division took part in several actions in East Africa in 1940, North Africa in 1941 and 1942, including the Second Battle of El Alamein, before being withdrawn to South Africa.

General Mark Clark (15th Army Group) takes the salute from M-10 tank destroyers of the 11th Armoured Brigade of the 6th South African Armoured Division at the commemoration parade marking the end of hostilities in Italy. Monza Race Circuit: 14 July 1945

The 2nd South African Infantry Division also took part in a number of actions in North Africa during 1942, but on 21 June 1942 two complete infantry brigades of the division as well as most of the supporting units were captured at the fall of Tobruk.

The 3rd South African Infantry Division never took an active part in any battles but instead organised and trained the South African home defence forces, performed garrison duties and supplied replacements for the South African 1st Infantry Division and the South African 2nd Infantry Division. However, one of this division's constituent brigades – 7 SA Motorised Brigade – did take part in the invasion of Madagascar in 1942.

The 6th South African Armoured Division fought in numerous actions in Italy from 1944 to 1945.

Of the 334,000 men volunteered for full time service in the South African Army during the war (including some 211,000 whites, 77,000 blacks and 46,000 Cape Coloureds and Asians),

The postwar period[edit]

Wartime expansion was again followed by rapid demobilization after World War II. By then, a century of Anglo-Boer clashes followed by decades of growing British influence in South Africa had fueled Afrikaner resentment. Resurgent Afrikaner nationalism was an important factor in the growth of the National Party (NP) as the 1948 elections approached. After the narrow election victory by the NP in 1948, the government began the steady Afrikanerization of the military; it expanded military service obligations and enforced conscription laws more strictly. Most UDF conscripts underwent three months of Citizen Force training in their first year of service, and an additional three weeks of training each year for four years after that.

As part of the post-war reorganization, the Defence Rifle Associations were disbanded in 1948 and replaced by a new Commando organization with a strength of 90,000 men.[6] It was also decided to establish and maintain two complete army divisions in the UDF: namely 1 SA Infantry Division and 6 SA Armoured Division, consisting of 1, 2, 3, 12, and 13 (CF) Infantry Brigades and the (PF) 11th Armoured Brigade. The divisions were formally established with effect from 1 July 1948, but with the exception of 11 Brigade they were disbanded on 1 November 1949, mainly as a result of difficulties in obtaining volunteer recruits to man the CF Brigades. The 11th Armoured Brigade was itself disbanded on 1 October 1953. In the early 1950s the Union undertook, however, to provide one armoured division for active service in the Middle East in the event of war in the region. To this end some 200 Centurion tanks were ordered, and the first were delivered in July 1952. During Exercise Oranje, conducted in 1956, the Army trialled its Centurions for the first time in a simulated nuclear war situation.

The Defence Act (No. 44) of 1957 renamed the UDF the South African Defence Force (SADF) and established within it some quick-reaction units, or Commandos, to respond to localized threats. The SADF, numbering about 20,000 in 1958, would grow to almost 80,000 in the next two decades.

Following the declaration of the Republic of South Africa in 1961, the "Royal" title was dropped from the names of army regiments like the Natal Carbineers and the Durban Light Infantry, and the Crown removed from regimental badges.

The "Border War" (1966–1989)[edit]

The 1960s ushered in a new era in military history. South Africa's growing international isolation and the military threat by SWAPO and its Communist backers in South West Africa (now Namibia) prompted the government to increase military service obligations repeatedly and to extend periods of active duty. The Defence Act (No. 12) of 1961 authorized the minister of defense to deploy Citizen Force troops and Commandos for "riot" control, often to quell anti-apartheid demonstrations, especially when it deteriorated into mob riots with loss of life. The Defence Act (No. 85) of 1967 also expanded military obligations, requiring white male citizens to perform national service, including an initial period of training, a period of active duty, and several years in reserve status, subject to immediate call-up.

From 1966 to 1989 the SADF, with its South West African Territorial Force auxiliary, fought a counter-insurgency campaign against South-West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO) rebels in South-West Africa (Namibia). These operations included the raising of special units such as the South African 32 Battalion. They also carried out operations in support of UNITA rebels in Angola and against the Cuban troops that supported the Angolan government.

As far as conventional formations were concerned, 7 SA Division and 17, 18 and 19 Brigades were established on 1 April 1965.[6] Difficulties with manning levels saw the disestablishment of 7 SA Division on 1 November 1967 and its replacement by the Army Task Force (HQ) and 16 Brigade.

Also during the 1970s, the SADF began accepting "non-whites" and women into the military as career soldiers, not only as temporary volunteers or reservists; however, the former served mostly, if not exclusively, in segregated units while the latter were not assigned to combat roles. By the end of the 1970s, the army had become the principal defender of the apartheid regime against the rising tide of African nationalism in South Africa and the region.

In 1973 two new infantry units were established: 7 Infantry Battalion (Bourke's Luck) and 8 SA Infantry Battalion (Upington), as well as 11 Commando (Kimberley), which to a great extent took over the functions of the Danie Theron Combat School's training wing. In 1973 the SADF also took over responsibility for the defence of SWA from the SA Police, and during the succeeding months the SA Army became involved in combat operations for the first time since the Second World War, clashing with groups of SWAPO terrorists infiltrating into South West Africa. It was decided in 1974 to organize the Army's conventional force into two divisions: 7 SA Infantry Division (71, 72 and 73 Motorized Brigades) and 8 SA Armoured Division (Durban) (81 Armoured Brigade, 82 Mechanized Brigade and 84 Motorized Brigade).[6] The headquarters of the two divisions were established on 1 August 1974, and 8th Armoured Division was active at its headquarters at Lord's Grounds, Durban, until at least 27 September 1992.[7]

During the 1980s, the legal requirements for national service were to register for service at age sixteen and to report for duty when called up, which usually occurred at some time after a man's eighteenth birthday.[8] National service obligations could be fulfilled by active-duty military service for two years and by serving in the reserves, generally for ten or twelve years. Reservists generally underwent fifty days per year of active duty or training, after their initial period of service. The requirements for national service changed several times during the 1980s and the early 1990s in response to national security needs, and they were suspended in 1993.

Under majority government[edit]

From the early 1990s (after 1992) to 1 April 1997, the SA Army maintained three 'small' divisions, the 7th (HQ Johannesburg), 8th (HQ Durban) and 9th (HQ Cape Town).[9] They consisted of a reconnaissance battalion, two anti-aircraft defence battalions (AA guns), two battalions of artillery (G-5s and G-6s), a battalion of 127 mm MRLs, an engineer battalion, two battalions of Olifant MBTs, two battalions mounted in Ratel ICVs, and finally two battalions mounted in Buffel APCs. They were all amalgamated into the 7th South African Division on 1 April 1997, and became the 73rd, 74th and 75th Brigades respectively.[10]

7th Division was disbanded on 1 April 1999 and all army battalions were assigned to 'type' formations.[11] The 'type' formation force structure was implemented in accordance with the recommendations of auditing firm Deloitte and Touche, who were contracted to draw up a plan to make the SA Army more economically efficient. The Deloitte and Touche plan had the army separate its combat forces into ‘silo’ style formations for armour, infantry, artillery, and engineers. Deane-Peter Baker of the South African Institute for Security Studies said that the D&T plan, while alleviating, to an extent, the mistrust of the new South African leadership of the remaining apartheid-era South African Defence Force personnel in middle management positions, reduced the combat effectiveness of the Army, and was seen by 2011 as a mistake.

Though non-white personnel did serve as unarmed labourers with the army in both World Wars, a number of non-whites were employed in segregated units during the Border War, and a number of units were completely desegregated, it was not until 1994 – when South Africa achieved full democracy – that the army as a whole was made open to all races. Today the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) has racial quotas to make sure that White, Black, Coloured, and Indian South Africans are equally represented in the armed forces.

Most of the post-1994 military involvement of the South African Army has been with peacekeeping operations under United Nations and African Union command in other African countries such as Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Command, Control & Organisation[edit]

The SA Army command structure is as follows:[12] The Army has 10 general support bases.

SA Army structure.jpg


  • Chief of the SA Army Force Structure - To structure the SA Army in order to provide the SA Army component of the Landward Defence Capability.[13]
  • Chief of the SA Army Force Preparation - Responsible for directing, orchestrating and controlling the combat readiness of SA Army Forces
  • Chief of the SA Army Corporate Services - Directing corporate resources, services and advice directed towards operationalising the SA Army strategy.
  • Inspector General - Provides an internal audit service within the Army strategy.
  • Chief of the SA Army Reserves - To give specialist advice to Chief of the SA Army and his staff in all Reserves related issues
  • Sergeant Major of the Army (South Africa) - To enhance discipline in the SA Army and enforce standards of discipline.

Formations and units[edit]

The Olifant tank, the main battle tank in service with the South African Armoured Corps.

The two standing army brigades are Headquarters 43 SA Brigade and Headquarters 46 SA Brigade.[12] Each of these two units are organised to provide four headquarters groups. Two of these units should be available for deployment at any one time whilst the other two are on leave and in training.

In accordance with the Deloitte and Touche structure plan, the army was reorganised into single-branch 'formations':

- SA Army Combat Training Centre
  • South African Army Support Formation


A budget of approximately Rand 9.98 billion was allocated for fiscal year 2010/2011. In December 2010, it was reported that funding shortages were causing severe problems.[14]

The vast majority of army equipment is nearing the end of its service life, with some items (like the Olifant Main Battle Tank) dating from decades ago.

The South African National Defence Force has however started to remedy the situation with the procurement of 238 Patria AMV infantry fighting vehicles under the Hoefyster programme. Other procurements are planned and should follow in line with the guideline document – Army Vision 2020. The SANDF has launched a project called "African Warrior" which is aimed in modernising the equipment and weapons of the SANDF. The project has been very successful in recent years and the South African Army has now put in service a 21st-century R4 assault rifle.[15]


The South African Army is composed of roughly 39,445 regular uniformed personnel, augmented by 4,500 civilians. The rank/age structure of the army that deteriorated desperately during the 1990s is greatly improving through the Military Skills Development (MSDS) voluntary national service system. Through this system, young healthy members are being inducted into the regular and reserve forces every year.

Due to the restructuring of the Reserves, the exact number of reserves is difficult to ascertain. However the 2011/12 planning target was 12 400 reserves.[16]

There were several thousand other members in the army territorial reserve (South African Commando System). Each Commando was responsible for the safeguarding and protection of a specific community (both rural or urban). However, this system was phased out between 2003 and 2008 "because of the role it played in the apartheid era", according to the Minister of Safety and Security Charles Nqakula.[17] The last commando unit, that at Harrismith in the Free State, was disbanded in March 2008.

South African military ranks are derived from that of the British Armed Forces, with Army ranks derived from the British Army.



Name Type Origin Notes Picture
Vektor Z88[18] Semi-Automatic Pistol  South Africa License-built Beretta 92 Beretta 92 FS.gif
Vektor SP1 Semi-Automatic Pistol  South Africa Standard issue sidearm along with the Z88 VektorSP1.jpg

Submachine Guns[edit]

Name Type Origin Notes Picture
MP-5 Submachine Gun  Germany In use with South African Special Forces Heckler Koch MP5.jpg
Milkor BXP Submachine Gun  South Africa An indigenously designed 9mm Parabellum submachine gun similar in appearance to the Mac 10.


Name Type Origin Notes Picture
Vektor R4 and R5 assault rifles [19] Assault Rifle  South Africa Standard Service rifle(licence-built versions of the Galil family of rifles) Vektor LM5 Feb 2008.jpg
R1 Battle rifle Designated marksman rifle  South Africa/ Belgium Former service rifle of the South African Army used as a designated marksman rifle. 5064-04.jpg
Denel NTW-20[20] Anti-materiel rifle  South Africa Used by South African Special Forces.

Machine Guns[edit]

Name Type Origin Notes Picture
Vektor SS-77[21] General Purpose Machine Gun  South Africa South African National Defense Force soldiers on their way.jpg
FN MAG[22] General Purpose Machine Gun  Belgium MAG-latrun-exhibition-1.jpg
Browning MG4 MMG[21] Medium Machine Gun  United States/ M1919A4 Browning Medium Machine gun modified by Lyttleton Engineering Works, now Denel Land Systems, to fire the 7.62x51mm round. Browning M1919a.png
M2 Browning machine gun[21] .50-caliber Heavy Machine Gun  United States PEO M2E2-QCB HMG.jpg

Grenade Launchers[edit]

Name Type Origin Notes Picture
Milkor MGL[23] Six round 40 mm Grenade Launcher  South Africa Roodewal Weapons Range - 8724792149.jpg
Denel Y3 AGL[23] High-velocity Automatic Grenade Launcher  South Africa Y3 AGL.JPG

Anti-Tank Weapons[edit]

Name Type Origin Notes Picture
RPG-7[24] Rocket-propelled grenade Launcher  Soviet Union Large numbers of RPG-7's were captured by the SADF during the South African Border War and is used as the primary infantry anti-armour rocket launcher. RPG-7 detached.jpg
FT-5 Light Anti-tank weapon(LAW)[25] Anti-tank rocket launcher  South Africa In reserve or withdrawn from service due to high costs.
MILAN 3[26] Anti-tank missile  France MILAN P1220770.jpg
Ingwe[27] Anti-tank missile  South Africa Ingwe ATGM.jpg
M40 recoilless rifle[24] 106mm Recoilless rifle  United States Rcl106lat2.jpg

Man-portable surface-to-air missiles[edit]

Name Type Origin Notes Picture
Starstreak[28] Manportable/Vehicle mounted surface-to-air missile  United Kingdom Starstreak.JPG


Name Type Origin Notes Picture
M5 120mm Mortar 120mm Long Range Mortar  Israel Mortar-120mm-beyt-hatotchan-1.jpg
M-3 Mortar[29] 81mm medium Mortar  France/ South Africa
M-1 Mortar[29] 60mm light Mortar  France/ South Africa


Name Type Quantity Origin Notes Picture
Olifant MK1A/1B/2[30] Main Battle Tank 191 total (44 MK1A/1B and 26 MK2 active in regular army service)  South Africa/ United Kingdom The Olifant Tank is a heavily modified and modernized Centurion Tank. South African Olifant tank, 2011.jpg
Rooikat[31] 8 Wheeled Armoured Fighting Vehicle 178 total (84 active in regular army service)  South Africa Rooikat wheeled tank.jpg
Ratel 20/60/90[32] Infantry fighting vehicle 1 200 total (534 active in regular army service)  South Africa Will be replaced by "Badger" Patria AMV IFVs (238) ( South Africa/ Finland) Ratel 90 armyrecognition South-Africa 008.jpg
Ratel ZT-3[32] Ratel IFV with Ingwe ATGM Launchers 52 total (16 active in regular army service)  South Africa Ratel ZT3 front.JPG
Mamba Mk3 Armoured Personnel Carrier[33] Armoured Personnel Carrier 440 in Service  South Africa A 4x4 Armoured Personnel Carrier that offers significant protection against anti-tank mines and small arms fire.
Casspir Mk3 Infantry Mobility Vehicle[34] Infantry mobility vehicle 370 in Service  South Africa A Infantry mobility vehicle that offers significant protection against anti-tank mines and small arms fire. Casspir vehicle Ai101503g1.jpg
Hornet Rapid Deployment Reconnaissance Vehicle[35] Reconnaissance vehicle 25 in Service  South Africa A reconnaissance vehicle that utilised by the South African Special Forces.
Gecko 8x8 ATV Rapid Deployment Logistical Vehicle[36] All Terrain Utility Vehicle >100 in service  South Africa A utility vehicle in use by the Parachute Regiment and Special Forces Brigade of the South African National Defence Force. SADF-44Parachute-Gecko-001.jpg
SAMIL 20[37][38] Logistics Truck Several Thousand in Service  South Africa The SAMIL 20 is an upgraded Magirus Deutz 130M7FAL 4x4 2-ton (load) truck. Samil 20.jpg
SAMIL 50[39][40] Logistics Truck Several Thousand in Service  South Africa The SAMIL 50 is an upgraded Magirus Deutz 192D12AL 4x4 5-ton (load) truck.
SAMIL 100[41] Logistics Truck Several Thousand in Service  South Africa The SAMIL 100 is an upgraded Magirus Deutz 320D22AL 6x6 10-ton (load) truck. Vulture Launcher System at Ysterplaat Airshow, Cape Town (2).jpg

Other Vehicles[edit]

MAN Tank Transporters of the South African military
  • MAN Transportation Trucks[42]
  • Truck Cavallo Recovery (Skimmel)
  • Truck Cavallo Transporter
  • Truck Cavallo Maintenance and Repair (Zebra)
  • Samil 20 Mk1 Recovery (Pagasus)
  • Samil 20 Mk1 Light General Repair (LAD)
  • Samil 50 MK1 Recovery (Springbok)
  • Samil 100 Mk1 MPV Recovery (Withings)
  • Samil 100 Mk 1A MPV Recovery (Ratel)
  • Samil 100 MPV Maintenance and Repair Vehicle (Waterbok)
  • Samil 100 Recovery (Kameel)
  • Toyota Dyna 6 Ton Recovery (Wildebees)
  • Iveco 30 Ton Transporter (Giraffe)
  • Trailer Mobile Technical Bin[43]


Name Type Quantity Origin Notes Picture
GV6 Renoster[44] Self-Propelled Howitzer 43 Total (2 in Regular Army service, 41 in storage/ reserve status)  South Africa A locally developed Long range 155mm Self-Propelled Howitzer Denel G6 2 (DanieVDM).jpg
GV5 Luiperd[45] Towed Howitzer 72 Total (6 in Regular Army service, 66 in storage/ reserve status)  South Africa A Long range towed 155mm Howitzer G5 howitzer (Impi).jpg

Rocket Artillery[edit]

Name Type Quantity Origin Notes Picture
Bateleur Mk 2 127mm MRL[46] Multiple Rocket Launcher 25 Total (21 in Regular Army service, 4 in storage)  South Africa The standard Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS)of the South African Army Artillery Formation. 40 launch tubes mounted on an armoured Samil 100 6x6 truck.
Valkiri Mk 1 127mm MRL(Visarend)[46] Multiple Rocket Launcher 26 Total (All in Storage)  South Africa 24 launch tubes mounted on a Unimog light 4x4 truck.

Anti-Aircraft Artillery[edit]

Name Type Quantity Origin Notes Picture
Oerlikon 35 mm twin cannon[47] Radar Guided Anti-Aircraft Autocannon 48 GDF Mk V Units in Service   Switzerland The South African Army acquired 169 of these guns, along with 75 Super Fledermaus fire control units in the 60s. 48 of these Mk I guns were upgraded to Mk V status and the Super Fledermausfire control units replaced by Italian LPD20 radars in 1990. Militari romani in timpul tragerilor.jpg
ZU-23-2 Zumlac[48] Twin 23 mm Anti Aircraft Autocannon 36 in Service  Soviet Union The ZU-23-2 Anti-Aircraft Twin Autocannon was captured in the 1980s by the SADF and is utilised as a self-propelled Anti-Aircraft gun mounted on an armoured SAMIL 100 heavy truck.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "revision date". Retrieved 2013-04-26. 
  2. ^ "profiles". Retrieved 2013-04-26. 
  3. ^ Library of Congress Country Study:South Africa
  4. ^ Library of Congress Country Studies: South Africa, Early Development of the South African Military, 1996
  5. ^ "THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN ARMY | Lillie | Scientia Militaria - South African Journal of Military Studies". Retrieved 2013-04-26. 
  6. ^ a b c South African Defence Review via
  7. ^ See
  8. ^ Library of Congress Country Studies, Early development of the South African military
  9. ^ See Jane's Defence Weekly 20 December 1992 and, earlier, 20 July 1991. The term 'small' is used here in comparison with the 'normal' strength of a division of nine manoeuvre battalions. Divisional HQ location source
  10. ^ Corps History 1988–98
  11. ^, accessed May 2011
  12. ^ a b "SA Army Force Structure: Level 2". Retrieved 2013-04-26. 
  13. ^ "structure". 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2013-04-26. 
  14. ^ "Lack of funds harming South African Army". Retrieved 2010-12-02. 
  15. ^ "Denel showcases a 21st Century R4 assault rifle at AAD". DefenceWeb. 2010-09-24. Retrieved 2013-04-26. 
  16. ^ "Department of Defence Annual Report FY11/12". p. 31. Retrieved 16 April 2014. 
  17. ^
  18. ^ "Fact file: Denel Z88 pistol". defenceWeb. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  19. ^ "home". 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  20. ^ "SANDF refurbishing NTW-20 AMR". defenceWeb. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  21. ^ a b c "home". 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  22. ^ "Fact file: FN MAG GPMG". defenceWeb. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  23. ^ a b "home". 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  24. ^ a b "home". 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  25. ^ "Work underway on RPG replacement". defenceWeb. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  26. ^ "Fact file: MBDA Milan precision guided misile". defenceWeb. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  27. ^ "Fact file: Denel ZT3 Ingwe precision guided missile". defenceWeb. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  28. ^ "ADA fires Starstreak". defenceWeb. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  29. ^ a b "home". 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  30. ^ "home". 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  31. ^ "home". 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  32. ^ a b "home". 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  33. ^ "home". 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  34. ^ "home". 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  35. ^ "Fact file: SF: Hornet Rapid Deployment Reconnaissance Vehicle". defenceWeb. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  36. ^ "home". 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  37. ^ "home". 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  38. ^ "home". 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  39. ^ "home". 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  40. ^ "home". 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  41. ^ "home". 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  42. ^ "Imperial keeps SANDF MAN trucks running". defenceWeb. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  43. ^ "home". 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  44. ^ "Fact file: G6 L45 self-propelled towed gun-howitzer". defenceWeb. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  45. ^ "Fact file: G5 L45 towed gun-howitzer". defenceWeb. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  46. ^ a b "Fact file: Denel FV2 Bateleur Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS)". defenceWeb. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  47. ^ "Upgrade for South Africa’s air defence system". defenceWeb. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  48. ^ "South Africa". defenceWeb. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Hilton Hamann, 'Days of the Generals: The Untold Story of South Africa's Apartheid-era Military Generals,' Struik Publishers; 1st edition (23 July 2007), ISBN 1868723402, ISBN 978-1868723409.

External links[edit]