South African Class 19D 4-8-2

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South African Class 19D 4-8-2
SAR Class 19D No. 2685 - Wesley - Umgeni Steam Railway.jpg
Umgeni Steam Railway's no. 2685 at Inchanga Yard, 30 July 2006
Type and origin
Power type Steam
Designer South African Railways
Builder Friedrich Krupp AG[1]
Borsig Lokomotiv Werke[2]
Škoda Works[3]
Robert Stephenson and Hawthorns[2]
North British Locomotive Company[4]
Henschel and Son[5]
Serial number See table
Model Class 19D
Build date 1937–1953
Total produced 268
Specifications
Configuration 4-8-2 "Mountain"
Gauge 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) Cape gauge
Leading wheel
diameter
28.5 in (724 mm)
Driver diameter 54 in (1,370 mm)
Trailing wheel
diameter
34 in (864 mm)
Wheelbase Total:
58 ft 8.75 in (17.901 m) (MR tender)
76 ft 7.875 in (23.365 m) (MX tender)
Engine:
6 ft 4 in (1.930 m) bogie
14 ft 5 in (4.394 m) coupled
32 ft 3 in (9.830 m) total
Type MR Tender:
4 ft 7 in (1.397 m) bogie
16 ft 9 in (5.105 m) total
Type MX Tender:
8 ft 8 in (2.642 m) bogie
34 ft 9 in (10.592 m) total
Length 67 ft 3.625 in (20.514 m) (MR tender)
86 ft 2.375 in (26.273 m) (MX tender)
Height 12 ft 10.875 in (3.934 m)
Frame Bar frame
Axle load 13.2 long tons (13.4 t) on 2nd driver (2506-2545)
13.65 long tons (13.9 t) on 1st & 2nd drivers (2626-2640)
13.25 long tons (13.5 t) on 2nd driver (2641-2680)
13.6 long tons (13.8 t) on 2nd driver (2681-2720)
13.95 long tons (14.2 t) on 1st driver (2721-2770, 3321-3370)
Weight on drivers 52.4 long tons (53.2 t) (2506-2545)
54.3 long tons (55.2 t) (2626-2640)
52.45 long tons (53.3 t) (2641-2680)
54.05 long tons (54.9 t) (2681-2720)
55.35 long tons (56.2 t) (2721-2770 & 3321-3370)
Locomotive weight 78.6 long tons (79.9 t) (2506-2545)
80.65 long tons (81.9 t) (2626-2640)
78.85 long tons (80.1 t) (2641-2680)
81.1 long tons (82.4 t) (2681-2720)
81.8 long tons (83.1 t) (2721-2770)
80.6 long tons (81.9 t) (3321-3370)
Tender weight Type MR Tender:
48,864 lb (22.2 t) empty
52.35 long tons (53.2 t) w/o
Type MX Tender:
72,424 lb (32.9 t) empty
73.35 long tons (74.5 t) w/o
Locomotive and tender
combined weight
With Type MR Tender:
160,720 lb (72.9 t) empty
134.15 long tons (136.3 t) w/o maximum
With Type MX Tender:
164,850 lb (74.8 t) empty
153.95 long tons (156.4 t) w/o
Tender type MP, MP1, MR, MX, MY, MY1 permitted
MR (2506-2770)
* 2 axle bogies
* 34 in (864 mm) wheels
* Length 25 ft 9.75 in (7.868 m)
MX Torpedo (3321-3370)
* 3 axle Buckeye bogies
* 34 in (864 mm) wheels
* Length 44 ft 8.375 in (13.624 m)
Fuel type Coal
Fuel capacity Type MR 10 long tons (10.2 t)
Type MX 12 long tons (12.2 t)
Water capacity Type MR 4,600 imp gal (21,000 l)
Type MX 6,500 imp gal (30,000 l)
Boiler 5 ft (1.524 m) inside diameter
20 ft 2 in (6.147 m) inside length
8 ft (2.438 m) pitch
Boiler pressure 200 psi (1,380 kPa)
Firegrate area 36 sq ft (3.345 m2)
Heating surface:
– Tubes
76 tubes 2.5 in (63.5 mm) diameter
24 tubes 5.5 in (140 mm) diameter
1,700 sq ft (157.935 m2)
– Flues 16 sq ft (1.486 m2)
– Firebox 123 sq ft (11.427 m2)
– Total 1,839 sq ft (170.849 m2)
Superheater area 404 sq ft (37.533 m2) (2506-2770)
390 sq ft (36.232 m2) (3321-3370)
Cylinders Two
Cylinder size 21 in (533 mm) bore
26 in (660 mm) stroke
Valve gear Walschaerts
Performance figures
Tractive effort 31,850 lbf (142 kN) at 75% pressure
Career
Operator(s) South African Railways
Rhodesia Railways
Caminho de Ferro de Benguela
Nkana Copper Mines
Wankie Colliery [6]
Class SAR Class 19D
RR 19th class, 19B Class, 19C class
CFB 11th Class
Number in class 268
Number(s) SAR 2506-2545, 2626-2770, 3321-3370
CFB 401-406
RR 316–336
Nkana 107-108 (RR 337–338)
WCC 1-4
Nicknames Dolly
Delivered 1937–1953
First run 1937

The South African Class 19D 4-8-2 of 1937 is a South African steam locomotive from the South African Railways era.

Between 1937 and 1949 the South African Railways placed two hundred and thirty-five Class 19D steam locomotives with a 4-8-2 Mountain type wheel arrangement in service. Between 1951 and 1953 thirty-three more were built for other operators like the Rhodesian and Angolan railways and the Nkana and Wankie mines.[7]

Manufacturers[edit]

The Class 19D 4-8-2 steam locomotive was the final development of the Class 19 series of locomotives. At the request of Colonel F.R. Collins, Chief Mechanical Engineer (CME) of the South African Railways (SAR) from 1922 to 1929, the original basic design of the Class 19 was done in the late 1920s by Test Engineer M.M. Loubser, himself later to serve as the CME from 1939 to 1949. The final development was done in 1937 by W.A.J. Day, CME from 1936 to 1939. The Class 19D was built in batches by several locomotive manufacturers in Germany, Czechoslovakia and the United Kingdom.[7][8]

  • The first forty were built in Germany in 1937, twenty with domeless boilers by Friedrich Krupp AG in Essen, numbered in the range from 2506 to 2525, and twenty by the Borsig Lokomotiv Werke in Hennigsdorf, Berlin, numbered in the range from 2526 to 2545.
  • In 1938 a further ninety-five locomotives were ordered, built by three manufacturers. Škoda Works in Czechoslovakia built fifteen, numbered in the range from 2626 to 2640, Krupp built forty, with domed boilers this time and numbered in the range from 2641 to 2680, and Borsig built forty, numbered in the range from 2681 to 2720.
  • Locomotive building was interrupted by World War II and post-war locomotive procurement saw German suppliers being replaced by British ones. In 1947 the first fifty post-war Class 19D locomotives were delivered by Robert Stephenson and Hawthorns (RSH) of Darlington, England, numbered in the range from 2721 to 2770.[2] Of this order engine no. 2734, RSH works no. 2747, was lost at sea off the east coast of England. Its replacement, with RSH works number 7360, was paid for by insurance and it received the number 2734 of the lost locomotive.
  • The final batch of fifty Class 19D locomotives for the SAR were delivered in 1949 by the North British Locomotive Company (NBL) of Glasgow, Scotland, numbered in the range from 3321 to 3370.[6]
  • Between 1951 and 1953 Henschel and Son built twenty-one more for the Rhodesia Railways (RR), and altogether twelve more were built for the Caminho de Ferro de Benguela (CFB) in Angola and for industry by Henschel and NBL.[5][7]

The Class 19D, nicknamed "Dolly", was very similar to its predecessor Class 19C, but W.A.J. Day specified piston valves and Walschaerts valve gear instead of RC Poppet valve gear. The cylinders were redesigned with straighter steam ports, while the valve gear itself was revamped with a longer steam lap and greater travel. In all other respects they were identical to the Class 19C.[7][9][10]

Characteristics[edit]

Watson Standard boilers[edit]

The Class 19D was delivered with a Watson Standard no. 1A boiler, one of the range of standard type boilers designed by Day's predecessor as CME, A.G. Watson, as part of his standardisation policy. It was also equipped with a Watson cab with its distinctive slanted front.[2][6][10]

Domeless boilers[edit]

Despite the specifications, the first batch of Class 19D locomotives, built by Krupp and Borsig and delivered in 1937 and 1938, came in two variations. The Krupp-built locomotives were delivered with domeless boilers while the Borsig-built locomotives conformed to the specifications with domed boilers.[2][10]

SAR Class 19D 2702 (4-8-2) BP.JPG

While the domeless boilers did not conform to the specified Watson Standard no. 1A boiler as far as the dome was concerned, they were accepted nevertheless, probably since all their other dimensions were identical to that of the Watson Standard boiler. It appears that Krupp had decided on their own accord that a dome was not necessary since there was no regulator in the dome, but merely a standpipe.[2]

They substituted it with a manhole cover on which the two safety valves were mounted, while the steam was collected through a battery of collecting pipes situated high up in the boiler in a similar manner to that which was used in the Class 16E. All of the subsequent Class 19D orders were delivered with domed Watson Standard no. 1A boilers.[2]

The Watson Standard boilers are interchangeable between locomotives and, in the process of locomotives undergoing major overhauls, these domeless boilers migrated between locomotives during subsequent years. As a result locomotives from the other builders and even some Class 19A and Class 19C locomotives eventually ended up with domeless boilers.[10][11]

Tenders[edit]

Over the eleven years during which the Class 19D was being produced for the SAR, some alterations occurred.

  • The pre-war locomotives as well as the first post-war order from RSH were all equipped with Type MR tenders, a tender type that first saw SAR service in 1912.
  • All the post-war locomotives came equipped with vacuum brake systems.
  • The final batch from NBL had Type MX tank wagon type tenders, similar in appearance to the American Vanderbilt type tenders with cylindrical water tanks. They ran on three-axle Buckeye bogies and became commonly known as Torpedo tenders.[2][10][12]

During the service life of the Class 19D, several tender exchanges occurred to best equip a locomotive for the region it was allocated to and the type of service it was to be employed in. In line service, type MX Torpedo tenders were usually preferred for their larger coal and water capacities. The result was that by the time the Class 19D was withdrawn from service circa 1980, many had exchanged their Type MR tenders for Type MX Torpedo tenders and vice versa.[2]

Service[edit]

South African Railways[edit]

The Class 19D was the most numerous South African branchline locomotive and, at two hundred and thirty five built for the SAR, was only twenty less in number than the Class 15F mainline locomotive, the most numerous South African steam class. The Class 19D was very versatile and saw main- and branchline service all over South Africa with the exception of the Western Cape, where the Class 19C was used.[7]

Tasks varied from mainline local and international passenger trains hauled by Class 19D locomotives on the section between Warrenton and Mafeking, en route between South Africa and Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) via Bechuanaland (Botswana) and Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), to secondary and branchline duties and, in later years, as shunting engines.[7][13]

SAR Class 19D 3324 (4-8-2) ID.JPG

On occasion South African Class 19D locomotives worked through from Mafikeng in South Africa via Botswana all the way to Bulawayo in Zimbabwe. SAR Class 19D locomotives were also hired out for shunting work, to the RR for use at Beit Bridge and to Mozambique for use at Lourenco Marques (Maputo).[7]

They served until right at the end of the South African steam era and were amongst the last steam locomotives to be replaced by electric and diesel-electric traction.[7][14]

Other operators[edit]

Other Southern African railways and some industries also purchased locomotives built to the Class 19D design. When these foreign versions are included, a total of two hundred and sixty-eight locomotives were built to the Class 19D design, making them even more numerous than the Class 15F.[7]

Benguela Railway[edit]

Six were built for the Caminho de Ferro de Benguela (CFB or Benguela railway) in Angola by NBL in 1951, as their 11th Class, numbered in the range from 401 to 406.[4] These locomotives were wood or coal fired, depending on where they were operating, and had tenders with frames installed on top to increase their fuel capacity when wood was used. In August 1972, for example, numbers 401, 402 and 406 were based at Lobito and were observed to be coal fired. At the same time numbers 403 and 405 were observed at Luso and no. 404 at Nova Lisboa, all wood-fired.

Rhodesia Railways[edit]

Between 1951 and 1953 Henschel and Son built twenty for Rhodesia Railways, their 19th class, numbered in the range from 316 to 335. They had tenders similar to the SAR Torpedo type, but with plate instead of Buckeye bogies.[5][7][15]

A single RR 19C class, no. 336, was built by Henschel in 1953 as a condensing locomotive. After a collision in 1956 it was rebuilt into a non-condensing 19th Class and re-entered service in 1958. The condensing tender was rebuilt to a Torpedo tender by mounting a tank and coal bunker, supplied locally in Bulawayo, on the frame.[15][16] This rebuilt tender is the one paired with no. 330, preserved in the Bulawayo Railway Museum.[17]

By June 1975 only three were left in service, all allocated to the Bulawayo shed, but with two out-stationed at Mafeking in South Africa.[18]

Nkana Mines[edit]

Two were built by Henschel for the Nkana copper mines in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) in 1952, numbered 107 and 108.[16] In 1967 they were sold to a Rhodesian scrap merchant who in turn sold them to Rhodesia Railways, where they were overhauled and placed back in service in 1968 as RR 19B Class no. 337 and 338.[5][15]

Wankie Colliery[edit]

In 1955 four more, without superheating and numbered in the range from 1 to 4, were built to the design of the Class 19D by NBL for the Wankie Colliery in Southern Rhodesia.[15]

Industrial[edit]

As they were being retired, several Class 19D locomotives were sold into industrial service. By the late 1980s, some of them were already at work at Dunn's, Saiccor, Loraine Gold Mine and Bamangwato Concessions Ltd. (BCL) in Botswana, and more were to follow.[7]

As late as 2011 two Class 19Ds that had been used on the Vaal Reefs Gold Mine in the 1980s until they were retired and dumped at Jan Kempdorp, where they stood unprotected for about twenty years, were bought by BCL Selebi-Phikwe. The locomotives, possibly numbers 2678 and 2689, were to be overhauled for use by the mine there, which was still operating ex SAR Class 19D and ex RR 19th class locomotives. By June 2012 the first of these two was put into service and it was expected that the second was to follow during the course of the year.[19][20]

Red Devil predecessor[edit]

No. 2644 at SANRASM's South Site, 3 February 2011, before being vandalised to the extent that it was scrapped in 2014

As a trial run before SAR mechanical engineer David Wardale was granted permission to proceed to rebuild a Class 25NC 4-8-4 locomotive to the Class 26 Red Devil in 1979, he was allowed to carry out modifications to a Class 19D locomotive. The locomotive selected for the experiment was Krupp-built number 2644, a particularly poor-steaming member of the Class at the time.[7]

A gas producer combustion system (GPCS) and dual Lempor exhaust were installed along with some other small improvements. The Lempor had a four jet blastpipe with extended petticoats to provide truer ejector proportions. To accommodate the arrangement, the smokebox was extended by 300 millimetres (11.8 inches), and steam flow in the cylinders was improved by streamlining the edges of the piston valves, which were each equipped with an additional valve ring to reduce leakage. The firebox was modified to the GPCS system wherein principal combustion is effected using secondary air introduced above the firebed through ducts in the firebox sides, while primary air was restricted through dampers and a redesigned grate.[7]

Firebox turbulence was created by steam jets and clinkering was inhibited by introducing exhaust steam under the grate. Sanding was improved and de-sanding jets were installed to clean the rails after the locomotive had passed.[7]

The modifications improved the locomotive's steaming rate and enabled it to achieve significantly higher power and significantly lower fuel consumption than other unmodified Class 19D locomotives, the coal savings and increased output being in the order of 20% to 25%. The success of this experiment convinced the SAR management at the time of the viability of the project which culminated in the Class 26 Red Devil.[7][10][21]

Works numbers and renumbering[edit]

The table shows the Class 19D builders, works numbers, year built and engine numbers.[2][3][4][6]

Builder models illustrated[edit]

The main picture shows Umgeni Steam Railway's Borsig-built no. 2685 with a domed boiler and a Type MX Torpedo tender at Inchanga Yard on 30 July 2006. The following pictures serve to illustrate Class 19D models from the various builders as well as boiler and tender variations.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Friedrich Krupp AG, Essen Listen-Verwaltung: Stw – works list as supplied by Piotr Staszewski
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Holland, D.F. (1972). Steam Locomotives of the South African Railways, Volume 2: 1910-1955 (1st ed.). Newton Abbott, Devon: David & Charles. pp. 93–96. ISBN 978-0-7153-5427-8. 
  3. ^ a b Škoda-Werke, Plzen (Pilsen), Czechoslovakia works list, as supplied by Piotr Staszewski
  4. ^ a b c North British Locomotive Company works list, compiled by Austrian locomotive historian Bernhard Schmeiser
  5. ^ a b c d Henschel & Son works list, compiled by Dietmar Stresow
  6. ^ a b c d South African Railways and Harbours Locomotive Diagram Book, 2’0” & 3’6” Gauge Steam Locomotives, 15 August 1941, as amended
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Durrant, A E (1989). Twilight of South African Steam (1st ed.). Newton Abbott, London: David & Charles. p. 104. ISBN 0715386387. 
  8. ^ Information supplied by R.S. Loubser, son of M.M. Loubser
  9. ^ Naboomspruit Municipal Offices, SAR Class 19D No. 2534
  10. ^ a b c d e f Paxton, Leith; Bourne, David (1985). Locomotives of the South African Railways (1st ed.). Cape Town: Struik. pp. 10–11, 72–73. ISBN 0869772112. 
  11. ^ Potgietersrus, Town, SAR Class 19D no. 2541
  12. ^ Barkly East, Town Centre, Class 19D no. 2510
  13. ^ Warrenton, Town, SAR Class 19D no. 2688
  14. ^ Jan Kempdorp; Town Centre; SAR Class 19D no. 2656
  15. ^ a b c d Pattison, R.G. (2005). Thundering Smoke, (1st ed.). Ilminster, Somerset: Sable Publishing House. pp. 127-130. ISBN 0-9549488-1-5.
  16. ^ a b Durrant, A.E. (1997). The Smoke that Thunders, (1st ed.). Harare: African Publishing Group. ISBN 1-77901-134-2.
  17. ^ Hamer, E.D. (2001). Locomotives Zimbabwe and Botswana, (1st ed.). Malmö: Frank Stenvalls Förlag. pp. 60-61. ISBN 91-7266-152-6.
  18. ^ Turk, Andrew (February 1976). "Garratts Galore". Shepperton, Surrey: Ian Allan. 
  19. ^ Railways Africa, 14 September 2011: 19Ds to Selebi-Phikwe in Botswana
  20. ^ Railways Africa, 12 June 2012: SA Locos in Botswana
  21. ^ The Ultimate Steam Page
  22. ^ Friends of the Rail - Preserving South Africa's Railway Heritage

External links[edit]

External video
Riding the Reverses with Class 19D 3323 on the Barkly East Branch Class 19D "Dolly" 3323 at work on the Barkly East branch on 26 May 2001, as part of a Steam Safaris tour. The "Union Limited" was staged at Lady Grey while the Class 19D hauled a mixed train as far as Ulrie and back. The video shows Reverses 1 through 6, plus some of the magnificent scenery that the line traverses. (15 minutes)