South African Class 32-000
|South African Class 32-000|
Numbers 32-029 and 32-042 at Oudtshoorn,
22 September 2007
|Type and origin|
|Serial number||33722-33836 |
|UIC classification||1Co+Co1 interlinked bogies|
|Gauge||3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) Cape gauge|
|762 mm (30 in)|
|Wheel diameter||915 mm (36 in)|
|Wheelbase||4.927 m (16 ft 2 in) per bogie
8.128 m (26 ft 8 in) between pivots
13.246 m (43 ft 5.5 in) overall
|Length||16.866 m (55 ft 4 in)|
|Width||2.756 m (9 ft 0.5 in)|
|Height||3.924 m (12 ft 10.5 in)|
|Axle load||Pony 10.180 t (10.019 long tons; 11.222 short tons)
Traction 12.700 t (12.499 long tons; 13.999 short tons)
|Locomotive weight||93.000 t (91.531 long tons; 102.515 short tons) average
96.520 t (94.996 long tons; 106.395 short tons) permissible
|Fuel type||Fuel oil|
|Fuel capacity||4,300 L (950 imp gal; 1,100 US gal)|
|Prime mover||Cooper Bessemer FVBL-12|
|Engine RPM range||400 rpm idle
535 rpm high idle
1,000 rpm maximum
|Engine type||4 stroke diesel engine|
|Aspiration||Cooper-Bessemer ET13 turbocharger|
|Generator||DC 10 pole GE 5GT-581C5|
|Traction motors||Six GE 5GE-761A3 DC 4 pole
* 600A rating 1 hour
* 590A rating continuous
at 17 km/h (11 mph)
|Multiple working||3 maximum|
|Maximum speed||100 km/h (62 mph)|
|Power output||1,475 kW (1,978 hp) starting
1,340 kW (1,800 hp) continuous
|Tractive effort||183 kN (41,000 lbf) starting
146 kN (33,000 lbf) continuous
at 27 km/h (17 mph)
|25% starting, 20% continuous|
|Locomotive brake||Air brake, 6-SLAV-1 with vigilance control
Not equipped with dynamic brakes
|60% ratio at 345 kPa (50 psi) brake cylinder pressure|
|Train brakes||700 L (150 imp gal; 180 US gal) main reservoir
Compressor capacity at high idle: 0.039 m3/s (1.4 cu ft/s)
Exhauster capacity at high idle: 0.155 m3/s (5.5 cu ft/s)
|Operator(s)||South African Railways
SNCZ, Democratic Republic of the Congo
|Number in class||115|
|Number(s)||32-001 to 32-115|
|Delivered||November 1959 to November 1961|
|First run||1959 |
Between November 1959 and November 1961 the South African Railways placed one hundred and fifteen Class 32-000 General Electric type U18C1 diesel-electric locomotives in service in South West Africa.
The South African Class 32-000 type GE U18C1 diesel-electric locomotive was designed and built to South African Railways (SAR) requirements by General Electric (GE) and imported. They were numbered in the range from 32-001 to 32-115.
Class 32 series
The Class 32 consists of two series, the high short hood Class 32-000 and the low short hood Class 32-200, both GE products. On the Class 32-000 the short hood end is the front. It has single station controls.
The pony truck affair
In the United States of America the South African Class 32-000 is credited with being a major factor in the demise of the American Locomotive Company (ALCO) and the rise of GE in the locomotive building business.
In the late 1950s South Africa, at the time one of the last bastions of steam traction, planned to embark on a massive dieselisation program. An SAR technical team was sent to Europe and to the United States to prepare an assessment of design alternatives, finalise specifications and compile a list of qualified bidders.
In the United States only ALCO, General Motors Electro-Motive Division (EMD) and GE were considered to be qualified bidders. The SAR was not very enthusiastic about two-stroke cycle engines and had a strong preference for ALCO's Model 251 engine and GE's transmission systems. As a prior supplier of steam locomotives for the SAR, ALCO appeared to be virtually assured of receiving the order.
The SAR's tender for bid was issued in 1957, with two options:
- One hundred and fifteen units of a 1,800 horsepower (1,300 kilowatts) locomotive with a 1Co+Co1 wheel arrangement; or
- Two hundred and thirty units of a 1,000 horsepower (750 kilowatts) locomotive with a Co+Co wheel arrangement
These units were intended for operation in South West Africa (SWA), now Namibia, under very light rail conditions which necessitated lighter axle loadings that could not be achieved with conventional Co bogies under a heavy locomotive. General Steel Castings had a design on paper for a 1Co bogie (a Co bogie with a pony truck) which could be utilised by either ALCO or GE and which would enable the SAR's specification to be met for the heavier 1,800 horsepower (1,300 kilowatts) units.
The SAR made it clear that, despite the two options afforded by the tender, its strong preference was for a 1Co+Co1 locomotive. However, the use of a pony truck was not universally accepted by ALCO's engineering management. The result was that ALCO bid on only the Co+Co option and lost out to GE, who had bid on both options.
South African Railways
The Class 32-000 was designed specifically for service in SWA and most of them spent their entire SAR lives there. Between 1964 and 1976 several were also allocated to the Eastern Transvaal for service around Waterval-Boven.
Of the original one hundred and fifteen locomotives, only five survived into the Spoornet era in the 1990s. In SWA they were replaced by the Class 33-400 during the 1980s. After being withdrawn from Spoornet service, a few were allocated to the National Collection, later the Transnet Heritage Foundation (THF), and some of these still saw occasional service as Outeniqua Choo-Tjoe excursion locomotives, based at George, Western Cape.
Post SAR service
After withdrawal from SAR service, a large number of the Class 32-000 locomotives were sold to Zaire’s Congo Railway (SNCZ), which became the SNCC after the country's name change to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The three locomotives at the Nkana Mine retained their SAR numbers whilst working at Nkana. No. 32-013 is depicted alongside on the Nkana-Chibuluma miner's train at Nkana Mine Sidings in Zambia. The coaches behind it are second-hand Tata bus bodies mounted on freight wagon frames and bogies. These were initially made for the Mulungushi Commuter train service in Lusaka that was later taken over by Zambia Railways and renamed Njanji Commuter.
LEGE in Durban, who operates an active hire and overhaul business, owns two locomotives, numbers 32-070 and 32-084. Of these, no. 32-070 has been observed shunting in the Merewent Oil Refinery as late as 2014.
The Class 32-000 builder’s works numbers and disposition are set out in the table.
The main picture and the following photographs offer views of all sides of the Class 32-000 locomotive.
- Diesel-electric locomotive numbering and classification
- List of South African locomotive classes
- South African Class 32-200
- South African locomotive history
- Middleton, John N. (2002). Railways of Southern Africa Locomotive Guide - 2002 (as amended by Combined Amendment List 4, January 2009) (2nd, Dec 2002 ed.). Herts, England: Beyer-Garratt Publications. pp. 38, 47, 67.
- South African Railways Index and Diagrams Electric and Diesel Locomotives, 610mm and 1065mm Gauges, Ref LXD 14/1/100/20, 28 January 1975, as amended
- The American Locomotive Company - A Centennial Remembrance by Richard Steinbrenner
- Paxton, Leith; Bourne, David (1985). Locomotives of the South African Railways (1st ed.). Cape Town: Struik. pp. 138–139. ISBN 0869772112.
- SAR-L Yahoogroup message no. 47981 of 17 October 2014