South African Class 6E1, Series 7
|South African Class 6E1, Series 7|
No. E1807 at Kaalfontein, Gauteng, 23 September 2009
|Designer||Union Carriage & Wagon|
|Builder||Union Carriage & Wagon|
|Gauge||3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) Cape gauge|
|Bogies||3.430 m (11 ft 3 in) wheelbase|
|Wheel diameter||1,220 mm (48 in)|
|Wheelbase||11.279 m (37 ft 0.1 in)|
|Length||15.494 m (50 ft 10 in)|
|Width||2.896 m (9 ft 6 in)|
|Height||4.089 m (13 ft 5 in) pantographs down|
|Axle load||22,226 kg (21.9 long tons)|
|Locomotive weight||88,904 kg (87.5 long tons)|
|Traction motors||Four AEI 283 AY|
|Transmission||18/67 gear ratio|
|Top speed||113 km/h (70 mph)|
|Power output||Per motor:
623 kW (835 hp) 1 hour
563 kW (755 hp) continuous
2,492 kW (3,342 hp) 1 hour
2,252 kW (3,020 hp) continuous
|Tractive effort||311 kN (70,000 lbf) starting
221 kN (50,000 lbf) 1 hour
193 kN (43,000 lbf) continuous at 40 km/h (25 mph)
|Train brakes||Air & Vacuum|
|Operator(s)||South African Railways
Transnet Freight Rail
|Power class||3 kV DC|
|Number in class||150|
Between 1977 and 1979 the South African Railways placed one hundred and fifty Class 6E1, Series 7 electric locomotives with a Bo-Bo wheel arrangement in mainline service.
- 1 Manufacturer
- 2 Characteristics
- 3 Series identifying features
- 4 Service
- 5 Reclassification and rebuilding
- 6 Liveries illustrated
- 7 See also
- 8 References
The 3 kV DC Class 6E1, Series 7 electric locomotive was designed and built for the South African Railways (SAR) by Union Carriage and Wagon (UCW) in Nigel, Transvaal. The electrical equipment was supplied by the General Electric Company (GEC).
One hundred and fifty locomotives were delivered between 1977 and 1979, numbered in the range from E1746 to E1895. UCW did not allocate builder’s or works numbers to the locomotives it built for the SAR and used the SAR unit numbers for their record keeping.
The Class 6E1 was built with sophisticated traction linkages on their bogies and with stabilisers mounted between the linkages on the bogies and the locomotive body. Together with its electronic wheelslip detection system, these traction linkages and stabilisers ensure the maximum transfer of power to the rails without causing wheelslip.
These dual cab locomotives have a roof access ladder on one side only, just to the right of the cab access door. The roof access ladder end is marked as the number 2 end. A passage along the centre of the locomotive connects the cabs, which are identical apart from the fact that the handbrake is located in cab 2. A pantograph hook stick is stowed in a tube mounted below the lower edge of the locomotive body on the roof access ladder side.
The Class 5E, 5E1, 6E and 6E1 locomotives are notoriously difficult to enter from ground level since their lever-style door handles are at waist level when standing inside the locomotive, making it impossible to open the door from outside without first climbing up high enough to reach the door handle while hanging on to the side handrails with one hand only. Crews therefore often choose to leave the doors ajar when parking and exiting the locomotives.
Late model Series 7 locomotives were equipped with side doors on which the outside door latch handle is mounted near floor level, with a simple drawer pull type handle at mid door level. No. E1845 and later locomotives were observed with the lower mounted door handles. No. E1882 is one observed exception with a high mounted door handle, although this may have been the result of a door replacement.
The locomotive is controlled via resistors over which the voltage is dropped in a configuration of series and parallel electrical circuits. The circuit breakers that switch these circuits work under very high power and voltage and are all pneumatically operated for insulation purposes. Compressed air is required to open or close the switch actions and air is also used for the weak field cam switch that also switches under very high currents.
Upon starting off and in the low notches the major part of the voltage is dropped over the banks of resistors and all four traction motors are in series. As the driver notches up, some of the resistor banks are cut out via the pneumatically operated switches and the voltage increases across the traction motors. The more resistors that are cut out as the driver notches higher, the more power is developed by the traction motors. At around 22 to 28 kilometres per hour (14 to 17 miles per hour) the locomotive switches to a parallel combination, where the two traction motors per bogie are in a series electrical circuit while the two bogies are in parallel electrical circuit. Eventually, when all resistors are cut out, the locomotive is operating in full-field.
Series identifying features
The Class 6E1 was produced in eleven series over a period of nearly sixteen years, with altogether nine hundred and sixty units placed in service, all built by UCW. This makes the Class 6E1 the most numerous single locomotive class ever to have seen service in South Africa and serves as ample proof of a highly successful design.
While some Class 6E1 series are visually indistinguishable from their predecessors or successors, some externally visible changes did occur over the years. Series 1 locomotives had their sandboxes mounted on the bogies, while Series 2 to 11 had their sandboxes mounted along the bottom edge of the locomotive body, with the sandbox lids fitting into recesses in the body.
The Series 6 and Series 7 locomotives are visually indistinguishable from each other, but can be distinguished from all the older series models by the rainwater beading that was added above the small grilles on the sides just to the right of the side doors.
The Class 6E1 family saw service all over both of the Transnet Freight Rail (TFR) 3 kV DC mainline and branchline networks, the smaller Cape Western network between Cape Town and Beaufort West and the larger network that covers portions of the Northern Cape, the Free State, Natal, Gauteng, North West Province and Mpumalanga.
Reclassification and rebuilding
Reclassification to Class 16E
During 1990 and 1991 Spoornet semi-permanently coupled several pairs of otherwise largely unmodified Class 6E1 locomotives, reclassified them to Class 16E and allocated a single engine number to each pair, with the individual locomotives in the pairs inscribed "A" or "B". The aim was to accomplish savings on cab maintenance by coupling the locomotives at their number 1 ends, abandoning the number one end cabs in terms of maintenance and using only the number two end cabs. Most pairs were later either disbanded with the locomotives reverting to Class 6E1 and regaining their original numbers, or rebuilt to Class 18E.
Twelve known Series 7 locomotives were part of such Class 16E pairs.
- E1790 became 16-407B.
- E1840 and E1841 became 16-409 A and B.
- E1846 and E1847 became 16-404 A and B.
- E1848 and E1849 became 16-405 A and B.
- E1850 and E1851 became 16-410 A and B.
- E1858 and E1859 became 16-411 A and B.
- E1870 became 16-406B.
Reclassification to Class 17E
Class 17E locomotives were modified and reclassified from Class 6E1, Series 7, 8 or 9 locomotives during 1993 and 1994. Key modifications included improved regenerative braking and wheel slip control to improve their reliability on the steep gradients and curves of the Natal mainline. Unlike the unmodified but reclassified Class 16E locomotives, the Class 17Es retained their original unit numbers after reclassification.
A stumbling block was that the regeneration equipment at many of the sub-stations along the route was unreliable, and since there was no guarantee that another train would be in the same section to absorb the regenerated energy, there was always the risk that line voltage could exceed 4.1 kV, which would make either the sub-station or the locomotive trip out. As a result the subsequent rebuilt Class 18E locomotives were not equipped with regenerative braking.
Fourteen Series 7 locomotives were modified and reclassified to Class 17E, their numbers being E1749, E1775, E1776, E1777, E1778, E1801, E1803, E1805, E1810, E1822, E1826, E1827, E1832 and E1843.
Rebuilding to Class 18E
Beginning in 2000, Spoornet began a project to rebuild Series 2 to 11 Class 6E1 locomotives to Class 18E, Series 1 and Series 2 at the Transnet Rail Engineering (TRE) workshops at Koedoespoort. In the process the cab at the number 1 end was stripped of all controls and the driver's front and side windows were blanked off in order to have a toilet installed, thereby forfeiting the locomotive's bi-directional ability.
Since the driving cab's noise level had to be below 85 decibels, cab 2 was selected as the Class 18E driving cab primarily based on its lower noise level compared to cab 1, which is closer and more exposed to the compressor's noise and vibration. Another factor was the closer proximity of cab 2 to the low voltage switch panel. The fact that the handbrake was located in cab 2 was considered an additional benefit.
Most of the Class 6E1, Series 7 locomotives that were used in this project were rebuilt to Class 18E, Series 1 locomotives. Their numbers and renumbering details are shown in the table.
|9||E1755||1977||18-416||1||2009||TFR, ex PRASA|
|32||E1779||1977||18-418||1||2009||TFR, ex PRASA|
All the Class 6E1, Series 7 locomotives were delivered new in the SAR Gulf Red and yellow whiskers livery. The main picture shows number E1807 in Spoornet maroon livery, passing through Kaalfontein on 23 September 2009. Illustrated below are some of the other liveries that Series 7 locomotives served in.
No. E1798 in SAR Gulf Red & whiskers livery at Bayhead, Durban, 8 August 2007
No. E1781 in Spoornet blue livery with outline numbers at Empangeni, 14 August 2007
- South African Class 6E1, Series 1
- South African Class 6E1, Series 2
- South African Class 6E1, Series 3
- South African Class 6E1, Series 4
- South African Class 6E1, Series 5
- South African Class 6E1, Series 6
- South African Class 6E1, Series 8
- South African Class 6E1, Series 9
- South African Class 6E1, Series 10
- South African Class 6E1, Series 11
- South African Class 16E
- South African Class 17E
- South African Class 18E, Series 1
- South African Class 18E, Series 2
- Electric locomotive numbering and classification
- South African locomotive history
- List of South African locomotive classes
- South African Railways Index and Diagrams Electric and Diesel Locomotives, 610mm and 1065mm Gauges, Ref LXD 14/1/100/20, 28 January 1975, as amended
- "UCW - Electric locomotives". The UCW Partnership. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
- Paxton, Leith; Bourne, David (1985). Locomotives of the South African Railways (1st ed.). Cape Town: Struik. pp. 128–129. ISBN 0869772112.
- E1882 with high mounted door handle
- E1845 with low mounted door handle
- Operation - South African Classes 6E, 6E1, 16E, 17E and 18E
- Railways of Southern Africa Locomotive Guide, 2002 Edition, (Compiled by John N. Middleton), p57, as amended by Combined Amendment List 4, January 2009
- Information gathered from the rebuild files of individual locomotives at Transnet Rail Engineering’s Koedoespoort shops, or obtained from John Middleton as well as several Transnet employees