South African Class 8C 4-8-0
|South African Class 8C 4-8-0
& South African Class 8CW 4-8-0
ex CSAR Class 8-L3 4-8-0
Ex CSAR Class 8-L3 483, SAR Class 8C 1174, circa 1910
|Type and origin|
|Designer||Cape Government Railways|
|Builder||North British Locomotive Company|
|Serial number||15803-15832 |
|Model||CGR 8th Class (4-8-0)|
|Build date||1903 |
|Gauge||3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) Cape gauge|
|28.5 in (724 mm)|
|Driver diameter||48 in (1,220 mm)|
|Wheelbase||Total: 46 ft 10.5 in (14.288 m)
6 ft (1.829 m) bogie
13 ft 6 in (4.115 m) coupled
23 ft 3 in (7.087 m) total
4 ft 7 in (1.397 m) bogie
14 ft 7 in (4.445 m) total
|Length||54 ft 5 in (16.586 m)|
|Height||12 ft 10 in (3.912 m) as built
12 ft 8 in (3.861 m) superheated & Class 8CW
|Axle load||As built:
11.85 long tons (12.0 t) on 2nd driver
12 long tons (12.2 t) per driver
12.55 long tons (12.8 t) on 2nd driver
|Weight on drivers||46.6 long tons (47.3 t) as built
48 long tons (48.8 t) superheated
48.3 long tons (49.1 t) Class 8CW
|Locomotive weight||58.85 long tons (59.8 t) as built
60.75 long tons (61.7 t) superheated
61.05 long tons (62.0 t) Class 8CW
|Tender weight||44,032 lb (20.0 t) empty
43.05 long tons (43.7 t) w/o
|Locomotive and tender
|120,288 lb (54.6 t) empty
101.9 long tons (103.5 t) as built
103.8 long tons (105.5 t) superheated
104.1 long tons (105.8 t) Class 8CW
|Tender type||XF - XC, XC1, XD, XE, XE1, XF, XF1, XF2, XJ, XN, XN1, XM2, XM3 permitted
* 2 axle bogies
* 34 in (864 mm) wheels
* Length 22 ft 2.5 in (6.769 m)
|Fuel capacity||10 long tons (10.2 t)|
|Water capacity||3,000 imp gal (14,000 l)|
5 ft (1.524 m) inside diameter
11 ft 0.5 in (3.366 m) inside length
7 ft (2.134 m) pitch
Superheated & Class 8CW:
5 ft (1.524 m) inside diameter
11 ft 0.375 in (3.362 m) inside length
7 ft 1 in (2.159 m) pitch
|Boiler pressure||180 psi (1,240 kPa)|
|Firegrate area||21 sq ft (1.951 m2)|
205 tubes 2 in (50.8 mm) diameter
1,184 sq ft (109.997 m2)
Superheated & Class 8CW:
115 tubes 2 in (50.8 mm) diameter
18 tubes 5.5 in (140 mm) diameter
950 sq ft (88.258 m2)
|– Firebox||130 sq ft (12.077 m2)|
|– Total||1,314 sq ft (122.075 m2) as built
1,081 sq ft (100.428 m2) superheated & Class 8CW
|Superheater type||Not equipped as built|
|Superheater area||214 sq ft (19.881 m2) superheated & Class 8CW|
|Cylinder size||As built: 18.5 in (470 mm) bore
Superheated: 19 in (483 mm) bore
Class 8CW: 20 in (508 mm) bore
All: 24 in (610 mm) stroke
|Tractive effort||At 75% boiler pressure
23,100 lbf (102.8 kN) as built
24,370 lbf (108.4 kN) superheated
27,000 lbf (120.1 kN) Class 8CW 
|Operator(s)||Central South African Railways
South African Railways
|Class||CSAR Class 8-L3
SAR Class 8C, Class 8CW
|Number in class||30|
SAR 1162-1191 
In 1903, soon after the establishment of the Central South African Railways, a second batch of thirty Cape 8th Class 4-8-0 Mastodon steam locomotives were ordered and placed in service as the Class 8-L3, immediately following upon a previous order in that same year for a variation on the same locomotive type. In 1912, when they were assimilated into the South African Railways, they were renumbered and reclassified to Class 8C.
Upon the establishment of the Central South African Railways (CSAR) in July 1902, soon after the end of the Second Freedom War, Chief Locomotive Superintendent P.A. Hyde became the custodian of a mixed bag of locomotives inherited from the Imperial Military Railways (IMR). These included locomotives that originated with the Selati Railway, the Nederlandsche Zuid-Afrikaansche Spoorweg-Maatschappij (NZASM), the Pretoria-Pietersburg Railway (PPR) and the Oranje-Vrijstaat Gouwerment Spoorwegen (OVGS).
The comparatively small number of serviceable locomotives that were immediately available for service, compounded by the poor condition of many of the original NZASM, PPR, Selati and OVGS locomotives and an expected post-war increase in traffic, led to an order for altogether sixty new steam locomotives. They were to be built in two variations, to the specifications of the 8th Class 4-8-0 Mastodon type that was designed by H.M. Beatty, the Chief Locomotive Superintendent of the Cape Government Railways (CGR) from 1896 to 1910.
Orders were placed with Neilson, Reid and Company in 1903, but while they were being built, Neilson, Reid amalgamated with Dübs and Company and Sharp, Stewart and Company to form the North British Locomotive Company (NBL). As a result, the thirty locomotives of the second batch, numbered in the range from 471 to 500, were all delivered as built by the North British Locomotive Company (NBL) at the Hyde Park shops of the former Neilson, Reid.
They differed from the first batch of the same order only by not being equipped with Drummond water tubes in the fireboxes. To differentiate them from the Class 8-L1 and the Drummond tube-equipped Class 8-L2, these locomotives became the CSAR Class 8-L3. These were the last locomotives to be ordered by the CSAR that were built to the design of another railway.
Class 8 sub-classes
The Union of South Africa was established on 31 May 1910, in terms of the South Africa Act. One of the clauses in the Act required that the three Colonial Government railways, the CGR, the Natal Government Railways and the CSAR, also be united under one single administration to control and administer the railways, ports and harbours of the Union. While the South African Railways (SAR) came into existence in 1910, the actual classification and renumbering of all the rolling stock of the three constituent railways required careful planning and was only implemented with effect from 1 January 1912.
These locomotives, together with the CSAR’s Class 8-L1 and 8-L2 4-8-0 Mastodon locomotives and all the CGR’s 8th Class 2-8-0 Consolidations and 4-8-0 Mastodons, were grouped into ten different sub-classes by the SAR. The 4-8-0 locomotives became SAR Classes 8 and 8A to 8F and the 2-8-0 locomotives became Classes 8X to 8Z.
During A.G. Watson’s term as the Chief Mechanical Engineer (CME) of the SAR from 1929 to 1936, many of the Class 8 to Class 8F locomotives were equipped with superheated boilers, larger bore cylinders and either inside or outside admission piston valves. The outside admission valve locomotives had their cylinder bore increased from 18.5 inches (470 millimetres) to 19 inches (483 millimetres) and retained their existing SAR classifications, while the inside admission valve locomotives had their cylinder bore increased to 20 inches (508 millimetres) and were reclassified by having a "W" suffix added to their existing SAR classifications.
Of the Class 8C locomotives, seven were equipped with superheating, 19 inches (483 millimetres) bore cylinders and outside admission piston valves while retaining their Class 8C classification.
Five locomotives were equipped with superheating, 20 inches (508 millimetres) bore cylinders and inside admission piston valves, and were reclassified to Class 8CW.
In SAR service, the 4-8-0 Class 8 family of locomotives worked on every system in the country and in the 1920s became the mainstay of motive power on many branchlines. Their final days were spent in shunting service and by 1972 they were all withdrawn.
- List of South African locomotive classes
- South African Class 8 4-8-0
- South African Class 8A 4-8-0
- South African Class 8B 4-8-0
- South African Class 8D 4-8-0
- South African Class 8E 4-8-0
- South African Class 8F 4-8-0
- South African Class 8X 2-8-0
- South African Class 8Y 2-8-0
- South African Class 8Z 2-8-0
- South African locomotive history
- Tender locomotive numbering and classification
- The 4-8-0 "Mastodon"
- North British Locomotive Company works list, compiled by Austrian locomotive historian Bernhard Schmeiser
- Holland, D.F. (1971). Steam Locomotives of the South African Railways, Volume 1: 1859-1910 (1st ed.). Newton Abbott, Devon: David & Charles. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-7153-5382-0.
- South African Railways and Harbours Locomotive Diagram Book, 2’0” & 3’6” Gauge Steam Locomotives, 15 August 1941, as amended
- Holland, D.F. (1972). Steam Locomotives of the South African Railways, Volume 2: 1910-1955 (1st ed.). Newton Abbott, Devon: David & Charles. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-7153-5427-8.
- Classification of S.A.R. Engines with Renumbering Lists, issued by the Chief Mechanical Engineer’s Office, Pretoria, January 1912, pp. 8, 12, 15, 41-42 (Reprinted in April 1987 by SATS Museum, R.3125-6/9/11-1000)
- Paxton, Leith; Bourne, David (1985). Locomotives of the South African Railways (1st ed.). Cape Town: Struik. pp. 48–49. ISBN 0869772112.
- Durrant, A E (1989). Twilight of South African Steam (1st ed.). Newton Abbott, London: David & Charles. p. 8. ISBN 0715386387.
- The South African Railways - Historical Survey. Editor George Hart, Publisher Bill Hart, Sponsored by Dorbyl Ltd., Published c. 1978, p. 25.