South African general election, 1994

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South African general election, 1994
South Africa
1989 ←
27 April 1994
→ 1999

All 400 seats to the National Assembly of South Africa
201 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party Third party
  Nelson Mandela.jpg Frederik Willem de Klerk.jpg Mangosuthu Buthelezi (1983).jpg
Leader Nelson Mandela F. W. de Klerk Mangosuthu Buthelezi
Party African National Congress National Inkatha Freedom Party
Seats won 252 82 43
Popular vote 12,237,655 3,983,690 2,058,294
Percentage 62.65% 20.39% 10.54%

State President before election

F. W. de Klerk
National

Elected President

Nelson Mandela
African National Congress

Flag of South Africa.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
South Africa
Government
Foreign relations

General elections were held in South Africa on 27 April 1994. The elections were the first in which citizens of all races were allowed to take part, and were therefore also the first held with universal adult suffrage. The election was conducted under the direction of the Independent Electoral Commission (IEC), and marked the end of the four-year process that ended apartheid.

Millions queued in lines over a three-day voting period. Altogether 19,726,579 votes were counted and 193,081 were rejected as invalid. As widely expected, the African National Congress (ANC), whose slate incorporated the labour confederation COSATU and the South African Communist Party, won a sweeping victory, taking 62 percent of the vote, just short of the two-thirds majority required to unilaterally amend the Interim Constitution. As required by that document, the ANC formed a Government of National Unity with the National Party and the Inkatha Freedom Party, the two other parties that won more than 20 seats in the National Assembly. The new National Assembly's first act was to elect Nelson Mandela as President, making him the country's first black chief executive.

The date 27 April is now a public holiday in South Africa, Freedom Day.

National Parliament results[edit]

National Assembly[edit]

The 400 members of the National Assembly were chosen from party lists in proportion to each party's share of the national ballot.

Mural of the election in Cape Town.
e • d Summary of the 26–29 April 1994 National Assembly election results[1]
Party Leader Votes % Seats
African National Congress Nelson Mandela 12,237,655 62.65 252
National F. W. de Klerk 3,983,690 20.39 82
Inkatha Freedom Party Mangosuthu Buthelezi 2,058,294 10.54 43
Freedom Front Constand Viljoen 424,555 2.17 9
Democratic Party Zach de Beer 338,426 1.73 7
Pan Africanist Congress 243,478 1.25 5
African Christian Democratic Party Kenneth Meshoe 88,104 0.45 2
Africa Muslim Party 34,466 0.18 0
African Moderates Congress Party 27,690 0.14 0
Dikwankwetla Party 19,451 0.10 0
Federal Party 17,663 0.09 0
Minority Front Amichand Rajbansi 13,433 0.07 0
Sport Organisation for Collective Contributions and Equal Rights 10,575 0.05 0
African Democratic Movement 9,886 0.05 0
Women's Rights Peace Party 6,434 0.03 0
Ximoko Progressive Party 6,320 0.03 0
Keep It Straight and Simple Party 5,916 0.03 0
Workers' List Party 4,169 0.02 0
Luso-South African Party 3,293 0.02 0
Total 19,533,498 100.00 400
Spoilt votes 193,112

Senate[edit]

The 90 members of the Senate were chosen, 10 from each province, by the newly elected provincial legislatures. Each province's Senate seats were allocated in proportion to the parties' representation in the provincial legislature.

e • d Determination of seats in the Senate as a consequence of the 26–29 April 1994 provincial elections[2]
Party EC FS G KZN M NW NC NP WC Total
African National Congress 9 8 6 3 8 8 5 10 3 60
National 1 1 2 1 1 1 4 6 17
Inkatha Freedom Party 5 5
Freedom Front 1 1 1 1 1 5
Democratic Party 1 1 1 3
Total 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 90

In 1997, on the adoption of the final Constitution, the Senate became the National Council of Provinces; its political makeup remained the same, but members were divided into permanent and special delegates, as described in the following table.

e • d Initial determination of delegates to the National Council of Provinces at the adoption of the new Constitution on 4 February 1997[3]
Party Delegate type EC FS G KZN M NW NC NP WC Total
African National Congress Permanent 5 4 3 1 4 4 3 6 2 32 60
Special 4 4 3 2 4 4 2 4 1 28
National Permanent 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 11 17
Special 1 2 3 6
Inkatha Freedom Party Permanent 3 3 5
Special 2 2
Freedom Front Permanent 1 1 1 1 1 5
Democratic Party Permanent 1 1 1 3
Total 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 90

Provincial legislature results[edit]

Members of the provincial legislatures were elected from party lists in proportion to each party's share of the provincial ballot. The following table summarises the result, showing only parties that won at least one seat. The majority party in each legislature is indicated in bold.

e • d Seat allocation summary of the 26–29 April 1994 provincial legislature election results
Party EC FS G KZN M NW NC NP WC
African National Congress 48 24 50 26 25 26 15 38 14
National 6 4 21 9 3 3 12 1 23
Inkatha Freedom Party 3 41
Freedom Front 2 5 2 1 2 1 1
Democratic Party 1 5 2 1 3
Pan Africanist Congress 1 1 1
African Christian Democratic Party 1 1 1
Minority Front 1
Total 56 30 86 81 30 30 30 40 42

The following tables detail the results in each province.

Eastern Cape[edit]

e • d Summary of the 26–29 April 1994 Eastern Cape Provincial Legislature election results[4]
Party Votes % Seats
African National Congress 2,453,790 84.35 48
National 286,029 9.83 6
Democratic Party 59,644 2.05 1
Pan Africanist Congress 59,475 2.04 1
Freedom Front 23,167 0.80 0
African Christian Democratic Party 14,908 0.51 0
Inkatha Freedom Party 5,050 0.17 0
African Democratic Movement 4,815 0.17 0
Merit Party 2,028 0.07 0
Total 2,908,906 100.00 56
Spoilt votes 13,248

Free State[edit]

e • d Summary of the 26–29 April 1994 Orange Free State Provincial Legislature election results[5]
Party Votes % Seats
African National Congress 1,037,998 76.65 24
National 170,452 12.59 4
Freedom Front 81,662 6.03 2
Pan Africanist Congress 24,451 1.81 0
Dikwankwetla Party 17,024 1.26 0
Democratic Party 7,664 0.57 0
Inkatha Freedom Party 6,935 0.51 0
African Christian Democratic Party 6,072 0.45 0
African Democratic Movement 2,008 0.15 0
Total 1,354,266 100.00 30
Spoilt votes 10,286

Gauteng[edit]

e • d Summary of the 26–29 April 1994 Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereeniging Provincial Legislature election results[6]
Party Votes % Seats
African National Congress 2,418,257 57.60 50
National 1,002,540 23.88 21
Freedom Front 258,935 6.17 5
Democratic Party 223,548 5.32 5
Inkatha Freedom Party 153,567 3.66 3
Pan Africanist Congress 61,512 1.47 1
African Christian Democratic Party 25,542 0.61 1
Federal Party 16,279 0.39 0
Africa Muslim Party 12,888 0.31 0
Women's Rights Peace Party 7,279 0.17 0
Luso-South African Party 5,423 0.13 0
Dikwankwetla Party 4,853 0.12 0
African Democratic Movement 4,352 0.10 0
Ximoko Progressive Party 3,275 0.08 0
Total 4,198,250 100.00 86
Spoilt votes 25,383

KwaZulu/Natal[edit]

e • d Summary of the 26–29 April 1994 KwaZulu/Natal Provincial Legislature election results[7]
Party Votes % Seats
Inkatha Freedom Party 1,844,070 50.32 41
African National Congress 1,181,118 32.23 26
National 410,710 11.21 9
Democratic Party 78,910 2.15 2
Minority Front 48,951 1.34 1
Pan Africanist Congress 26,601 0.73 1
African Christian Democratic Party 24,690 0.67 1
Freedom Front 18,625 0.51 0
Africa Muslim Party 17,931 0.49 0
African Democratic Movement 8,092 0.22 0
Workers International to Rebuild the Fourth International 4,626 0.13 0
Total 3,664,324 100.00 81
Spoilt votes 39,369

Mpumalanga[edit]

e • d Summary of the 26–29 April 1994 Eastern Transvaal Provincial Legislature election results[8]
Party Votes % Seats
African National Congress 1,070,052 80.69 25
National 119,311 9.00 3
Freedom Front 75,120 5.66 2
Pan Africanist Congress 21,679 1.63 0
Inkatha Freedom Party 20,147 1.52 0
Democratic Party 7,437 0.56 0
African Christian Democratic Party 6,339 0.48 0
African Democratic Movement 5,062 0.38 0
Right Party 921 0.07 0
Total 1,326,068 100.00 30
Spoilt votes 12,631

North-West[edit]

e • d Summary of the 26–29 April 1994 North-West Provincial Legislature election results[9]
Party Votes % Seats
African National Congress 1,310,080 83.33 26
National 138,986 8.84 3
Freedom Front 72,821 4.63 1
Pan Africanist Congress 27,274 1.73 0
Democratic Party 7,894 0.50 0
Inkatha Freedom Party 5,948 0.38 0
African Christian Democratic Party 5,570 0.35 0
African Democratic Movement 3,569 0.23 0
Total 1,572,142 100.00 30
Spoilt votes 18,974

Northern Cape[edit]

e • d Summary of the 26–29 April 1994 Northern Cape Provincial Legislature election results[10]
Party Votes % Seats
African National Congress 200,839 49.74 15
National 163,452 40.48 12
Freedom Front 24,117 5.97 2
Democratic Party 7,567 1.87 1
Pan Africanist Congress 3,765 0.93 0
Inkatha Freedom Party 1,688 0.42 0
African Christian Democratic Party 1,610 0.40 0
African Democratic Movement 734 0.18 0
Total 403,772 100.00 30
Spoilt votes 3,534

Northern Province[edit]

e • d Summary of the 26–29 April 1994 Northern Transvaal Provincial Legislature election results[11]
Party Votes % Seats
African National Congress 1,759,597 91.63 38
National 62,745 3.27 1
Freedom Front 41,193 2.15 1
Pan Africanist Congress 24,360 1.27 0
United People's Front 10,123 0.53 0
African Christian Democratic Party 7,363 0.38 0
Ximoko Progressive Party 4,963 0.26 0
Democratic Party 4,021 0.21 0
African Democratic Movement 3,662 0.19 0
Inkatha Freedom Party 2,233 0.12 0
Total 1,920,260 100.00 40
Spoilt votes 13,702

Western Cape[edit]

e • d Summary of the 26–29 April 1994 Western Cape Provincial Legislature election results[12]
Party Votes % Seats
National 1,138,242 53.25 23
African National Congress 705,576 33.01 14
Democratic Party 141,970 6.64 3
Freedom Front 44,003 2.06 1
African Christian Democratic Party 25,731 1.20 1
Pan Africanist Congress 22,676 1.06 0
Africa Muslim Party 20,954 0.98 0
Islamic Party 16,762 0.78 0
Inkatha Freedom Party 7,445 0.35 0
Wes-Kaap Federaliste Party 6,337 0.30 0
South African Women's Party 2,641 0.12 0
Green Party 2,611 0.12 0
African Democratic Movement 1,939 0.09 0
Workers International to Rebuild the Fourth International 855 0.04 0
Total 2,137,742 100.00 42
Spoilt votes 10,714

Security[edit]

Denel Dynamics Seeker unmanned aerial vehicles were used to monitor the elections.[13]

Legacy[edit]

The election was commemorated on its 20th anniversary due to tis historic importance.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "April 26-29, 1994 General Election Results - Republic of South Africa Totals". Election Resources on the Internet. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  2. ^ Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, Schedule 6: "Transitional Arrangements", item 7.
  3. ^ Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, Schedule 6: "Transitional Arrangements", item 7.
  4. ^ "April 26-29, 1994 General Election Results - Eastern Cape". Election Resources on the Internet. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  5. ^ "April 26-29, 1994 General Election Results - Free State". Election Resources on the Internet. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  6. ^ "April 26-29, 1994 General Election Results - Gauteng". Election Resources on the Internet. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  7. ^ "April 26-29, 1994 General Election Results - KwaZulu-Natal". Election Resources on the Internet. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  8. ^ "April 26-29, 1994 General Election Results - Mpumalanga". Election Resources on the Internet. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  9. ^ "April 26-29, 1994 General Election Results - North West". Election Resources on the Internet. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  10. ^ "April 26-29, 1994 General Election Results - Northern Cape". Election Resources on the Internet. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  11. ^ "April 26-29, 1994 General Election Results - Limpopo". Election Resources on the Internet. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  12. ^ "April 26-29, 1994 General Election Results - Western Cape". Election Resources on the Internet. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  13. ^ "Flying unpiloted in the conflict zone and into civilian territory". Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. p. 29. Retrieved 24 June 2011. 
  14. ^ http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2014/04/s-africa-marks-democracy-anniversary-2014427114951886747.html

External links[edit]