Demographics of South Africa

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Demographics of South Africa
South-africa-demography.svg
Population of South Africa, 1961–2008
Population 52,981,991 (July 2013 est.)[1]
Growth rate 1.34%[1]
Birth rate 19.61 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Death rate 16.99 deaths/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Life expectancy 49.2 years (2010 est.)
 • male 50.08 years (2010 est.)
 • female 48.29 years (2010 est.)
Fertility rate 2.33 children born/woman (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate 43.78 deaths/1,000
Age structure
0–14 years 28.9% (male 7,093,328/female 7,061,579)
15–64 years 65.8% (male 16,275,424/female 15,984,181)
65 and over 5.4% (male 1,075,117/female 1,562,860) (2010 est.)
Sex ratio
Total 0.99 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
At birth 1.02 male(s)/female
Under 15 1 male(s)/female
15–64 years 1.02 male(s)/female
65 and over 0.68 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationality South African
Language
Official See Languages of South Africa

The demographics of South Africa encompasses about 52 million people of diverse origins, cultures, languages, and religions. The last census was held in 2011 and the next will be taken anywhere from 2016–2021.

South Africa is home to an estimated five million illegal immigrants, including some three million Zimbabweans.[2][3][4] A series of anti-immigrant riots occurred in South Africa beginning on 11 May 2008.[5][6]

Population[edit]

Historical population: 1904 to 2011[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop.   ±%  
1904 5,175,463 —    
1911 5,972,757 +15.4%
1921 6,927,403 +16.0%
1936 9,587,863 +38.4%
1946 11,415,925 +19.1%
1951 12,671,452 +11.0%
1960 15,994,181 +26.2%
1970 21,402,470 +33.8%
1996 40,585,568 +89.6%
2001 44,819,777 +10.4%
2007 (est.) 48,502,063 +8.2%
2011 51,770,560 +6.7%
[7][8][9][10]

U.N. population projections: 2010 to 2040[edit]

Population projections
Year Pop.   ±%  
2010 50,725,000 —    
2015 52,015,000 +2.5%
2020 52,971,000 +1.8%
2025 53,565,000 +1.1%
2030 53,809,000 +0.5%
2035 53,741,000 −0.1%
2040 53,288,000 −0.8%
Source: United Nations Secretariat[11]

Age and population estimates: 1950 to 2010[edit]

According to the 2010 revision of the United Nations Secretariat's World Population Prospects, South Africa's total population was 50,133,000 in 2010, compared to only 13,683,000 in 1950. In 2010, 30.1% of the people were children under the age of 15, 65.2% were between 15 and 64 years of age, and 4.6% were 65 or older.[11] All population estimates are rounded to the nearest thousand.

Year Total population Percentage
under 15
years old
Percentage
15 to 64
years old
Percentage
at least 65
years old
1950 13,683,000 38.6 57.8 3.6
1955 15,385,000 39.9 56.4 3.8
1960 17,396,000 40.9 55.2 3.9
1965 19,814,000 41.9 54.2 3.9
1970 22,502,000 42.1 54.5 3.4
1975 25,699,000 41.9 54.9 3.2
1980 29,077,000 41.5 55.3 3.1
1985 32,983,000 40.5 56.4 3.1
1990 36,794,000 38.9 57.9 3.2
1995 41,402,000 36.0 60.6 3.4
2000 44,760,000 33.7 62.6 3.7
2005 47,793,000 31.7 64.2 4.1
2010 50,133,000 30.1 65.2 4.6

Historical censuses[edit]

1904 Census[edit]

South African Population Figures for the 1904 Census. Source:[7]

Colony Cape Colony Natal Transvaal Orange River
Colony
Total Percent
Black  1,424,787 904,041 937,127 225,101 3,491,056 67.5%
White 579,741 97,109 297,277 142,679 1,116,805 21.6%
Coloured 395,034 6,686 24,226 19,282 445,228 8.6%
Asiatic 10,242 100,918 11,321 253 122,734 2.4%
Total 2,409,804 1,108,754 1,269,951 387,315 5,175,463 100.0%
% of S. Africa 46.6% 21.4% 24.5% 7.5% 100%

1960 Census[edit]

Sources: Statesman's Year-Book 1967–1968;[12] Europa Year Book 1969 [13]

Province Cape of
Good Hope
Natal Transvaal Orange
Free State
Total Percent
Bantu People 3,011,080 2,199,920 4,633,378 1,083,886 10,928,264 68.3%
White 1,003,207 340,235 1,468,305 276,745 3,088,492 19.3%
Coloured 1,330,089 45,253 108,007 25,909 1,509,258 9.4%
Asiatic 18,477 394,854 63,787 7 477,125 3.0%
Total 5,362,853 2,980,262 6,273,477 1,386,547 16,003,139 100.0%
% of S. Africa 33.5% 18.6% 39.2% 8.7% 100.0%

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events in South Africa has improved considerably during the past decade, but still not considered to be complete for black South Africans. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.[11] (Natural increase or decrease over a time period is the difference between that period's live births and deaths, before accounting for inward or outward migration.)

United Nations estimates, 2010

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural Increase per year Crude Birth Rate
(per 1,000 per year)
Crude Death Rate
(per 1,000 per year)
Natural Increase
(per 1,000 per year)
Total Fertility Rate (over av'ge woman's life) Infant Mortality Rate (per 100,000 live births)
1950–1955 629 000 295 000 + 334 000 43.3 20.3 + 23.0 6.50 96
1955–1960 697 000 297 000 + 400 000 42.5 18.1 + 24.4 6.50 91
1960–1965 774 000 310 000 + 464 000 41.6 16.7 + 25.0 6.30 87
1965–1970 808 000 312 000 + 496 000 38.2 14.7 + 23.5 5.70 84
1970–1975 909 000 317 000 + 592 000 37.7 13.1 + 24.6 5.47 77
1975–1980 980 000 319 000 + 661 000 35.8 11.7 + 24.1 5.00 71
1980–1985 1 052 000 307 000 + 745 000 33.9  9.9 + 24.0 4.56 61
1985–1990 1 086 000 299 000 + 787 000 31.1  8.6 + 22.5 4.00 53
1990–1995 1 073 000 332 000 + 742 000 27.5  8.5 + 19.0 3.34 51
1995–2000 1 082 000 450 000 + 632 000 25.1 10.4 + 14.7 2.95 56
2000–2005 1 111 000 645 000 + 466 000 24.0 13.9 + 10.1 2.80 59
2005–2010 1 074 000 746 000 + 328 000 21.9 15.2 +  6.7 2.55 55
Total Fertility Rate = average number of children over a woman's lifetime; Infant Mortality Rate per 100,000 live births
Year Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate
(per 1,000)
Crude death rate
(per 1,000)
Natural increase
(per 1,000)
Fertility rates
(per woman)
Average population
2002 1 117 731 636 416 481 315 24,5 13,9 10,6 2,71
2003 1 119 820 674 281 445 539 24,2 14,6 9,6 2,68
2004 1 105 534 703 651 401 883 23,6 15,0 8,6 2,61
2005 1 095 999 722 075 373 924 23,1 15,2 7,9 2,56
2006 1 092 768 701 001 391 767 22,8 14,6 8,2 2,53
2007 1 098 959 657 051 441 908 22,6 13,5 9,1 2,53
2008 1 107 603 618 324 489 279 22,5 12,6 9,9 2,52
2009 1 114 301 591 135 523 166 22,3 11,8 10,5 2,51
2010 1 123 409 580 673 542 736 22,2 11,5 10,7 2,5
2011 1 109 926 579 371 530 555 21,6 11,3 10,3 2,44
2012 1 095 669 572 600 523 069 21,0 11,0 10,0 2,39
2013 1 084 397 559 631 524 766 20,5 10,6 9,9 2,34 52 982 000
2002–2013 population estimates rounded to the nearest thousand

Age and sex distribution[edit]

South African National Census of 2011

Population pyramid, 2005
Age
group
Male Female
 %
Female Total  % of
S.A.
under 5 2,867,585 49.6% 2,817,867 5,685,452 11.0%
5–9 2,425,181 49.7% 2,394,570 4,819,751 9.3%
10–14 2,344,275 49.0% 2,250,611 4,594,886 8.9%
15–19 2,498,572 50.1% 2,504,905 5,003,477 9.7%
20–24 2,694,646 49.9% 2,679,896 5,374,542 10.4%
25–29 2,542,682 49.7% 2,516,635 5,059,317 9.8%
30–34 2,036,206 49.5% 1,992,804 4,029,010 7.8%
35–39 1,709,347 50.7% 1,758,420 3,467,767 6.7%
40–44 1,402,328 52.4% 1,546,291 2,948,619 5.7%
45–49 1,195,740 54.4% 1,424,543 2,620,283 5.1%
50–54 1,011,349 54.4% 1,206,940 2,218,289 4.3%
55–59 811,950 54.8% 985,458 1,797,408 3.5%
60–64 612,364 55.8% 773,404 1,385,768 2.7%
65–69 401,548 58.1% 556,256 957,804 1.9%
70–74 293,498 60.8% 454,832 748,330 1.4%
75–79 165,283 65.7% 315,984 481,267 0.9%
80–84 100,694 68.8% 222,222 322,916 0.6%
85-plus 75,543 70.5% 180,130 255,673 0.5%
TOTAL 25,188,791 51.3% 26,581,769 51,770,560 100%
Number of children 0–14 Number of women 15–49 Proportion Fertility Rate
15.812.264 13.866.489 1,14 2,35
Age group Population Male Female Percent
0–14 15.812.268 7.969.880 7.842.388 31,26
15–64 32.235.534 15.538.934 16.696.600 63,72
65+ 2.538.955 1.006.222 1.532.733 5,02

Age and race distribution[edit]

South African National Census of 2011

Age distribution within each racial group[edit]

By generation[edit]
Age group All races % of All Black African % of Blacks Coloured % of Col'd White % of Whites Indian or Asian % of Asians Others % of others
0–14 15,100,089 29.2% 12,702,324 31.0% 1,311,811 28.4% 771,187 16.8% 258,602 20.1% 56,164 20.0%
15–64 33,904,479 65.5% 26,502,329 64.6% 3,085,684 66.9% 3,165,965 68.9% 939,379 73.0% 211,126 75.3%
65-plus 2,765,992 5.3% 1,796,285 4.4% 217,906 4.7% 649,686 14.2% 88,949 6.9% 13,164 4.7%
All ages 51,770,560 100% 41,000,938 (100%) 4,615,401 (100%) 4,586,838 (100%) 1,286,930 (100%) 280,454 (100%)
% of SA 100% 79.20% 8.92% 8.86% 2.49% 0.54%
By five-year cohorts[edit]
Age group All races % of All Black African % of Blacks Coloured % of Col'd White % of Whites Indian or Asian % of Asians Others % of others
under 5 5,685,452 11.0% 4,830,442 11.8% 470,090 10.2% 268,267 5.8% 90,795 7.1% 25,857 9.2%
5 to 9 4,819,751 9.3% 4,054,019 9.9% 421,038 9.1% 245,567 5.4% 82,584 6.4% 16,543 5.9%
10 to 14 4,594,886 8.9% 3,817,863 9.3% 420,683 9.1% 257,353 5.6% 85,223 6.6% 13,764 4.9%
15 to 19 5,003,477 9.7% 4,171,450 10.2% 431,263 9.3% 284,896 6.2% 98,556 7.7% 17,312 6.2%
20 to 24 5,374,542 10.4% 4,479,848 10.9% 428,159 9.3% 313,616 6.8% 115,949 9.0% 36,970 13.2%
25 to 29 5,059,317 9.8% 4,156,759 10.1% 385,750 8.4% 336,355 7.3% 125,521 9.8% 44,932 16.0%
30 to 34 4,029,010 7.8% 3,237,677 7.9% 326,803 7.1% 318,329 6.9% 113,398 8.8% 32,802 11.7%
35 to 39 3,467,767 6.7% 2,674,154 6.5% 319,231 6.9% 342,316 7.5% 108,120 8.4% 23,945 8.5%
40 to 44 2,948,618 5.7% 2,164,738 5.3% 319,279 6.9% 351,473 7.7% 95,904 7.5% 17,225 6.1%
45 to 49 2,620,283 5.1% 1,902,133 4.6% 294,467 6.4% 325,185 7.1% 85,621 6.7% 12,877 4.6%
50 to 54 2,218,289 4.3% 1,559,926 3.8% 247,535 5.4% 324,539 7.1% 75,783 5.9% 10,506 3.7%
55 to 59 1,797,408 3.5% 1,242,201 3.0% 186,148 4.0% 295,596 6.4% 65,332 5.1% 8,132 2.9%
60 to 64 1,385,768 2.7% 913,441 2.2% 137,050 3.0% 273,657 6.0% 55,194 4.3% 6,425 2.3%
65 to 69 957,805 1.9% 601,060 1.5% 86,285 1.9% 227,308 5.0% 38,277 3.0% 4,875 1.7%
70 to 74 748,331 1.4% 485,852 1.2% 60,311 1.3% 173,434 3.8% 25,084 1.9% 3,649 1.3%
75 to 79 481,267 0.9% 310,708 0.8% 37,441 0.8% 116,922 2.5% 13,954 1.1% 2,242 0.8%
80 to 84 322,916 0.6% 218,145 0.5% 19,278 0.4% 77,073 1.7% 7,155 0.6% 1,265 0.5%
85-plus 255,673 0.5% 180,520 0.4% 14,591 0.3% 54,949 1.2% 4,479 0.3% 1,133 0.4%
All ages 51,770,560 100% 41,000,938 (100%) 4,615,401 (100%) 4,586,838 (100%) 1,286,930 (100%) 280,454 (100%)
% of SA 100% 79.20% 8.92% 8.86% 2.49% 0.54%

Racial composition of each age group[edit]

Note that while over one-fifth (20%) of each age group over 65 is white, whites form less than one-twentieth (5%) of South Africans under 5 years of age. Similarly, while the Coloured population is now about equal to the white population (about 4.6 million each or 8.9% of the total), the nearly 2.9 million Coloured under 35 outnumber just over 2 million whites under 35 in every age group below 35, but the 1.7 million Coloured over 35 are less numerous than their 2.5 million white contemporaries in every age group above 35.

Age group All races Black African % of age grp Coloured % of age grp White % of age grp Indian or Asian % of age grp Other % of age grp
under 5 5,685,452 4,830,442 85.0% 470,090 8.3% 268,267 4.7% 90,795 1.6% 25,857 0.5%
5 to 9 4,819,751 4,054,019 84.1% 421,038 8.7% 245,567 5.1% 82,584 1.7% 16,543 0.5%
10 to 14 4,594,886 3,817,863 83.1% 420,683 9,1% 257,353 5.6% 85,223 1.9% 13,764 0.3%
15 to 19 5,003,477 4,171,450 83.4% 431,263 8.6% 284,896 5.7% 98,556 2.0% 17,312 0.3%
20 to 24 5,374,542 4,479,848 83.4% 428,159 8.0% 313,616 5.8% 115,949 2.2% 36,970 0.7%
25 to 29 5,059,317 4,156,759 82.2% 385,750 7.6% 336,355 6.6% 125,521 2.5% 44,932 0.9%
30 to 34 4,029,010 3,237,677 80.4% 326,803 8.1% 318,329 7.9% 113,398 2.8% 32,802 0.8%
35 to 39 3,467,767 2,674,154 77.1% 319,231 9.2% 342,316 9.9% 108,120 3.1% 23,945 0.7%
40 to 44 2,948,618 2,164,738 73.4% 319,279 10.8% 351,473 11.9% 95,904 3.3% 17,225 0.6%
45 to 49 2,620,283 1,902,133 72.6% 294,467 11.2% 325,185 12.4% 85,621 3.3% 12,877 0.5%
50 to 54 2,218,289 1,559,926 70.3% 247,535 11.2% 324,539 14.6% 75,783 3.4% 10,506 0.5%
55 to 59 1,797,408 1,242,201 69.1% 186,148 10.4% 295,596 16.4% 65,332 3.6% 8,132 0.5%
60 to 64 1,385,768 913,441 65.9% 137,050 9.9% 273,657 19.7% 55,194 4.0% 6,425 0.5%
65 to 69 957,805 601,060 62.8% 86,285 9.0% 227,308 23.7% 38,277 4.0% 4,875 0.5%
70 to 74 748,331 485,852 64.9% 60,311 8.1% 173,434 23.2% 25,084 3.4% 3,649 0.5%
75 to 79 481,267 310,708 64.6% 37,441 7.8% 116,922 24.3% 13,954 2.9% 2,242 0.5%
80 to 84 322,916 218,145 67.6% 19,278 6.0% 77,073 23.9% 7,155 2.2% 1,265 0.4%
85-plus 255,673 180,520 70.6% 14,591 5.7% 54,949 21.5% 4,479 1.8% 1,133 0.4%
All ages 51,770,560 41,000,938 79.20% 4,615,401 8.92% 4,586,838 8.86% 1,286,930 2.49% 280,454 0.54%

Racial groups[edit]

Population density in South Africa
Dominant population groups in South Africa.
  Black African
  Coloured
  Indian or Asian
  White
  None dominant

Statistics South Africa asks people to describe themselves in the census in terms of five racial population groups.[14] The 2011 census figures for these groups were Black African at 79.2%, White at 8.9%, Coloured at 8.9%, Indian or Asian at 2.5%, and Other/Unspecified at 0.5%.[15]:21 The first census in South Africa in 1911 showed that whites made up 22% of the population; it declined to 16% in 1980,[16] and 8.9% in 2011.[15]:21

Languages[edit]

South Africa has eleven official languages:[17] Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, Swazi, Tswana, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu. In this regard it is third only to Bolivia and India in number. While all the languages are formally equal, some languages are spoken more than others. According to the 2011 census, the three most spoken first languages are Zulu (22.7%), Xhosa (16.0%), and Afrikaans (13.5%).[15]:23–25 Despite the fact that English is recognised as the language of commerce and science, it ranked fourth, and was spoken by only 9.6% of South Africans as a first language in 2011.[15]:23–25

The country also recognises several unofficial languages, including Fanagalo, Khoe, Lobedu, Nama, Northern Ndebele, Phuthi, San and South African Sign Language.[18] These unofficial languages may be used in certain official uses in limited areas where it has been determined that these languages are prevalent. Nevertheless, their populations are not such that they require nationwide recognition.

Many of the "unofficial languages" of the San and Khoikhoi people contain regional dialects stretching northwards into Namibia and Botswana, and elsewhere. These people, who are a physically distinct population from other Africans, have their own cultural identity based on their hunter-gatherer societies. They have been marginalised to a great extent, and many of their languages are in danger of becoming extinct.

Many white South Africans also speak other European languages, such as Portuguese (also spoken by black Angolans and Mozambicans), German, and Greek, while some Asians and Indians in South Africa speak South Asian languages, such as Tamil, Hindi, Gujarati, Urdu and Telugu. French is still widely spoken by French South Africans especially in places like Franschhoek, where many South Africans are of French origin. South African French is spoken by fewer than 10,000 individuals. Congolese French is also spoken in South Africa by migrants.

The primary sign language of Deaf South Africans is South African Sign Language. Other sign languages among indigenous peoples are also used.

By ethnicity[edit]

In 2011, the first language was Zulu for 28.1% of Black residents, Xhosa for 19.8%, Northern Sotho for 11.2%, Tswana for 9.7%, Sesotho for 9.3%, Tsonga for 5.5%, Swati for 3.1%, Venda for 2.9%, English for 2.8%, Southern Ndebele for 2.6%, Afrikaans for 1.5%, while 3.4% had another first language.[19]

Among whites, Afrikaans was the first language for 59.1% of the population, compared to 35.0% for English. Other language accounted for the remaining 5.9%.[19]

Religion[edit]

According to the 2001 national census, Christians accounted for 79.7% of the population. This includes Zion Christian (11.1%), Pentecostal (Charismatic) (8.2%), Roman Catholic (7.1%), Methodist (6.8%), Dutch Reformed (6.7%), Anglican (3.8%); members of other Christian churches accounted for another 36% of the population. Muslims accounted for 1.5% of the population, Hindus about 1.3%, and Jews 0.2%. 15.1% had no religious affiliation, 2.3% were classified as other and 1.4% were unspecified.[20][21][22]

African Indigenous Churches made up the largest of the Christian groups. Some believe that many people claiming no affiliation with any organised religion adhered to traditional indigenous religions. Many people have syncretic religious practices combining Christian and indigenous influences.[23]

Muslims are largely found among the Coloured and Indian ethnic groups. They have been joined by black or white South African converts as well as immigrants from other parts of Africa.[24] South African Muslims claim that their faith is the fastest-growing religion of conversion in the country, with the number of black Muslims growing sixfold, from 12 000 in 1991 to 74 700 in 2004[24][25]

The Hindu population has its roots in the British colonial period, but later waves of immigration from India have also contributed to it. Most Hindus are ethnically South Asian but there are many who come from mixed racial stock. Some are converts due to the efforts of Hindu missionaries such as ISKCON.

Other minority religions in South Africa are Sikhism, Jainism and Bahá'í Faith.[21]

By ethnicity[edit]

87.9% of Black residents are Christian, 9.5% have no religion, 0.2% are Muslim, 0.0% are Jewish, 0.0% are Hindu and 2.3% have other or undetermined beliefs.

71.8% of White residents are Christian, 23.8% have no religion, 0.2% are Muslim, 1.4% are Jewish, and 0.0% are Hindu. 2.7% have other or undetermined beliefs.

Immigration[edit]

COB data South Africa.PNG

South Africa hosts a sizeable refugee and asylum seeker population. According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, this population numbered approximately 144,700 in 2007.[26] Groups of refugees and asylum seekers numbering over 10,000 included people from Zimbabwe (48,400), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (24,800), and Somalia (12,900).[26] These populations mainly lived in Johannesburg, Pretoria, Durban, Cape Town, and Port Elizabeth.[26] Many refugees have now also started to work and live in rural areas in provinces such as Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal.

Statistics SA assumes in some of their calculations that there are less than 2 million immigrants in South Africa.[27] Other institutions, like the police and Médecins Sans Frontières place estimate the figure at 4 million.[28][29][30][31][32]

Largest municipalities[edit]

Graphs and maps[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Mid-year population estimates, 2013". Statistics South Africa. 
  2. ^ "Anti-immigrant violence spreads in South Africa, with attacks reported in Cape Town". 
  3. ^ "Escape From Mugabe: Zimbabwe's Exodus". 
  4. ^ "More illegals set to flood SA". 
  5. ^ "South African mob kills migrants". BBC. 12 May 2008. Retrieved 19 May 2008. 
  6. ^ Barry Bearak (23 May 2008). "Immigrants Fleeing Fury of South African Mobs". New York Times. Retrieved 5 August 2008. 
  7. ^ a b Smuts I: The Sanguine Years 1870–1919, W.K. Hancock, Cambridge University Press, 1962, pg 219
  8. ^ The Statesman's Year-Book 1977–1978 (ed. John Paxton), St. Martin's Press, New York (& Macmillan, London), 1977, page 1296
  9. ^ [1], City of Cape Town / Isixeko Sasekapa, Stad Kaapstad: Metropolitan Municipality & Main Places – Statistics & Maps on City Population
  10. ^ [2], South Africa: Provinces & Major Urban Areas – Statistics & Maps on City Population
  11. ^ a b c Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
  12. ^ The Statesman's Year-Book, 1967–1968 (104th annual edition), edited by S.H. Steinberg, Macmillan, London; St. Martin's Press, New York, 1967, pages 1405–1424
  13. ^ The Europa Year Book 1969, Volume II: Africa, The Americas, Asia, Australasia, Europa Publications, London, 1969, page 1286
  14. ^ Lehohla, Pali (5 May 2005). "Debate over race and censuses not peculiar to SA". Business Report. Retrieved 25 August 2013. "Others pointed out that the repeal of the Population Registration Act in 1991 removed any legal basis for specifying 'race'. The Identification Act of 1997 makes no mention of race. On the other hand, the Employment Equity Act speaks of 'designated groups' being 'black people, women and people with disabilities'. The Act defines 'black' as referring to 'Africans, coloureds and Indians'. Apartheid and the racial identification which underpinned it explicitly linked race with differential access to resources and power. If the post-apartheid order was committed to remedying this, race would have to be included in surveys and censuses, so that progress in eradicating the consequences of apartheid could be measured and monitored. This was the reasoning that led to a 'self-identifying' question about 'race' or 'population group' in both the 1996 and 2001 population censuses, and in Statistics SA's household survey programme." 
  15. ^ a b c d Census 2011: Census in brief. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. 2012. ISBN 9780621413885. 
  16. ^ Study Commission on U.S. Policy toward Southern Africa (U.S.) (1981). South Africa: time running out : the report of the Study Commission on U.S. Policy Toward Southern Africa. University of California Press. p. 42. ISBN 0-520-04547-5. 
  17. ^ "Constitution of South Africa, Chapter 1, Section 6". Fs.gov.za. Retrieved 30 May 2010. [dead link]
  18. ^ "The languages of South Africa". SouthAfrica.info. 4 February 1997. Retrieved 7 November 2010. 
  19. ^ a b "Community profiles > Census 2011". Statistics South Africa Superweb. Retrieved 21 August 2013. 
  20. ^ South Africa entry at The World Factbook
  21. ^ a b "South Africa – Section I. Religious Demography". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 15 July 2006. 
  22. ^ For a discussion of church membership statistics in South Africa please refer to Forster, D. "God's mission in our context, healing and transforming responses" in Forster, D and Bentley, W. Methodism in Southern Africa: A celebration of Wesleyan Mission. Kempton Park. AcadSA publishers (2008:97–98)
  23. ^ Department of State, USA.
  24. ^ a b "In South Africa, many blacks convert to Islam". 
  25. ^ "Muslims say their faith growing fast in Africa". Religionnewsblog.com. Retrieved 7 November 2010. 
  26. ^ a b c "World Refugee Survey 2008". U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. 19 June 2008. 
  27. ^ "P03022009_6". Statssa.gov.za. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  28. ^ So where are Zimbabweans going?, BBC News. 8 November 2005.
  29. ^ SA population may be much larger than previously thought Beeld 1 June 2009.
  30. ^ Reference to 1996 HSRC study
  31. ^ South African Police Service 2009 Annual Report page 9 indicating the number exceeds 3 million
  32. ^ [3][dead link]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]