South African wine
South African wine has a history dating back to 1659. At one time Constantia, a vineyard near Cape Town was considered[by whom?] one of the greatest wines in the world. Access to international markets has unleashed a burst of new energy and new investment. Production is concentrated around Cape Town, with major vineyard and production centres at Paarl, Stellenbosch and Worcester. There are about 60 appellations within the Wine of Origin (WO) system, which was implemented in 1973 with a hierarchy of designated production regions, districts and wards. WO wines must be made 100% from grapes from the designated area. "Single vineyard" wines must come from a defined area of less than 5 hectares. An "Estate Wine" can come from adjacent farms, as long as they are farmed together and wine is produced on site. A ward is an area with a distinctive soil type and/or climate, and is roughly equivalent to a European appellation.
On 2 February 1659 the founder of Cape Town, Jan van Riebeeck, produced the first wine recorded in South Africa.
On 8 January 1918, growers in the Western Cape founded the Koöperatieve Wijnbouwers Vereniging van Zuid-Afrika Bpkt (KWV). KWV came to dominate the industry until the end of apartheid. In the 1930s they set up the South African Wine Farmers Association (SAWFA) as a 50:50 joint venture with their British agents, Vine Products, taking full control after the Second World War. Restrictions on the sale of "whites man's liquor" to black South Africans were lifted in the 1960s. Restrictions were never placed on Coloured South African labourers for fear of collapsing the wine farm labour force. Production quotas were abolished in the 1990s, and KWV relinquished its regulatory functions to the South African Wine Industry Trust and its producing interests to the Wijngaard Co-operative, leaving a publicly quoted marketing company.
The roots of the South African wine industry can be traced to the explorations of the Dutch East India Company which established a supply station in what is now modern day Cape Town. A Dutch surgeon, Jan van Riebeeck, was given the task of managing the station and planting vineyards to produce wines and grapes intended to ward off scurvy amongst sailors during their voyages along the spice route. The first harvest and crushing took place in 1659, seven years after landing in 1652. The man succeeding Van Riebeeck as governor of the Cape of Good Hope, Simon van der Stel, sought to improve the quality of viticulture in the region. In 1685, Van der Stel purchased a large 750 hectares (1,900 acres) estate just outside Cape Town, establishing the Constantia wine estate. After Van der Stel's death, the estate fell into disrepair but was revived in 1778 when it was purchased by Hendrik Cloete.
While many growers gave up on winemaking, choosing instead to plant orchards and alfalfa fields to feed the growing ostrich feather industry. The growers that did replant with grapevines, chose high yielding grape varieties such as Cinsaut. By the early 1900s more than 80 million vines had been replanted, creating a wine lake. Some producers would pour unsaleable wine into local rivers and streams. The depressed price caused by the imbalance between supply and demand prompted the South African government to fund the formation of the Koöperatieve Wijnbouwers Vereniging van Zuid-Afrika Bpkt (KWV) in 1918. Initially started as a co-operative, the KWV soon grew in power and prominence to where it set policies and prices for the entire South African wine industry. To deal with the wine glut, the KWV restricted yields and set minimum prices that encouraged the production of brandy and fortified wines.
For much of the 20th century, the wine industry of South Africa received very little attention on the world stage. Its isolation was exacerbated by the boycotts of South African products in protest against the country's system of Apartheid. It was not till the late 1980s and 1990s when Apartheid was ended and the world's export market opened up that South African wines began to experience a renaissance. Many producers in South Africa quickly adopted new viticultural and winemaking technologies. The presence of flying winemakers from abroad brought international influences and focus on well known varieties such as Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay. The reorganisation of the powerful KWV co-operative into a private business further sparked innovation and improvement in quality as vineyard owners and wineries who had previously relied on the price-fixing structure that bought their excess grapes for distillation were forced to become more competitive by shifting their focus to the production of quality wine. In 1990, less than 30% of all the grapes harvested was used for wine production meant for the consumer market with the remaining 70% being discarded, distilled into brandy or sold as table grapes and juice. By 2003 the numbers had been reversed with more than 70% of the grapes harvested that year reaching the consumer market as wine.
Climate and geography 
South Africa is located at the tip of the African continent with most wine regions located near the coastal influences of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. These regions have mostly a Mediterranean climate that is marked by intense sunlight and dry heat. Winters tend to be cold and wet with potential snowfall at higher elevations. The threat of springtime frost is rare with most wine regions seeing a warm growing season between November and April. The majority of annual precipitation occurs in the winter months and ranges from 250 millimetres (9.84 in) in the semi-desert like region of Klein Karoo to 1,500 millimetres (59.06 in) near the Worcester Mountains. Regions closer to the coast or in the rain shadow of inland mountain chains like the Drakenstein, Hottentots Holland and Langeberg will have more rain than areas further in land. In many South African wine regions irrigation is essential to viticulture. The Benguela current from Antarctica brings cool air off the south Atlantic coast that allows the mean temperatures of the area to be lower than regions of comparable latitude. A strong wind current, known as the Cape Doctor, brings gale force winds to the wine regions along the Cape which has the positive benefit of limiting the risk of various mildew and fungal grape disease as well as tempering humidity but can also damage grape vines that are not protected.
During the harvest months of February and March, the average daily temperatures in many South African wine regions is 23 °C (73 °F) with spikes up to 40 °C (104 °F) not uncommon in the warm inland river valleys around the Breede, Olifants and Orange Rivers. On the Winkler scale the majority of South African wine regions would be classified as Region III locations with heat summation and degree days similar to the California wine region of Oakville in Napa Valley. Warmer regions such as Klein Karoo and Douglas fall into Region IV (similar to Tuscany) and Region V (similar to Perth in Western Australia) respectively. New plantings are focus on cooler climate sites in Elgin and Walker Bay regions as characterised as Region II with temperatures closer to the Burgundy and Piedmont.
The wine regions of South Africa are spread out over the Western and Northern Cape regions, covering 500 kilometres (310 mi) west to east and 680 kilometres (420 mi) north-south. Within this wide expanse is a vast range of macroclimate and vineyard soil types influenced by the unique geography of the area which includes several inland mountain chains and valleys. Within the Stellenbosch region alone, there are more than 50 unique soil types. In general, the soils of South Africa tend to retain moisture and drain well, having a significant proportion of clay (often at least 25% of the composition) with low pH levels around 4. The pH levels of the soils are often adjusted with lime and calcium treatment. Other soil types found in South Africa includes granite and sandstone in Constantia, shale in Elgin and arenaceous shale in Walker Bay. Near the river valleys, the soils are particularly lime rich with high proportion of sand and shale.
Wine of Origin 
Drafted in 1973, the "Wine of Origin" (WO) program legislates how wine regions of South Africa are defined and can appear on wine labels. While some aspects of the WO is taking from the French Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) system, the WO is primarily concerned with accuracy in labelling and does not place any additional regulations on wine regions such as permitted varieties, trellising methods, irrigation and crop yields. Wine regions under the WO system fall under one of four categories-the largest and most generic are Geographical Units (such as the Western Cape region which includes the smaller, but still largely defined Regions (such as Overberg), followed by districts (like Walker Bay) and then finally wards (such as Elgin). The Eastern Cape province is South Africa's most recent wine region. While geographical units, regions and districts are largely defined by political boundaries-wards are the level of origin designation that is most defined by unique terroir characteristics.
Wine regions 
As of 2003, South Africa was 17th in terms of acreage planted with the country owning 1.5% of the world's grape vineyards with 110,000 hectares (270,000 acres). Yearly production among South Africa's wine regions is usually around 10 million hL (264 million US gallons) which regularly puts the country among the top ten wine producing countries in the world. The majority of wine production in South Africa takes place in the Cape, particularly the southwest corner near the coastal region. The historical heart of South African wine has been the area near the Cape Peninsula and modern day Cape Town. This area is still of prominence in the industry being home to the major wine regions of Constantia, Stellenbosch and Paarl. Today wine is grown throughout the Western Cape and in parts of the Northern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape regions. The river regions along the Breede Valley, Olifants and Orange Rivers are among the warmest areas and are often the location of bulk wine production and distillation. The cooler climate regions east of Cape Town along the Indian coast, such as Walker Bay and Elgin, have seen vast expansion and development in recent years as producers experiment with cool climate varietals and wine styles.
Under the Wine of Origins legislation, wine regions in South Africa are divided into 4 classifications-geographical unit, region, district and wards. Below are some notable WOs.
The boundaries of this ward include the historic Constantia estate, though the ward and the three wine estates later built upon the 750 hectares (1,853 acres) estate are separate entities. The Constantia ward is located south of Cape Town on the Cape Peninsula that juts out into the Atlantic ocean. Because of this location, the wine region receives oceanic influences on each side that creates a cooling effect that contributes to a long, slow ripening period in the summer where average daily temperatures fall between 18–19 °C (64–66 °F). Winters are often moderate and mild but wet with annual precipitation usually over 1,000 millimetres (39.37 in). The soil of the region is composed primarily of Table Mountain sandstone with high concentrations of loam and granite. The area grows a wide range of grapes with Sauvignon blanc being particularly noted.
The Stellenbosch district is the second oldest wine region in South Africa, after Constantia, and is responsible for around 14% of the country's annual wine production. First planted in 1679, Stellenbosch is located 45 kilometres (28 mi) east of Cape Town. The region is surrounded by the Helderberg, Simonsberg and Stellenbosch Mountains and receives some climatic influences from nearby False Bay. The bay tempers the climate and keep average temperatures during the summer growing season to around 20 °C (68 °F), just slightly warmer than Bordeaux. Vineyard soil types range from decomposed granite on the hillside near the mountains to sandy alluvial loam in the valleys near the rivers.
The seven wards of Stellenbosch-Banghoek, Bottelary, Devon Valley, Jonkershoek Valley, Papegaaiberg, Polkadraai Hills and Simonsberg-Stellenbosch are well known for their red wine production that demonstrate terroir distinction-particularly Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinotage and Shiraz. Simonsberg was the first wine ward to gain individual distinction. White wine production centres around Chardonnay and Sauvignon blanc which are often blended together. The western reaches of Stellenbosch, such as Bottelary and near Elsenburg also include a sizeable portion of Chenin blanc plantings in areas rich in light, sandy soils.
For most of the 20th century, Paarl was for all practical purposes the heart of the South African wine industry. It was the home of the KWV as well as the annual Nederburg Wine Auction where the reputation of a vintage or an estate could be established. Gradually the focus shifted southwards to Stellenbosch where Stellenbosch University gained a more prominent role in the South African wine industry with its viticulture and winemaking programs. The transfer of power from the KWV to a private business further shifted the focus away from Paarl. However, the terroir driven wines of its wards, the Franschhoek Valley and Wellington, have revitalised interest in the area in recent years.
Franschhoek Valley 
The Franschhoek Valley was founded by Huguenot settlers who brought with them from their native France their traditions and winemaking expertise. The ward includes some higher elevation vineyard sites which can produced full flavoured white wines with noticeable acidity levels.
Breede River Valley 
The Breede River Valley, located east of the Drakenstein Mountains, is a warm climate region that can be very dry and arid in some places. The river itself provides easy access to irrigation which makes bulk wine production of high yield varieties commonplace. The Robertson district is located closest to the river along alluvial soils and the occasional calcium-rich outcrop of land. The average annual precipitation is generally below 400 millimetres (15.75 in), making irrigation essential. Temperatures during the summer growing seasonal normally around 22 °C (72 °F). The Bonnievale ward is the most notable sub-region of Robertson, noted for its Chardonnay and Shiraz wines.
The Worcester district is responsible for more wine than any other wine region in the country with one fifth to one quarter of the entire South African yearly wine production coming from this area. Located just beyond Du Toit's Peak in the Breede River Valley, Worcester includes a broad fertile plain that relies on irrigation due to its dry, arid climate. The area's large and numerous co-operatives produce sizeable amounts of fortified wine as well as Muscadel and Hanepoot based dessert wines. In recent years the Slanghoek ward shared with Breedekloof district has seen success growing botrytised and dry Sauvignon blanc wines. The Worcester district is home to nearly half of all the Semillon and a third of Ruby Cabernet planted in South Africa with sizeable plantings of Colombard and Chenin blanc.
The cool climate Overberg region has been the site of the most recent interest and development in the South African wine industry, particularly with increased plantings of Chardonnay and Pinot noir. The entire area received very little attention until the late 20th century and was not even classified in 1973 within the original "Wine of Origins" program. The maritime climate of Walker Bay and the cool, higher elevation vineyards of Elgin located east of Cape Town have had success producing these varietals as well as Sauvignon blanc.
Other notable regions 
The Klein Karoo region (meaning Little Karoo) has a semi-desert climate and was known mostly for sheep and ostrich farming. The region stretches from Montagu in the west to the village of De Rust in the east. In Calitzdorp ward temperatures are moderated by sea breezes that start in the late afternoon and cool night time temperatures. Wine production in the area is largely centred around fortified "port-style" wine and Muscadels.
The Atlantic influenced "West Coast" region includes the wine making areas of Durbanville, Olifants River, Piketberg and Swartland. While historically this region was known for its large, bulk wine production in recent years producers have focused on premium wine production such as plantings of Sauvignon blanc in the Groenekloof area near Darling and Pinotage in unirrigated farmland of Swartland. In the Olifants River region, Chenin blanc and Colombard are popular. The area is also home to South Africa's biggest single co-operative winery – the Vredendal Co-operative.
The Northern Cape wine regions located along the Orange river include the hottest wine producing areas in South Africa. Wine production here was slow to take root, delayed to the 1960s when better irrigation and temperature control fermentation technology became available. Today the area is responsible for nearly 12% of all the wine produced in South Africa-mostly by large co-operatives for bulk wine production. The Hartswater region, located 80 kilometres (50 mi) north of Kimberley is South Africa's northernmost wine region.
KwaZulu-Natal was designated as a Geographical Unit in 2005 and is one of South Africa's most recent wine regions. The first wine estate in this region is The Stables Wine Estate and the region's first Wine of Origin wine was released by Tiny and Judy van Niekerk in July 2006. Current cultivars doing really well in the growing wine region of KwaZulu-Natal are Sauvignon Blanc, Pinotage, Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. With mild summer temperatures the region boasts South Africa's coolest vineyards.
The Eastern Cape followed soon after through the pioneering efforts of Ronnie and Janet Vehorn. In 2009 Harrison Hope Wine Estate was registered as the first wine estate in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The estate again made history with their 2009 Merlot becoming the first certified estate wine ever produced in the Eastern Cape region. Situated in the Amatola Mountains this area enjoys high temperatures in summer with little to no humidity. Unfortunately late frost, hail, summer rainfall, and duiker make for some of the harshest conditions for wine grapes. Grapes grown in this region include Chardonnay, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Pinotage, Sauvingnon Blanc and Shiraz.
Other notable wards 
The Ruiterbosch ward, located southwest of Klein Karoo around Mossel Bay, has a generally cool climate influenced primarily by the Indian Ocean. The area is planted primarily with Riesling, Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir. The Cederberg located east of the southern reaches of the Olifants rivers includes some of the highest elevated vineyards in South Africa, planted at altitudes more than 1,000 metres (3,300 ft).
Historically vineyards in South Africa were planted with untrellised bush vines planted 1.2 metres (3 ft 11 in) apart at a density of 7,000 vines per hectare (2,800 vines per acre). Following the phylloxera devastation, the focus of viticulture in South Africa was more on quantity rather than quality. Vineyards were planted with high yield varieties, widely spaced to facilitate the use of mechanical harvesting. In the late 20th century more producers began to focus on quality wine production and adopted modern viticultural practices. Vines were planted to an average density of 3,300 per hectare (1,300 per acre) and pruned to keep yields down to 49–56 hl/ha (2.8–3.2 tons/acre). The most common form of trellising found in South Africa is the vertical hedge row system that uses a split cordon supported on a wire kept around 750 millimetres (2.46 ft) off the ground. The grapevine leaves are trained upright on separate wires that allow plenty of sunshine to reach the grapes but provide enough coverage to keep them from being sunburned. The vines are usually pruned to allow four to five spurs each with two to three buds (potential grape clusters) per cordon. Heat is also a concern come harvest time with some wineries harvesting only at night in the cooler temperatures under floodlights.
The lack of precipitation in many wine regions makes irrigation a necessity. Sprinkler and drip irrigation systems are used to provide anywhere from 200–700 millimetres (7.9–28 in) of extra water a year. Modern winemakers are developing new techniques and an understanding of the role that water stress plays in the development of quality wine grape production. Producers who do not irrigate will sometimes use the phrase "dryland" or "dry farmed" on their wine labels as marketing angle. Besides irrigation, an important concern for vineyard owners is the threat of vineyard pests such as mealy bugs and baboons. To combat these hazards, some vineyard owners will utilise Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs such as the importation of ladybugs, a natural predator of mealy bugs.
While ocean winds keep some fungus and mildew threats at bay, downy mildew and powdery mildew (known regionally as "white rust") can pose an occasional threat during the wet winter season. Near harvest time botrytis can also appear, being a hazard or a welcome visitor depending on whether or not botrytised wine production is the goal. Another threat is diseased and virus-infected rootstock. After the phylloxera devastation, vineyards in South Africa were replanted with American rootstock (nowadays most commonly Richter 99 and Richters 101-14). Some of these rootstocks that were imported were infected with various virus such as corky bark, fanleaf and leafroll, which soon spread to other vineyards. These virus-infected vines have a shortened life span and difficulties with photosynthesis, which can lead to poor ripening of phenolic compounds in the grape and low quality wine. Since the 1980s, efforts have been undertaken by the South Africa wine industry to quarantine and promote healthy virus-free vineyards. Additionally, work has been undertaken in clonal research to identify which grape varieties grow best in which climate and wine region.
Vine Improvement Programme 
Following the end of Apartheid and the opening of export markets, the South African wine industry had a substantial learning curve to overcome in order to be competitive on the world's wine market. The Vine Improvement Programme (VIP) was established to bring modern viticultural understanding to the industry. The first phase launched in the late 20th century focused on virus-free and yield controlling rootstock as well as clonal research. The second phase, which is ongoing, focuses on matching up various combination of grape varieties, clones and rootstock to specific terroir that can produce quality wine. Over the last 20+ years the work of the VIP has brought the South African wine industry to the forefront of viticultural advances.
Winemaking and wines 
The winemaking traditions of South Africa often represent a hybridisation of Old World wine making and the new. Since the end of Apartheid, many producers have been working on producing more "international" styles of wine that can be successful on the world market. Flying winemakers from France, Spain and California have brought new techniques and styles to South Africa. In the 1980s, the use of oak barrels for fermentation and ageing became popular. The use of chaptalisation is illegal in South Africa as the country's warm climate makes attaining sufficient sugar and alcohol levels for wine production non-problematic. Winemakers more often have problems with low acidity levels which require supplementation with additional acids like tartaric acid.
Today the focus in the South African wine industry has been on increasing the quality of wine production-particularly with the more exportable and fashionable red grape varieties. Traditionally South African red wines had a reputation for being coarse in texture with rustic flavours. The Afrikaans word dikvoet used to describe these wines meant literally "thick foot". In the vineyards, growers focused yield control for better ripeness while winemakers used modern techniques to create softer, fleshier wines. Temperature control fermentation as well as controlled malolactic fermentation were more widely used as well as less dependency on filtration as a means of stabilisation.
Cape port-style wine 
The South African wine industry has a long history of fortified wine production producing wines known colloquially as "Cape port" (though the term "Port" is protected in the European Union to refer to only the wines from the Douro region of Portugal). These wines are made from a variety of grapes, such as Shiraz and Pinotage, as well as Portuguese varieties like Tinta Barroca, Touriga Nacional, Souzão and Fernão Pires. The minimum alcohol level for these wines must be 16.5–22%. The many styles of "Cape port" closely parallel their Portuguese counterparts and include:
- Cape White port-Can be made from any white grape varieties (such as Chenin blanc, Colombard or Fernão Pires) except for Muscats. Required to be aged in wood barrels for at least six months.
- Cape Ruby port-Usually a blend of several fruity, full bodied wines that have been aged for at least six months in wood for each wine and at least a year total for the entire blend.
- Cape Tawny port-A blend that has been aged in wood long enough to acquire a tawny color with a smooth, slightly nutty flavour. Blending Ruby and White ports to create Tawny port is prohibited.
- Cape Late Bottled Vintage (LBV) port-A wine composed of grapes harvested in a single vintage that is aged at least two years in oak and three to six years total before being bottled. South Africa wine laws require that the term "Late Bottled Vintage" or "LBV" appear on the wine label along with the vintage and bottling year.
- Cape Vintage port-A wine composed of grapes harvested in a single vintage, aged in wood and released with the words "Vintage port" and the vintage year on the label.
- Cape Vintage Reserve port-A wine produced in a vintage year recognised by the South African wine industry and/or trade publications as being of exceptional quality. The wine must be aged for at least one year in oak and sold exclusively in glass wine bottles. The words "Vintage Reserve port" and vintage date must appear on the wine label.
Other fortified and dessert wines 
In addition to port-style wine, South African wine makers also produce "sherry-style" wines produced in a solera system and a unique vin de liqueur made from Muscat known as Jerepigo (or Jerepiko). With Jerepigo the brandy is added to the must prior to fermentation which leaves the wine with a residual sugar (RS) level of at least 160 grams per litre. South Africa's long history of late harvest dessert wines include the modern day Edel Laat-oes wines infected with noble rot (known locally as Edelkeur) and containing at least 50 grams of residual sugar per litre. Wine labelled simply as Laat-oes are from grapes harvested late but not infected with botrytis. These wines must have an alcohol content of at least 10% and residual sugar levels between 10–30 grams per litre. Wines above 30 grams RS may be called Spesiale Laat-oes or "special late harvest" which may imply that some grapes infected with botrytis were used.
Sparkling wines 
Sparkling wines in South Africa are produced with both the Charmat and the traditional "Champagne Method". The first champagne method wines to be produced in South Africa came from the Simonsig estate (in Stellenbosch) in 1971. To distinguish South African sparkling wines (and to comply with European Union regulations protecting the term "Champagne" and champenois), wines made in this traditional bottled fermented method are labelled as Method Cap Classique (or MCC). These wines have been traditionally made using Sauvignon blanc and Chenin blanc but in recent years have seen more of the traditional "Champagne grapes" of Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier being used. Red sparkling wine made from Pinotage can also be found.
Labeling laws 
South African labelling law focus largely on geographical origins, falling under the purview of the "Wine of Origin" legislation. Single vineyard designated wine can be produced, provided that the vineyard is registered with the government and all the grapes used in the production of the wine was grown in that vineyard. While the term "estate" no longer qualifies as a designation of geographic origins, wineries can still label "estate wines" provided that all the grapes were grown and the wine vinified and bottled on the same property. The South African Wine & Spirit Board operates a voluntary program that allows South African wines to be "certified" for quality and accuracy in labelling. Under this certification process, vintage dated wine must be composed of at least 85% grapes that were harvested that vintage year. Varietal wines must also be composed of at least 85% of the listed varietal. Blends, such as a Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinotage blend, can have both varietals listed on the label provided that the two wines were vinified separately. A wine that has been "co-fermented", with both grapes crushed and vinified together such as a Shiraz-Viognier, can not list both varietals. As of 2006, about 35% of Cape wineries participated in this voluntary program.
Grape varieties 
Grape varieties in South Africa are known as cultivar, with many common international varieties developing local synonyms that still have a strong tradition of use. These include Chenin blanc (Steen), Riesling (until recently known locally as Weisser Riesling), Crouchen (known as Cape Riesling), Palomino (the grape of the Spanish wine Sherry known locally as "White French"), Trebbiano (Ugni Blanc), Sémillon (Groendruif) and Muscat of Alexandria (Hanepoot). However, wines that are often exported overseas will usually have the more internationally recognised name appear on the wine label. In 2006, SAWIS (South African Wine Information and Systems) reported that the country had 100,146 hectares of vineyards, with about 55 percent planted to white varieties. Chenin blanc has long been the most widely planted variety, still accounting for 18% of all grape area planted in South Africa as of 2010, though it is slowly decreasing in overall share of vineyard area. In the 1980s and 1990s, interest in international varieties saw increase in plantings of Chardonnay and Sauvignon blanc. Other white grape varieties with significant plantings include Colombard (also spelled locally as Colombar), Cape Riesling, Gewürztraminer, Hanepoot, Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains, Riesling and Sémillon. Both red and white mutants of Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains as well as Chenel and Weldra, two Chenin blanc-Ugni blanc crossings, are used for brandy distillation and fortified wine production.
From the 1990s, plantings of red grape varieties rose steadily. In the late 1990s, less than 18% of all the grapes grown in South Africa were red. By 2009 that number had risen to 44%. For most of the 20th century, the high yielding Cinsaut was the most widely planted red grape variety but the shift in focus to quality wine production has saw plantings of the grape steadily decline to where it represented just 2% of all South Africa vineyards in 2009. In its place Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz and Pinotage have risen to prominence with Cabernet Sauvignon being the most widely grown red grape variety covering 12% of all plantings in 2009. Other red grape varieties found in South Africa include Carignan, Gamay (often made in the style of Beaujolais wine with carbonic maceration), Grenache, Petit Verdot, Cabernet Franc, Pontac, Ruby Cabernet, Tinta Barroca and Zinfandel
There is a wide range of lesser known groups that are used to feed the country's still robust distilled spirits and fortified wine industry. These grapes usually produce bland, neutral wine that lends itself well to blending and distillation but is rarely seen as varietal bottlings. These include Belies, False Pedro, Kanaän, Raisin blanc, Sultana and Servan.
Pinotage, a crossing of Pinot noir and Cinsaut, has seen its plantings rise and fall due to the current fashion of the South African wine industry. Today it is the second most widely planted red grape variety in South Africa. While there are supporters who want to make the grape South Africa's signature variety, critics of the grape note that hardly any other wine region in the world has planted the variety due to its flaws. In the early 1990s, as Apartheid ended and the world's wine market was opening up, winemakers in South Africa ignored Pinotage in favour of more internationally recognised varieties like Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon. Towards the end of the 20th century, the grape's fortunes began to turn, and by 1997 it commanded higher prices than any other South African grape. It is a required component (30–70%) in "Cape blends". Here it is made into the full range of styles, from easy-drinking quaffing wine and rosé to barrel-aged wine intended for cellaring. It is also made into a fortified 'port' style, and even a red sparkling wine. The grape can be very dependent on the style of winemaking, with well made examples having the potential to produce deep coloured, fruity wines that can be accessible early as well as age. However critics of the variety believe that the variety's flaws-green vegetatal flavours and tannins and susceptibility to developing banana and nail polish acetate aromas-are present in far more examples of Pinotage that reach the consumer market. Pinotage reached its zenith in 2001, covering 7.3% of the total vineyard area, but this has since decreased to 6%.
Important organisations 
The South African wine industry has been led by many powerful organisations in both the private sector and through governmental agencies. Unlike other New World wine regions, the South African wine industry is largely influenced by several large co-operatives. The Koöperatieve Wijnbouwers Vereniging van Zuid-Afrika Bpkt (KWV) was a co-operative first created through the funding and encouragement of the South African government as a force to stabilise and grow the South African wine industry. As the KWV is now a privately owned winemaking co-operative some of its regulatory responsibilities have fallen to other organisations such as the South African Wine & Spirit Board. The Wine & Spirit Board runs the voluntary certification program that allows South African wines to be "certified" for quality and accuracy in labelling. In addition to submitted to various labelling guidelines, wines are blind tasted by a panel of experts for quality and are put through an analytical test for faults. Like the vintage and varietal labelling guidelines, these test are voluntary but wines that do not submit to testing are liable to random testing for health requirements.
The Wine & Spirits board also operates the South African Wine Industry Trust (SAWIT) and provides funding for the marketing and development of SAWIT. Established in 1999 by a joint agreement between the South African government and the KWV, which put forth 369 million rand ($46 million US$), SAWIT works to promote the export market of South African wines abroad and the development of new technologies and education. Additionally SAWIT works with the Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) program to promote the black community's involvement in the South African wine industry-including ownership opportunities for vineyards and wineries.
South African wine competitions 
Wine competitions are held to assess whether a wine is good quality, and there are many South African wine competitions. One wine award is the Veritas award. Veritas SA wine competition has been holding competitions since 1990. The Top 100 South African Wine Competition is newer example of these competitions.
See also 
- "Wine of Origin booklet" (PDF). SAWIS. 13 August 2005. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 20 June 2007.
- KWV timeline
- J. Robinson (ed) "The Oxford Companion to Wine" Third Edition pg 162–163 Oxford University Press 2006 ISBN 0-19-860990-6
- H. Johnson & J. Robinson The World Atlas of Wine pg 320–322 Mitchell Beazley Publishing 2005 ISBN 1-84000-332-4
- T. Stevenson "The Sotheby's Wine Encyclopedia" pg 442–448 Dorling Kindersley 2005 ISBN 0-7566-1324-8
- M. Mazur "THE CAPE CRUSADERS" Wine Enthusiast Magazine, 1 October 2002
- Platter's South African Wines 2011 Andrew McDowall 2010, pg. 47–48
- Stuart Walton, Understanding, Choosing and Enjoying Wine Hermes House 2006, pg. 226
- SAWIS statistics
- J. Robinson (ed) "The Oxford Companion to Wine" Third Edition pg 528 Oxford University Press 2006 ISBN 0-19-860990-6
- John Platter South African Wines 2007 Andrew McDowall 2010, pg. 59
- WO booklet from SAWIS, gives history and has maps of the appellations
- Wines of South Africa (WOSA) Industry body