South America air forces maneuvers

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The South American air forces performs several joint aerial combat training exercises. Among the more important are Cruzex ( Portuguese: Exercício Cruzeiro do Sul ) which is hosted by the Brazilian Air Force, Salitre ( English: Saltpeter ) hosted by the Chilean Air Force and Ceibo ( English: Erythrina crista-galli flower ) hosted by the Argentine Air Force. The goal is to train together in order to respond to a crisis or integrate into United Nations peacekeeping operations as a unified team; the United States Air Force and the Royal Canadian Air Force have also participated in some of these exercises in recent years.

The exercises include combat search and rescue, aerial refueling and combined air operations center training opportunities focused on interoperability.[1]

List of operations[edit]

All helicopters are normally provided by the host nation and all the participants include different types of support aircraft.

Operation Date Air bases Participants Observers Notes Ref
Cruzex I 2002 May Canoas Brazil Mirage III, F-5 Tiger II, A-1 Falcao, AT-27 Tucano, KC-137, R-95 Bandeirante, C-130 Hercules, P-95 Bandeirulha
Argentina A-4AR Fighting Hawk, IA-58 Pucará
Chile A-37B Dragonfly
France Mirage 2000, E-3 Sentry
65 aircraft
Cruzex II 2004 Nov Natal Brazil Mirage III, F-5 Tiger II, A-1 Falcao
Argentina A-4AR Fighting Hawk, KC-130 Hercules
France Mirage 2000, E-3 Sentry, KC-135 Stratotanker
Venezuela F-16A/B Fighting Falcon, Mirage 50
85 aircraft
Salitre I 2004 26 Sep/10 Oct Cerro Moreno
Iquique
ChileMirage 50 Pantera, Mirage 5 Elkan, F-5 Tiger III, A-37B Dragonfly, EB-707 Cóndor, KB-707 Águila, LR-35 Learjet, C-212 Aviocar
ArgentinaMirage III, Mirage 5 Mara, B-707, L-300 Hercules
Brazil F-5 Tiger II, KC-137
United StatesF-16C/D Fighting Falcon, KC-135 Stratotanker
57 aircraft [2][3]
Ceibo 2005 2005 Nov El Plumerillo
Villa Reynolds
Argentina Mirage III, Mirage 5 Mara, A-4AR Fighting Hawk
Brazil A-1 Falcao
Chile Mirage 50 Pantera
Uruguay A-37B Dragonfly
45 aircraft [4]
Cruzex III 2006 Aug/Sep Anapolis
Campo Grande
Uberlandia
Brasilia
Jatai
Brazil Mirage III, F-5 Tiger II, A-1 Falcao
Argentina A-4AR Fighting Hawk, IA-58 Pucará
Chile A-37B Dragonfly
France Mirage 2000, E-3 Sentry
Uruguay A-37B Dragondly
Venezuela F-16A/B Fighting Falcon, Mirage 50, F-5 Tiger II
Bolivia
Paraguay
Colombia
103 aircraft and helicopters. Peru withdrew due to a crash of an A-37B Dragonfly at Porto Velho on the way to Anapolis which killed both pilots. [5]
Cruzex IV 2008 Nov Natal BrazilF-5EM/FM Tiger II, A-1 Falcao
ChileF-5 Tiger III
FranceMirage 2000
UruguayA-37B Dragonfly, IA-58 Pucará
VenezuelaF-16A/B OCU Fighting Falcon
Argentina 98 aircraft. Argentina withdrew at last minute due to the Congress not authorizing the Air Force's aircraft to leave the country in time. [6][7][8]
Salitre II 2009 19-30/Oct Cerro Moreno
Iquique
Chile F-16C/D Fighting Falcon, F-16AM/BM Fighting Falcon, F-5 Tiger III, EB-707 Cóndor, KB-707 Águila, Beech 99A Petrel, C-212 Aviocar
ArgentinaA-4AR Fighting Hawk, KC-130 Hercules
BrazilA-1 Falcao, KC-130 Hercules
United StatesF-15C Eagle, KC-135 Stratotaker, HC-130 Hercules, C-130 Hercules
FranceMirage 2000, E-3F Sentry, KC-135 Stratotanker
Ecuador
Paraguay
Venezuela
59 aircraft and helicopters. The exercise was criticized by Peru [1][9]
Cooperación I 2010 4-15/Oct Chile Chile C-130 Hercules, DHC-6 Twin Otter, C-212 Aviocar, CJ-1, UH-60 Black Hawk, Bell 412, UH-1H Iroquois
Brazil UH-60 Black Hawk
Canada C-130 Hercules
Colombia C-130 Hercules
Peru L-100 Hercules, Bell 212
United States C-130 Hercules
Argentina
Bolivia
Ecuador
Panama
Paraguay
Dominican Republic
Uruguay
Natural disasters relief training official video [10]
Cruzex V 2010 28oct/19nov Natal BrazilF-5EM/FM,Mirage 2000, A-1 Falcao
ChileF-16C/D
FranceRafale, Mirage 2000-5
UruguayIA-58 Pucará, A-37B Dragonfly
United StatesF-16C/D
98 aircraft [11]
Cruzex VI 2013 2-15/Nov Natal Brazil F-5EM/FM Tiger II, Mirage 2000, A-1 Falcao, A-29 Super Tucano, UH-60 Black Hawk, Mi-35 Sabre, EC-725 Caracal, C-130 Hercules, C-295 Amazonas, R-99
Canada C-130J Super Hercules
Chile F-16AM/BM Fighting Falcon, KC-135 Stratotanker
Colombia A-37B Dragonfly, C-130 Hercules, KC-767
Ecuador A-29 Super Tucano
Uruguay IA-58 Pucará, A-37B Dragonfly, C-130 Hercules
United States F-16C/D Fighting Falcon, KC-135 Stratotanker
Venezuela F-16A/B OCU Fighting Falcon, Y-8 Pegaso
91 aircraft and helicopters
Cooperación III 2014 23 Apr/1 May Perú Peru L-100 Hercules, Mi-8 Hip, Bell 212
Argentina C-130 Hercules
Brazil C-295 Amazonas, UH-60 Black Hawk
Canada CC-130J Super Hercules, CH-149 Cormorant
Chile C-130 Hercules
Colombia C-295, Beech 350 King Air
Uruguay C-130 Hercules, UH-1H Iroquois
United States C-130 Hercules
Guatemala
Mexico
Paraguay
Dominican Republic
Natural disasters relief training [12]
Salitre III 2014 6-17/Oct Cerro Moreno
Iquique
Chile F-16C/D Fighting Falcon, F-16AM/BM Fighting Falcon, F-5 Tiger III
ArgentinaA-4AR Fighting Hawk
Brazil F-5EM/FM Tiger II, KC-130 Hercules
United StatesF-16C/D Fighting Falcon, KC-135 Stratotaker
Uruguay A-37B Dragonfly
51 aircraft

See also[edit]

References[edit]