Miami metropolitan area
|Miami metropolitan area|
|Miami–Fort Lauderdale– West Palm Beach|
|Other cities|| - Fort Lauderdale
- Port St. Lucie
- Pompano Beach
- West Palm Beach
- Miami Beach
- Boca Raton
- Deerfield Beach
- Boynton Beach
- Delray Beach
- Fort Pierce
|• Total||6,137 sq mi (15,890 km2)|
|Highest elevation||Jupiter, Florida
53 ft (16.2 m)
|Lowest elevation||Atlantic Ocean
0 ft (0 m)
|• Total||5,564,635 (2,010)|
|• Rank||8th in the U.S.|
|• Density||890/sq mi (315/km2)|
The Miami metropolitan area is a metropolitan area including Miami, Florida and nearby communities. The U.S. Office of Management and Budget designates the area the Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area, a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) used for statistical purposes by the United States Census Bureau and other entities. The OMB defines the MSA as comprising Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties—Florida's three most populous counties—with principal cities including Miami, Fort Lauderdale, Pompano Beach, West Palm Beach, and Boca Raton. The Combined Statistical Area, consisting of the three counties, as well as St. Lucie, Martin, Indian River, and Okeechobee counties; adding these four counties to the metro area, the combined area's population racks up to 6,444,610. Principal cities added by the combined area are: Port St. Lucie, Fort Pierce, and Sebastian.
With 5,828,191 inhabitants as of 2013, the Miami metropolitan area is the most populous in Florida and in the Southeastern United States and the eighth-most populous in the United States. It is part of the South Florida region and is partially synonymous with the Gold Coast.
Because the population of South Florida is largely confined to a strip of land between the Atlantic Ocean and the Everglades, the Miami urbanized area (that is, the area of contiguous urban development) is about 110 miles (180 km) long (north to south), but never more than 20 miles (32 km) wide, and in some areas only 5 miles (8.0 km) wide (east to west). The MSA is longer than any other urbanized area in the United States except for the New York metropolitan area. It was the eighth most densely populated urbanized area in the United States in the 2000 census.
As of the 2000 census, the urbanized area had a land area of 1,116 square miles (2,890 km2), with a population of 4,919,036, for a population density of 4,407.4 per square mile (1,701.7 per square kilometer). Miami and Hialeah (the second largest city in the metropolitan area) had population densities of more than 10,000 per square mile (more than 3,800 per square kilometer). The Miami Urbanized Area was the fifth largest urbanized area in the United States in the 2000 census.
The Miami metro area also includes several urban clusters (UCs) as of the 2000 Census which are not part of the Miami Urbanized Area. These are the Belle Glade UC, population 24,218, area 20,717,433 square meters and population density of 3027.6 per square mile; Key Biscayne UC, population 10,513, area 4,924,214 square meters and population density of 5529.5 per square mile; Redland UC, population 3,936, area 10,586,212 square meters and population density of 963.0 per square mile; and West Jupiter UC, population 8,998, area 24,737,176 square meters and population density of 942.1 per square mile.
In 2006, the area had an estimated 5,463,857 persons, of which 1,671,398 live in unincorporated areas. Considering that the area has an urban population of 4,919,036, only 544,821 residents live outside of the urban area, meaning that at least 1,126,577 persons live in urban unincorporated areas, but the number is actually higher.
- 1 Metropolitan divisions
- 2 Combined Statistical Area
- 3 Cities
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Language and national origin
- 6 Education
- 7 Transportation
- 8 Climate
- 9 Area codes
- 10 Sports
- 11 Government
- 12 Media
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
The Miami metropolitan area consists of three distinct metropolitan divisions, subdividing the region into three divisions according to the region's three counties: Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and Palm Beach County.
|Miami metropolitan area divisions||2000
| % change
(2010 to 2013)
|Fort Lauderdale—Pompano Beach—Deerfield Beach
|West Palm Beach—Boca Raton—Boynton Beach
(Palm Beach County)
Combined Statistical Area
The Miami Combined Statistical Area was a region made by the census in 2012 that combined the Miami Metropolitan Area, the Treasure Coast, and Okeechobee County, or the Okeechobee micropolitan area. The statistics for the areas are as follows, as well as the addition to the Miami area to make a final population for the Miami combined area.
|Port St. Lucie Metropolitan Area (St. Lucie/Martin)||424,107||438,095|
|Sebastian/Vero Beach Metropolitan Area (Indian River)||138,028||141,994|
|Total for Treasure Coast and Okeechobee County||602,131||619,419|
|Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Port St. Lucie Combined Statistical Area||No stats until 2012||6,447,610|
(2010 to 2013)
|4||Port St. Lucie||St. Lucie||88,769||164,603||171,016||+3.90%|
|11||West Palm Beach||Palm Beach||82,103||99,919||102,436||+2.52%|
|16||Boca Raton||Palm Beach||74,764||84,392||89,407||+5.94%|
|18||Boynton Beach||Palm Beach||60,389||68,217||71,097||+4.22%|
Areas with between 10,000 and 100,000 inhabitants
Areas with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants
Politically speaking, the region is heavily Democratic. Broward County is the second most reliably Democratic county in the state, behind only Gadsden County. Palm Beach County, like Broward, is largely Democratic as well, especially amongst its Jewish community, while the rest of Florida tends to follow Southern politics and vote more Republican, with the exception of certain parts of Florida where Southern culture is not as influential. With a majority Hispanic population in Miami-Dade, Republican votes are mainly by older generations of Cuban Americans most of whom had fled to the United States to escape the Communist reign of Fidel Castro, but Miami-Dade County still remains very Democratic when compared with most of Florida's other counties.
Population: As of the 2010 U.S. Census, there were 5,564,635 people. 2.8 million (52%) were females and 2.6 million (48%) were males. The median age was 38.6 years. 24% of the population were under 18 years and 15% were 65 years and older. There were 2,097,626 households, and 1,378,108 families residing in the Miami metropolitan area.
The racial makeup of population of the Miami area [5,334,685] as of 2010:
- White: 70.3% [3,914,239]
- Black or African American (many from the Caribbean): 21% [1,075,174]
- Native American: 0.3% [16,108]
- Asian: 2.3% [125,564]; (0.7% Indian, 0.5% Chinese, 0.3% Filipino, 0.2% Vietnamese, 0.1% Korean, 0.1% Japanese, 0.4% Other Asian)
- Pacific Islander: 0.0% [2,356]
- Other races: 3.5% [197,183]
- Two or more races: 2.5% [140,000]
- Hispanic or Latino (of any race) were 41.6% [2,312,929] of the population
As of the 2000 U.S. Census there were about 21,663 ethnic Chinese living in Broward, Dade, and Palm Beach counties. That year Davie had about 537 ethnic Chinese. A Chinese language arts class is held at the Pine Island Park Multipurpose Center in Davie, serving students ages 6 to 16. There are two yearly sessions, each spanning 13 weeks. About 130 students attended as of 2005, making it the largest Chinese education program in the Miami area.
Language and national origin
National origin and language: Of the people living in the Miami metro area in 2005, 63% were born in the United States (including 30% who were born in Florida) and 37% were foreign born. Among people at least five years old living in the region in 2005, 52% spoke English at home while 48% spoke some other language at home. Of those speaking a language other than English at home, 78% spoke Spanish and 22% spoke some other language (mainly Haitian Creole, but also French, German, Hebrew, Italian, Portuguese, Russian or Yiddish).
Geographic mobility: In 2005, 83% of the people at least one year old living in the Miami metro area were living in the same residence one year earlier; 12% had moved during the past year from another residence in the same county, 2% from another county in the same state, 2% from another state, and 1% from abroad.
Households and families: There were 2,338,450 households, The average household size was 2.6 people. Families made up 65% of the households in the Miami area. This figure includes both married-couple families (45%) and other families (20%). Nonfamily households made up 35% of all households in Miami. Most of the nonfamily households were people living alone, but some consisted of people living in households in which no one was related to the householder.
In and around Miami-Dade County and Broward County, a unique dialect, commonly called the "Miami dialect", is widely spoken. The dialect developed among second- or third-generation Hispanics, including Cuban-Americans, whose first language was English (though some non-Hispanic white, black, and other races who were born and raised in Miami-Dade tend to adopt it as well.) It is based on a fairly standard American accent but with some changes very similar to dialects in the Mid-Atlantic (especially the New York area dialect, Northern New Jersey English, and New York Latino English.) Unlike Virginia Piedmont, Coastal Southern American, and Northeast American dialects and Florida Cracker dialect (see section below), "Miami accent" is rhotic; it also incorporates a rhythm and pronunciation heavily influenced by Spanish (wherein rhythm is syllable-timed). However, this is a native dialect of English, not learner English or interlanguage; it is possible to differentiate this variety from an interlanguage spoken by second-language speakers in that "Miami accent" does not generally display the following features: there is no addition of /ɛ/ before initial consonant clusters with /s/, speakers do not confuse of /dʒ/ with /j/, (e.g., Yale with jail), and /r/ and /rr/ are pronounced as alveolar approximant [ɹ] instead of alveolar tap [ɾ] or alveolar trill [r] in Spanish.
Education: In 2005, 83% of people 25 years and over had at least graduated from high school and 30% had a bachelor's degree or higher. Among people 16 to 19 years old, 7% were dropouts; they were not enrolled in school and had not graduated from high school. The total school enrollment in Miami Metro Area was 1.4 million in 2005. Nursery school and kindergarten enrollment was 170,000 and elementary or high school enrollment was 879,000 children. College or graduate school enrollment was 354,000.
Occupation, Income, and Industries
Occupations and Type of Employer: Among the most common occupations were: 32% were management, professional, and related occupations, 30% were sales and office occupations, 18% were service occupations, 11% were construction, extraction, maintenance and repair occupations, and 9% were production, transportation, and material moving occupations. 81% of the people employed were Private wage and salary workers; 12% were Federal, state, or local government workers; and 7% were Self-employed in own not incorporated business workers.
Income: The median income of households in the Miami area was $43,091. 78% of the households received earnings and 13% received retirement income other than Social Security. 30% of the households received Social Security. The average income from Social Security was $13. These income sources are not mutually exclusive; that is, some households received income from more than one source.
Industries: In 2005, for the employed population 16 years and older, the leading industries in the Miami area were Educational services, health care and social assistance, which accounted for 18%, and Professional, scientific, and management, and administrative and waste management services, which accounted for 13% of the population.
Traveling to Work: 79% of Miami area workers drove to work alone in 2005, 10% carpooled, 4% took public transportation, and 4% used other means. The remaining 3% worked at home. Among those who commuted to work, it took them on average 28.5 minutes to get to work.
Poverty and Participation in Government Programs: In 2005, 14% of people were in poverty. 19% of related children under 18 were below the poverty level, compared with 14% of people 65 years old and over. 11% of all families, and 26% of families with a female householder and no husband present had incomes below the poverty level.
Housing characteristics and costs
Changes in house prices for the area are publicly tracked on a regular basis using the Case–Shiller index; the statistic is published by Standard & Poor's and is also a component of S&P's 10-city composite index of the value of the residential real estate market.
Housing characteristics: As of 2005, the Miami area had a total of 2.3 million housing units, 13% of which were vacant. Of the total housing units, 52% were in single-unit structures, 45% were in multi-unit structures, and 3% were mobile homes. 25% of the housing units were built since 1990.
Occupied housing unit characteristics: In 2005, the Miami area had 2.0 million occupied housing units – 1.3 million (66%) owner occupied and 688,000 (34%) renter occupied.
Housing costs: In 2010, housing costs in the Miami area typically represented 40% of household income, compared to 34% nationwide.
Property tax increase: In March 2009, Miami area lawmakers passed a 5–10% hike in property tax millage rates throughout the metropolitan area to fund the construction of new schools and to fund understaffed schools and educational institutions, resulting in an increase in residents' property tax bills beginning in the 2009 tax year.
In Florida, each county is also a school district. Each district is headed by an elected school board. A professional superintendent manages the day-to-day operations of each district, who is appointed by and serves at the pleasure of the School Board.
The Miami-Dade County Public School District is currently the 4th-largest public school district in the nation. The School District of Palm Beach County is the 4th-largest in Florida and the 11th-largest in the United States. Broward County Public School District is the 6th-largest in the United States.
Some colleges and universities in Greater Miami include:
- Barry University (private/Catholic)
- Broward College (public)
- Carlos Albizu University (private)
- Florida Atlantic University (public)
- Florida International University (public)
- Florida Memorial University (private)
- Johnson & Wales University (private)
- Le Cordon Bleu College of Culinary Arts Miami (private)
- Lynn University (private)
- Miami Dade College (public)
- Northwood University (private)
- Nova Southeastern University (private)
- Palm Beach Atlantic University (private/Christian)
- Palm Beach State College (public)
- St. Thomas University (private/Catholic)
- University of Miami (private)
In 2005, 82% of people 25 years and over had at least graduated from high school and 28% had a bachelor's degree or higher. Among people 16 to 19 years old, 7% were dropouts; they were not enrolled in school and had not graduated from high school. The total school enrollment in the Miami metro area was 1.4 million in 2005. Nursery school and kindergarten enrollment was 170,000 and elementary or high school enrollment was 879,000. College or graduate school enrollment was 354,000.
The Miami metropolitan area is served by five interstate highways operated by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) in conjunction with local agencies. Interstate 95 (I-95) runs north to south along the coast, ending just south of Downtown Miami at South Dixie Highway (US 1). I-75 runs east to west, turning south in western Broward County and connecting suburban north Miami-Dade to Naples on the Southwest Coast via Alligator Alley, which transverses the Florida Everglades before turning north. I-595 connects the Broward coast and downtown Fort Lauderdale to I-75 and Alligator Alley. In Miami, I-195 and I-395 relay the main I-95 route east to Biscayne Boulevard (US 1) and Miami Beach across Biscayne Bay via the Julia Tuttle and MacArthur causeways.
In greater Miami, the Miami-Dade Expressway Authority and Florida's Turnpike Enterprise (FTE) maintain eight state expressways in conjunction with FDOT. The Airport Expressway (SR 112) and the Dolphin Expressway (SR 836) relay western Miami-Dade suburbs to the eastern urban coast at I-95, and to Miami Beach via I-195 and I-395 at the Airport and Midtown interchanges. The Gratigny Parkway (SR 924) connects northern Miami suburbs to the southern end of I-75. The Palmetto Expressway (SR 826) is the primary beltway road of urban Miami, relaying I-95 and Florida's Turnpike (SR 91) at the Golden Glades Interchange near northeastern North Miami Beach to the southern inland suburbs of Kendall and Pinecrest. The Don Shula Expressway (SR 874) and the Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike (SR 821) form the southernmost end of the beltway, connecting the Palmetto Expressway to the bedroom communities of Homestead and Florida City. The Snapper Creek Expressway (SR 878) relays the Don Shula Expressway to South Dixie Highway (US 1).
The urban bypass expressway in greater Fort Lauderdale is the Sawgrass Expressway (SR 869), connecting the northern Broward County coast at I-95 and Deerfield Beach to I-595 and I-75 at Alligator Alley in Sunrise.
Major freeways and tollways
- Interstate 95
- Interstate 75
- Interstate 195 / State Road 112 (Airport Expressway)
- Interstate 395 / State Road 836 (Dolphin Expressway)
- Interstate 595 (Port Everglades Expressway)
- Florida's Turnpike, including Homestead Extension
- State Road 924 (Gratigny Parkway)
- State Road 874 (Don Shula Expressway)
- State Road 878 (Snapper Creek Expressway)
- State Road 869 (Sawgrass Expressway)
- State Road 826 (Palmetto Expressway)
The metropolitan area is served by three major commercial airports. These airports combine to make the fourth largest domestic origin and destination market in the United States, after New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago.
|Airport||IATA code||County||FAA Category|
|Miami International Airport||MIA||Miami-Dade||Large Hub|
|Fort Lauderdale – Hollywood International Airport||FLL||Broward||Large Hub|
|Palm Beach International Airport||PBI||Palm Beach||Medium Hub|
The following smaller general aviation airports are also in the metro area:
The metropolis also has four seaports, the largest and most important being the Port of Miami. Others in the area include Port Everglades, Port of Palm Beach and the Miami River Port. On August 21, 2012, PortMiami and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers signed the Partnership Agreement (PPA) construction agreement that will allow the Deep Dredge project to go out for bid. The Deep Dredge will deepen the Port's existing channels to minus 50/52 feet to prepare for the Panama Canal expansion, now scheduled for completion in early 2015. PortMiami's deeper channel will provide ships with an economically efficient, reliable and safe navigational route into the Port. PortMiami will be the only U.S. Port south of Norfolk, Virginia to be at the minus 50 foot depth in sync with the opening of the expanded Canal. Deep Dredge is expected to create more than 30,000 direct, indirect, and induced jobs in Florida and allow the Port to meet its goal to double its cargo traffic over the next decade.
|This section requires expansion. (August 2012)|
Miami-Dade Transit (MDT) is the largest public transit agency in Florida, operating rapid transit, people movers, and an intercity bus system. Metrorail is Florida's only rapid transit, currently with 23 stations on a 24.4-mile (39.3 km) track. The Downtown Miami people mover, Metromover, operates 20 stations and three lines on a 4.4-mile (7.1 km) track through the Downtown neighborhoods of the Omni, the central Downtown, and Brickell. Metrobus serves the entirety of Miami-Dade County, also serving Monroe County as far south as Marathon, and Broward County as far north as downtown Fort Lauderdale. In Broward County, Broward County Transit runs public buses, as does Palm Tran in Palm Beach County. Additionally, the South Florida Regional Transportation Authority operates Tri-Rail, a commuter rail train that connects the three of the primary cities of South Florida (Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach), and most intermediate points.
South Florida has a tropical climate, the only major metropolitan area in the 48 contiguous states that falls under that category. More specifically, it generally has a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification, Am). The South Florida metropolis sees most of its rain in the summer (wet season) and is quite dry in winter (dry season). The wet season, which is hot and humid, lasts from May to October, when daily thunderstorms and passing weak tropical lows bring downpours during the late afternoon. The dry season often starts in late October and runs through late April. During the height of the dry season from February through April, south Florida is often very dry, and often brush fires and water restrictions are an issue. At times cold fronts can make it all the way down to south Florida and provide some modest rainfall in the dry season. The hurricane season largely coincides with the wet season.
In addition to its sea-level elevation, coastal location and position just above the Tropic of Cancer, the area owes its warm, humid climate to the Gulf Stream, which moderates climate year-round. A typical summer day does not see temperatures below 75 °F (24 °C). Temperatures in the high 80s to low 90s (30–35 °C) accompanied by high humidity are often relieved by afternoon thunderstorms or a sea breeze that develops off the Atlantic Ocean, which then allow lower temperatures, although conditions still remain very muggy. During winter, dry air often dominates as dew points are often very low. Average daily highs across South Florida in winter are around 75 - 77 F, though daily highs in the low 80's are not uncommon. Minimum temperatures during the winter season are generally in the mid 50s to around 60 °F (10–15 °C), occasionally dipping into the upper 40s (7–9 °C) and rarely below 40 °F (5 °C). On average coastal South Florida is frost free, although there can be a frost inland a few times each decade.
Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30, although hurricanes can develop outside that period. The most likely time for South Florida to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde season, mid-August through the end of September. Due to its location between two major bodies of water known for tropical activity, South Florida is also statistically the most likely major area to be struck by a hurricane in the world, trailed closely by Nassau, Bahamas, and Havana, Cuba. Many hurricanes have affected the metropolis, including Betsy in 1965, Andrew in 1992, Irene in 1999, and Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma in 2005. In addition, a tropical depression in October 2000 passed over the city, causing record rainfall and flooding. Locally, the storm is credited as the No Name Storm of 2000, though the depression went on to become Tropical Storm Leslie upon entering the Atlantic Ocean.
- 305 and 786 Miami-Dade County and Florida Keys
- 954 Broward County
- 754 Broward County
- 561 Palm Beach County
- The Miami Dolphins of the National Football League play at Sun Life Stadium in Miami Gardens, Florida.
- The Miami Heat of the National Basketball Association play at AmericanAirlines Arena in Downtown Miami.
- The Miami Marlins of Major League Baseball play at Marlins Park in Little Havana.
- The Florida Panthers of the National Hockey League play at BB&T Center in Sunrise.
- The Fort Lauderdale Strikers of the North American Soccer League play at Lockhart Stadium in Fort Lauderdale.
- The Miami Marlins and St. Louis Cardinals conduct Spring Training in Jupiter at Roger Dean Stadium.
- The Baltimore Orioles conduct Spring training in Fort Lauderdale at Fort Lauderdale Stadium.
- The Miami metro area also hosts the college sports teams of Barry University, Florida Atlantic University, Florida International University (FIU Stadium, FIU Arena and FIU Baseball Stadium), Nova Southeastern University and University of Miami (Sun Life Stadium, BankUnited Center and Mark Light Field).
- The Homestead-Miami Speedway oval has hosted NASCAR Cup Series and IndyCar Series events. Also, the streets of Miami have hosted several CART, IMSA GT and American Le Mans Series races. The Palm Beach International Raceway is a minor road course.
The metropolis is governed by the 3 counties in the area. In total there are 107 municipalities or incorporated places in the metropolis. Each one of the municipalities has its own city, town or village government, although there is no distinction between the 3 names. Much of the land in the metropolis is unincorporated, which means it does not belong to any municipality, and therefore is governed directly by the county it is located in.
The Miami metropolitan area contains all or part of nine Congressional districts: the 18th, 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th, 25th, 26th, and 27th districts. The Cook Partisan Voting Index lists four as being Republican-leaning: the 18th, 25th, 26th, and 27th, with the 25th being the most Republican-leaning at R+5, and five as being Democratic-leaning: the 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, and 24th, with the 24th being the most Democratic-leaning at D+34, making it the ninth-most Democratic-leaning district in the nation.
Greater Miami is served by several English-language and two major Spanish-language daily newspapers. The Miami Herald, headquartered in Downtown Miami, is Miami's primary newspaper with over a million readers. It also has news bureaus in Broward County, Monroe County, and Nassau, Bahamas. The South Florida Sun-Sentinel circulates primarily in Broward and southern Palm Beach counties and also has a news bureau in Havana, Cuba. The Palm Beach Post serves mainly Palm Beach County, especially the central and northern regions, and the Treasure Coast. The Boca Raton News publishes five days a week and circulates in southern Palm Beach County. El Nuevo Herald, a subsidiary of the Miami Herald, and Diario Las Americas, are Spanish-language daily papers that circulate mainly in Miami-Dade County. La Palma and El Sentinel are weekly Spanish newspapers published by the Palm Beach Post and Sun-Sentinel, respectively, and circulate in the same areas as their English-language counterparts.
Greater Miami is split into two separate television/radio markets: The Miami-Fort Lauderdale market serves Miami-Dade, Broward and the Florida Keys. The West Palm Beach market serves Palm Beach County and the Treasure Coast region.
Miami-Fort Lauderdale is the 12th largest radio market and the 17th-largest television market in the U.S. television stations serving the Miami-Fort Lauderdale area include WAMI-TV (TeleFutura), WBFS-TV (MyNetworkTV), WSFL-TV (The CW), WFOR-TV (CBS), WHFT-TV (TBN), WLTV (Univision), WPLG (ABC), WPXM (ION), WSCV (Telemundo), WSVN (FOX), WTVJ (NBC), WLRN-TV (PBS), and WPBT (also PBS), the latter television station being the only channel to serve the entire metropolitan area.
In addition to the Miami-Fort Lauderdale market, West Palm Beach has its own. It is the 49th largest radio market and the 38th-largest television market in the U.S. Television stations serving the West Palm Beach area include WPTV (NBC), WPEC (CBS), WPBF (ABC), WFLX (FOX), WTVX (The CW), WXEL (PBS), WTCN (MyNetworkTV), and WPXP (ION). The West Palm Beach market shares use of WSCV and WLTV for Telemundo and Univision respectively. Also, both markets cross over and tend to be available interchangeably between both areas.
- Williams, Darlene F. (2005). "Proposed Metropolitan Area Definitions for FY2006 Income Limits and Estimates of Median Family Income". Federal Register: 74988–74993. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
- John Mark Ockerbloom (January 1, 2011). "Miami Metropolitan Area (Fla.)". The Online Books Page. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
- "CONSUMER EXPENDITURES FOR THE MIAMI AREA: 2008–09". News Release. United States Department of Labor (Bureau of Labor Statistics). October 28, 2010. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
- "Journey-To-Work Trends in the United States and its Major Metropolitan Areas 1960–1990". Research and Innovative Technology Administration National Transportation Library. Federal Highway Administration. June 2003. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
- "OMB Bulletin No. 10-02: Update of Statistical Area Definitions and Guidance on Their Uses". United States Office of Management and Budget. December 1, 2009. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
- "http://www.census.gov/popest/metro/files/2009/CBSA-EST2009-alldata.csv" (CSV). 2009 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau. July 1, 2009. Retrieved April 28, 2010.
- PDFMiami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach: Linear & Visionless – retrieved August 2, 2006
- USA Urbanized Areas Over 500,000: 2000 Rankings – Rank by Density – URL retrieved September 5, 2006
- Lists of Census 2000 Urbanized Areas and Urban Clusters – URL retrieved August 27, 2006
- NOTE: large (2.8 MB) PDF file – UMiami, florida Urbanized Area Outline Map, 2000 Census – URL retrieved August 27, 2006
- State-sorted list for UCs – URL retrieved August 27, 2006
- "CTYPFL07_rev.xls" (PDF). Retrieved November 8, 2011.
- [dead link]
- "Population Served by Local Governments". Co.hernando.fl.us. January 4, 2006. Retrieved November 8, 2011.
- Census Bureau - About Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas – retrieved Dec. 19, 2013
- Census Bureau Geographic Terms and Concepts - Core Based Statistical Areas and Related Statistical Areas – retrieved Dec. 19, 2013
- Metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas defined by the Office of Management and Budget, December 2009 – retrieved July 22, 2011
- "City and Town Population for 2013". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- State:Broward Power. St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved November 14, 2006.
- 2008 General Election Results. South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved November 11, 2008.
- "sun-sentinel.com Election 2008 (Florida Presidential election results): 2008". Weblogs.sun-sentinel.com. November 4, 2008. Retrieved November 8, 2011.
- "South Florida Sun-Sentinel.com Election 2008 (Florida Presidential election results): 2008". Sun-sentinel.com. Retrieved November 8, 2011.
- "Election 2004 (Florida Presidential election results): 2004". CNN. April 13, 1970. Retrieved November 8, 2011.
- "Election 2006 (Florida Gubernatorial election results): 2006". CNN. Retrieved November 8, 2011.
- American Community Survey – retrieved January 4, 2007
- American Community Survey: Narrative Profile – retrieved August 27, 2007
- American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "and Housing Narrative Profile: 2005". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved November 8, 2011.[dead link]
- Rodriguez, Ihosvani. "Country & Eastern" (Archive). Sun Sentinel. December 6, 2005.
- "Miami Accents: Why Locals Embrace That Heavy "L" Or Not". WLRN (WLRN-TV and WLRN-FM). Retrieved September 1, 2013.
- "'Miami Accent' Takes Speakers By Surprise". Articles - Sun-Sentinel.com. June 13, 2004. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Miami Accents: How 'Miamah' Turned Into A Different Sort Of Twang". WLRN (WLRN-TV & WLRN-FM). Retrieved September 1, 2013.
- Hanks, Douglas (October 29, 2010). "Housing costs higher in South Florida". The Miami Herald. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
- [dead link]
- Köppen Climate Classification Map: South Florida=Aw=tropical wet & dry
- Climate Zones of the World, under Koppen's System. Retrieved August 8, 2006.
- Weather.com Vulnerable cities: Miami, Florida. Retrieved February 19, 2006.
- "Congressional Districts - Florida". National Atlas of the United States (PDF). Cartography by USGS. United States Geological Survey. 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
- "Arranged by State/District" (PDF). Partisan Voting Index - Districts of the 113th Congress. Cook Political Report. p. 3. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
- Boca Raton News home page – URL retrieved August 19, 2006
- "Diario Las Americas". Diario Las Americas. August 2, 2010. Retrieved November 8, 2011.