South Gare

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Coordinates: 54°38′25″N 1°08′21″W / 54.640342°N 1.139145°W / 54.640342; -1.139145

South Gare
South Gare-1280.jpg
South Gare breakwater
South Gare is located in North Yorkshire
South Gare
South Gare
 South Gare shown within North Yorkshire
Population
OS grid reference NZ551274
    - London 220 mi (350 km)  SSE
Unitary authority Redcar and Cleveland
Ceremonial county North Yorkshire
Region North East
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town Redcar
Postcode district TS10
Dialling code 01642
Police Cleveland
Fire Cleveland
Ambulance North East
EU Parliament North East England
List of places
UK
England
Yorkshire

South Gare is an area of reclaimed land and breakwater on the southern side of the mouth of the river Tees in Redcar and Cleveland, England. It is accessed by taking the South Gare Road (private road) from Fisherman's Crossing at the western end of Tod Point Road in Warrenby.

Before the building of South Gare, permanent dry land stopped at Tod Point, at the western end of Warrenby and there was only Coatham Sands and the mudflats of Bran Sands. The creation of South Gare extends this by a further 2.5 miles (4.0 km).[1][2] The building of South Gare offers a safe harbour in stormy weather to ships off the coast and allowed for the dredging of the river Tees entrance.[3] South Gare itself was a settlement but the houses there were demolished many years ago.

History[edit]

Construction[edit]

Building the 22 miles (35 km) of slag training walls in the Tees was started in 1859.[4] Blocks of solid blast furnace slag were cast and moved into position along the banks of the river Tees, then back filled using 70,000 tons of material dredged from river bed.[4] This canalised the river allowing it to keep itself clean by the action of flow and tides.

The Gare was constructed from January 1861 to 1884[4][5][6] using 5 million tonnes of blast furnace slag and 18,000 tons of cement[2][7] at a total cost of £219,393.[4][8] The slag was supplied free from Tees-side blast furnaces by ironmasters who paid for its removal.[4] The north end of the breakwater carrying the lighthouse uses blocks of concrete weighing from 40 up to 300 tons in weight.[8]

Work was planned and supervised by John Fowler, engineer to the Tees Commissioners.[8] With construction complete, the breakwater was formally opened by the Right Hon W.H. Smith, First Lord of the Treasury on 25 October 1888.[8]

Railway[edit]

To construct South Gare a rail line was built from the Warrenby iron works to carry men and materials. When construction was complete the rail line was used, wind permitting, with a sail bogey to move visitors, servicemen, lifeboatmen and lighthouse crew out to the lighthouse and gun installations close to the end of South Gare.[9] The rail line still exists in places and is easiest to see near the remains of the coastal battery.

Defences[edit]

South Gare battery was built in 1891 as part of the Palmerston defence programme.[10] The anti-aircraft batteries, and mortar emplacements have been partially demolished but some of the structures still remain.[11] There are a number of defensive concrete pill boxes still scattered around the area in the dunes and on the beach.[12]

Lifeboat station[edit]

There has been a lifeboat at Teesmouth since 1829[13] when the RNLI was founded. The present Teesmouth Lifeboat Station was founded in 1911 and in 1914 a boathouse and slipway was built to launch the lifeboat.[13] The lifeboat station has had a Tyne class lifeboat since 1986 and in 2003 new lifeboat crew facilities were built however the lifeboat station was closed a few years later with coverage being supplied by Hartlepool lifeboat.[13]

South Gare Lighthouse[edit]

South Gate lighthouse
Main article: South Gare Lighthouse

The South Gare Lighthouse was built in 1884 at the end of South Gare breakwater[5] and is owned and operated by PD Ports.[14]

Coastguard Station[edit]

A coastguard station is located south of South Gare Lighthouse. To the immediate south of the coastguard station is a short steel frame tower. This tower houses a radar antennae, an automatic fog detector and a vertical set of four sectored red and white leading lights for navigation purposes. There is second fog detector system mounted on the Fairway Buoy in Tees Bay outside the river entrance.[15]

River entrance[edit]

LPG Tanker leaving Teesmouth

The river Tees entrance created between South Gare, and the North Gare to the west is 2,400 feet (732 m) wide.[8] The water depth at the mouth of the Tees at low tide has altered over the years. In 1863 it was 3 ft 6 inches but today stands at 50 feet (15 m).[2] Two suction dredgers and occasionally a grab dredger are used to keep the shipping channel clear.[2]

Tees pilots[edit]

The pilot's pier in Teesmouth

Since 1988 Tees and Hartlepool Port Authority's pilot services for Hartlepool, Teesport and the river Tees have been based at the Pilot Station at South Gare.[16]

Harbours[edit]

Paddy's Hole

Paddy's Hole is a small harbour in the lagoon on the Teesmouth side of South Gare constructed from slag. It is named Paddy's Hole because of the many Irishmen who helped build the South Gare.[17]

There are also two smaller harbours south of Paddy's Hole named Guy's Hole and Powder Hole (or Sand Hole). Between Guy's Hole and Powder Hole is the remains of the Powder Jetty (or Powder Wharf) dating from World War I or earlier.[18]

Sands[edit]

Remains of a wooden ship embedded in Bran Sands

South Gare & Coatham Sands is a Site of Special Scientific Interest. The dunes on the eastern flank are protected by three slag banks close to the breakwater, known as the German Charlies that are partly exposed at low tide.[19] The name German Charlies was applied after a First World War incident involving a German ship that ran aground on them.[20] There is a gas pipeline through the SSSI sand dunes.[21]

On the inner side of the breakwater is Bran Sands known for its birdlife and the wooden wreck of a ship in the sands.

Wildlife[edit]

The land is made from thousands of tons of basic slag from blast furnaces. The high limestone content of the slag produces a base rich soil that is attractive to lime loving plants. The area consists of tidal mudflats, scrub, grassland, sand dunes, rocks and freshwater and saltwater pools, and attracts a very wide range of birds.[22] Seals can also be spotted.

Industry[edit]

Fishermen's huts and part of SSI Steel Plant

Built on the reclaimed land of Bran Sands is the ore terminal, sinter plant, coke plant, and blast furnace of SSI's Teesside Steelworks. The plant was mothballed in 2010, reopening in April 2012. Next to that is Bran Sands Water Treatment Works.[23]

Activities[edit]

Fishing at the tip of South Gare breakwater

As well as those out for a stroll other activities indulged in include sea fishing from small boats and angling from the concrete breakwater, photography of wildlife and shipping etc., also birdwatching,[24] sailing, kite surfing, windsurfing, jet-skiing, diving and motorcycling.[25]

Proposed developments[edit]

Near the end of the breakwater, in the fenced compound, there is a tall steel framed mast, housing air speed measurement devices. These devices gather data on wind speeds at various heights for a planned offshore windfarm proposed by Northern Offshore Wind Limited.[26] The mast is 164 feet (50 m) tall and 15.3 feet (4.7 m) wide at the base. Plans for the offshore windfarm include thirty 200 feet (61 m) windmills over 1 mile (1.6 km) offshore. AMEC Wind has plans to site 19 wind turbines inside Corus steelworks generating 47.5 MW of electricity.[26]

A giant sculpture of the Right Hand of Friendship was proposed for Redcar and Cleveland, at South Gare, as one of series of artworks called Tees Valley Giants.[27] In 2012, however, this series of artworks was discontinued.[28]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Simpson, David (2008). "Middlesbrough and surrounds". England's North East. Retrieved 27 December 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c d Barlow, Rob (30 October 2008). "Take a look around South Gare". BBC Tees. Retrieved 27 December 2009. 
  3. ^ "South Gare Lighthouse". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 17 August 2010. 
  4. ^ a b c d e "Teesmouth Field Centre". Retrieved 31 December 2009. 
  5. ^ a b "South Gare Lighthouse Hydrogen Fuel Cell Beams Brightly". New England Lighthouse Treasures. Retrieved 27 December 2009. [dead link]
  6. ^ "North East England: Leading the way in developing a Low Carbon Economy" (PDF). energynortheast.net. Retrieved 28 December 2009. [dead link]
  7. ^ "Dave Barlow's Natural History of Teesside". Retrieved 31 December 2009. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Hinson, Colin (1 September 2008). "Kirkleatham Parish information from Bulmers' 1890". Genuki. Retrieved 27 December 2009. 
  9. ^ Munro, Mike. "Sails on Rails". Copsewood.Org. Retrieved 27 December 2009. ; "South Gare breakwater and lighthouse". CommuniGate. Retrieved 27 December 2009. 
  10. ^ "Hartlepool Defences". Castles and Fortifications of England and Wales. Retrieved 27 December 2009. 
  11. ^ "Wartime Relics". Hidden Teesside. Retrieved 13 August 2010. 
  12. ^ Crown, Steve. "Paddy's Hole, South Gare Location Guide". ePHOTOzine. Retrieved 27 December 2009. ; Cartmel, Hilary (19 January 2007). "Hidden Teesside". Hidden Teesside. Retrieved 27 December 2009. 
  13. ^ a b c "Teesmouth Lifeboat Supporters Association". teesmouthlifeboat.org.uk. Retrieved 27 December 2009. 
  14. ^ Barlow, Dave. "End of the South Gare". Dave Barlow's Natural History site. Retrieved 27 December 2009. 
  15. ^ "Automatic Fog Detection" (PDF). pelangi.co.uk. Retrieved 27 December 2009. 
  16. ^ "Hartlepool pilots". Portcities Hartlepool. Retrieved 28 December 2009. [dead link]
  17. ^ "Welcome to Redcar.org". Redcar.org. Retrieved 31 December 2009. 
  18. ^ "Powder Hole, Powder Wharf, South Gare". Hidden Teesside. 15 January 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2010. 
  19. ^ "South Gare and Coatham Sands" (PDF). English Nature. 19 October 1988. Retrieved 27 December 2009. 
  20. ^ "A Cleveland Naturalists' Field Club Bulletin – The Cleveland Coast Flora and History" (PDF). 1994. Retrieved 16 January 2011. 
  21. ^ Houlton, Sarah (March 2003). "At one with nature". Royal Society for Chemistry. Retrieved 27 December 2009. 
  22. ^ "Places to see birds". Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2009. 
  23. ^ "Waste Water Management" (PDF). Tees Valley Regeneration. [dead link]
  24. ^ "Birdwatching at South Gare". NTLWorld. Retrieved 31 December 2009. ; Barlow, Dave. "Birdwatching at South Gare". Dave Barlow's Natural History of Teesside. Retrieved 31 December 2009. 
  25. ^ "The Best Windsurfing Locations" (PDF). RYA North East. Retrieved 27 December 2009. 
  26. ^ a b Robson, Dave (19 March 2002). "A wind farm mast-er plan". Gazette Live. Teesside: Evening Gazette. Retrieved 1 January 2010. 
  27. ^ McKenzie, Sandy (19 August 2008). "'Big hand' bid points to proud river links". Gazette Live. Evening Gazette. Retrieved 1 January 2010. 
  28. ^ "Teesside art 'giants' plan axed". BBC News. 19 June 2012. Retrieved 11 July 2012. 

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