Hattiesburg, Mississippi

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Hattiesburg, Mississippi
City
Mardi Gras Parade in Hattiesburg
Mardi Gras Parade in Hattiesburg
Nickname(s): The Hub City
Location of Hattiesburg in the State of Mississippi
Location of Hattiesburg in the State of Mississippi
Coordinates: 31°18′57″N 89°18′31″W / 31.31583°N 89.30861°W / 31.31583; -89.30861Coordinates: 31°18′57″N 89°18′31″W / 31.31583°N 89.30861°W / 31.31583; -89.30861
Country United States
State Mississippi
Counties Forrest, Lamar
Founded 1882
Incorporated 1884
Government
 • Mayor Johnny DuPree
Area
 • City 49.7 sq mi (128.6 km2)
 • Land 49.3 sq mi (127.6 km2)
 • Water 0.4 sq mi (1.1 km2)
Elevation 171 ft (52 m)
Population (2013)[1]
 • City 47,556
 • Rank US: 785th
 • Density 909.0/sq mi (351.0/km2)
 • Urban 80,358 (US: 357th)
 • Metro 147,991 (US: 276th)
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP code 39401-39404, 39406, 39407
Area code(s) 601
FIPS code 28-31020
GNIS feature ID 0691565
Website www.hattiesburgms.com

Hattiesburg is a city in Mississippi, bisected by the county line between Forrest County (where it is the county seat[2]) and Lamar County. The population was 47,556 in 2013.[3] It is the principal city of the Hattiesburg, Mississippi, Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses Forrest, Lamar and Perry counties.

Founded in 1882 by pioneer lumberman and civil engineer William H. Hardy, Hattiesburg was named in honor of Hardy's wife Hattie. The town was incorporated two years later with a population of 400. Hattiesburg's population first expanded as a center of the lumber and railroad industries, from which was derived the nickname "The Hub City." It now attracts newcomers to the area because of the diversity of the economy, strong neighborhoods and the central location in South Mississippi.

Hattiesburg is home to The University of Southern Mississippi (originally known as Mississippi Normal College) and William Carey University (formerly William Carey College). South of Hattiesburg is Camp Shelby, the largest National Guard training base east of the Mississippi River.

History[edit]

Previously inhabited by the Choctaw Native Americans, the area now called Hattiesburg was obtained by the United States under the terms of the Treaty of Mount Dexter in 1805. After the treaty was ratified, European-American settlers began to move into the area.

Hattiesburg is positioned at the fork of the Leaf and Bouie Rivers, and was founded in 1882 by Captain William H. Hardy, a civil engineer. Early settlers to the area were of Scottish, Scots-Irish, and English descent who came from Georgia and the Carolinas, attracted by the vast area of virgin pine timberlands.

The city of Hattiesburg was incorporated in 1884 with a population of approximately 400. Originally called Twin Forks and later Gordonville, Hardy gave the city its final name of Hattiesburg, in honor of his wife Hattie.

Also in 1884, a railroad — known then as the New Orleans and Northeastern — was built from Meridian, Mississippi, through Hattiesburg to New Orleans. The completion of the Gulf and Ship Island Railroad (G&SIRR) from Gulfport, Mississippi, to Jackson, Mississippi, ran through Hattiesburg and ushered in the real lumber boom in 1897. Though it was 20 years in the building, the G&SIRR more than fulfilled its promise. It gave the state a deep water harbor, more than doubled the population of towns along its route, built the City of Gulfport and made Hattiesburg a railroad center. In 1924, the G&SIRR operated as a subsidiary of the Illinois Central Railroad but lost its independent identity in 1946.

Hattiesburg gained its nickname, the Hub City, in 1912 as a result of a contest in a local newspaper. This suggestion came because the city was the intersection of a number of important rail lines. Later the city also became the intersection of U.S. Highway 49, U.S. Highway 98 and U.S. Highway 11, and later, Interstate 59. Hattiesburg is centrally located less than 100 miles from the state capital of Jackson as well as the Mississippi Gulf Coast, New Orleans and Mobile, Alabama.[4]

The region around Hattiesburg was involved in the nuclear arms race of the Cold War. In the 1960s, two nuclear devices were detonated in the salt domes near Lumberton, Mississippi, about 28 miles southwest of Hattiesburg. Extensive follow-up of the area by the EPA has not revealed levels of nuclear contamination in the area that would be harmful to humans.

The U.S. Post Office in downtown Hattiesburg, Mississippi

Throughout the 20th Century, Hattiesburg benefited from the founding of Camp Shelby (now a military mobilization center), two major hospitals, and two colleges, The University of Southern Mississippi and William Carey University. The growing metropolitan area that includes Hattiesburg, Forrest and Lamar Counties, was designated a Metropolitan Statistical Area in 1994 with a combined population of more than 100,000 residents.[5]

Despite being about 75 miles (121 km) inland, Hattiesburg was hit very hard in 2005 by Hurricane Katrina. Around 10,000 structures in the area received major damage of some type. Approximately 80 percent of the city's roads were blocked by trees and power was out in the area for up to 14 days. The storm killed 24 people in Hattiesburg and the surrounding areas. The city is strained by a large influx of temporary evacuees and new permanent residents from coastal Louisiana and Mississippi towns to the south, where damage from Katrina was catastrophic.

The City is also known for its police department, as it was the first — and for almost a decade the only — Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies federally accredited law enforcement agency in the State of Mississippi. The department is serviced by its own training academy, which has traditionally been one of the most difficult basic academies in the country with over a 50% attrition rate.

The Hattiesburg Zoo at Kamper Park is a longstanding tourist attraction in the city.

In 2011, Hattiesburg was named one of America's Great Places by the American Planning Association. APA's flagship program celebrates places of exemplary character, quality, and planning. Places are selected annually and represent the gold standard in terms of having a true sense of place, cultural and historical interest, community involvement, and a vision for tomorrow.APA Great Places offer better choices for where and how people work and live. They are enjoyable, safe, and desirable. They are places where people want to be — not only to visit, but to live and work every day. America's truly great streets, neighborhoods and public spaces are defined by many criteria, including architectural features, accessibility, functionality, and community involvement. Hattiesburg is home to Southern charm and friendly neighbors who come together to help each other out.

The Miss Hospitality Pageant began in 1949. Hattiesburg received sponsorship of the state pageant in December 1997. The purpose of the pageant is the identification and presentation of a young and knowledgeable lady to help promote the state in tourism and economic development. Contestants are judged on the following categories: panel interview, one-on-one interview competition, Mississippi speech competition, commercial/black dress competition, and evening gown competition. The 2011 winner was Ann Claire Reynolds who is a junior at University of Southern Mississippi majoring in elementary education and special education.

Hattiesburg is home to the African American Military History Museum. Opened in 1942 to serve African Americans serving at Camp Shelby and now on the National Register of Historic Places. The museum started out as a USO Club location and is the only remaining original club location left in the United States. USO's mission statement is to lift the spirits of America's troops and their families. Exhibits include: Revolutionary War, the Founding of Hattiesburg, Buffalo Soldiers, World Wars I and II, Desegregation, Korean War, Vietnam, Desert Storm, Global War on Terrorism, You Can Be A Soldier, Hattiesburg's Hall of Honor, and World Map. The museum is dedicated to the African American soldiers that have fought for their country from Buffalo Soldiers to Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Civil rights movement[edit]

Hattiesburg and the unincorporated African American community of Palmers Crossing played a key role in the civil rights struggles of the 1960s. In 1959, black Korean War veteran Clyde Kennard applied to attend then all-white Mississippi Southern College (today University of Southern Mississippi). He was denied admission on account of his race, and when he persisted, the Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission conspired to have him framed for a crime, for which he was sentenced to seven years in Parchman Prison. For years, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People leaders Medgar Evers, Vernon Dahmer and other Forrest County civil rights activists fought to overturn the conviction.[6]

Memorial march in Hattiesburg, four days after Martin Luther King's death

Forrest County Registrar Theron Lynd prevented blacks from registering to vote. Thirty percent of the population was black, but less than 1% of them were on the voting rolls, while white registration was close to 100%. In 1961, the U.S. Justice Department filed suit against Lynd and he became the first southern registrar to be convicted under the Civil Rights Act of 1957 for systematically violating African American voting rights.[7]

In 1962, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee began one of its first voter-registration projects in Hattiesburg under the auspices of Council of Federated Organizations. By 1964, the Delta Ministry was active in the city. In cooperation with the NAACP and local civil rights leaders, they formed the Forrest County Voters League.[8] In conjunction with the 1963 elections, civil rights leaders organized a statewide "Freedom Ballot," a mock election that demonstrated both the state-wide pattern of voting rights discrimination and the strong desire of Mississippi blacks for full citizenship. Despite the serious risk of both physical and economic retaliation, almost half of Forrest County blacks participated, the highest turnout in the state.[9]

January 22, 1964, was "Freedom Day" in Hattiesburg, a major voter registration effort supported by student demonstrators and 50 northern clergymen. For the first time since Reconstruction, an inter-racial protest was allowed to picket the courthouse for voting rights without being arrested. Roughly 100 African Americans attempted to register, though only a few were allowed into the courthouse and fewer still were added to the rolls.[10] Each day thereafter for many months the courthouse protest was resumed in what became known as the "Perpetual Picket."[11]

During Freedom Summer in 1964, the Hattiesburg/Palmers Crossing project was the headquarters for all civil rights activity in the 5th Congressional District and the largest and most active site in the state with more than 90 volunteers and 3,000 local participants. Hundreds of Forrest County blacks tried to register to vote at the courthouse, but most were prevented from doing so. More than 650 children and adults attended one of the seven Freedom Schools in Hattiesburg and Palmers Crossing, three freedom libraries were set up with donated books, and a community center was established. Many whites opposed civil rights efforts by blacks, and both summer volunteers and local African Americans endured arrests, beatings, firings, and evictions.[12]

Forrest County was also a center of activity for the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) which sent a slate of delegates to the Democratic Convention in Atlantic City to challenge the seating of the all-white, pro-segregation delegates elected by the regular party in primaries in which African Americans could not participate. Victoria Jackson Gray of Palmers Crossing ran on the MFDP ticket against incumbent Senator John Stennis and John Cameron of Hattiesburg ran for Representative in the 5th District. With blacks still denied the vote, they knew they could not be elected, but their candidacies and campaigns advanced the struggle for voting rights.[13]

On the night of January 10, 1966, the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan attacked the Hattiesburg home of NAACP leader Vernon Dahmer with firebombs and gunfire. Dahmer was the most prominent black leader in the county and been the primary civil rights leader for many years. Just prior to the attack, he had announced that he would help pay a $2 poll tax for black voters too poor to do so themselves. Dahmer held off the Klan with his rifle to give his wife, their three young children, and elderly aunt time to escape their burning home, but he died of burns and smoke inhalation the next day. His murder sparked large protest marches in Hattiesburg. A number of Klansmen were arrested for the crime and four were eventually convicted. After four previous trials had ended in deadlocks, KKK Imperial Wizard Samuel Bowers was finally convicted in August 1998 for ordering the assassination of Dahmer. He was sentenced to life in prison.[14][15]

Vela Uniform/Project Dribble nuclear tests[edit]

Vela Uniform was an element of Project Vela conducted jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the Advanced Research Projects Agency. Its purpose was to develop seismic methods for detecting underground nuclear testing. The Project Dribble program involved two nuclear detonations. Test SALMON occurred on October 22, 1964, with a 5.3 kiloton yield; test STERLING was detonated December 3, 1966, with a yield of 380 tons.[16] Both detonations took place within Tatum Salt Dome, southwest of the Hattiesburg/Purvis area.

Geography[edit]

Hattiesburg is located at 31°18′57″N 89°18′31″W / 31.31583°N 89.30861°W / 31.31583; -89.30861 (31.315974, -89.308658).[17] Most of Hattiesburg is in Forrest County. A smaller portion on the west side is in Lamar County with more of the abundant commercial land added in a 2008 annexation. This consists of first, a narrow stretch of land lying east of I-59 and second, of an irregularly-shaped extension into West Hattiesburg. In the 2000 census, 42,475 of the city's 44,779 residents (94.9%) lived in Forrest County and 2,304 (5.1%) in Lamar County.[18]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 49.7 square miles (129 km2), of which 49.3 square miles (128 km2) is land and 0.4 square miles (1.0 km2) (0.83%) is water.

Hattiesburg is about 60 miles (97 km) northwest of Biloxi.[19]

Climate[edit]

Hattiesburg has a humid subtropical climate, with short, mild winters and hot, humid summers. Snowfall is extremely rare, but on December 11, 2008, areas around Hattiesburg received 3 to 5 inches. As is the case throughout the southern USA, severe thunderstorms can pose a threat, particularly during spring. Such storms spawn frequent lightning, heavy rain, occasional large hail and tornadoes.[20][21] A recent tornado to affect the Hattiesburg area was the EF4 that struck on February 10, 2013, between roughly 5:00 p.m. and 5:30 p.m. CST. This tornado formed in Lamar County just west of Oak Grove and quickly increased in size and intensity. Although the most severe damage occurred in the Oak Grove area especially near Oak Grove High School, the tornado continued eastward into Hattiesburg causing widespread EF1-EF3 damage to the southern portion of the University of Southern Mississippi campus and the areas just north of downtown, before heading into neighboring Petal, Mississippi and rural Forrest County. No fatalities and over 80 injuries were reported, which was attributed to the nearly 30 minute tornado warning lead time.[22][23]

Climate data for Hattiesburg, Mississippi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 58
(14)
63
(17)
70
(21)
77
(25)
84
(29)
89
(32)
91
(33)
91
(33)
87
(31)
78
(26)
69
(21)
61
(16)
76.5
(24.8)
Average low °F (°C) 37
(3)
41
(5)
48
(9)
55
(13)
63
(17)
70
(21)
73
(23)
73
(23)
67
(19)
56
(13)
47
(8)
40
(4)
55.8
(13.2)
Precipitation inches (mm) 6.31
(160.3)
6.01
(152.7)
5.35
(135.9)
4.95
(125.7)
4.45
(113)
4.84
(122.9)
5.68
(144.3)
5.71
(145)
4.48
(113.8)
3.61
(91.7)
4.92
(125)
5.48
(139.2)
61.79
(1,569.5)
Source: [24]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1890 1,172
1900 4,175 256.2%
1910 11,733 181.0%
1920 13,270 13.1%
1930 18,601 40.2%
1940 21,026 13.0%
1950 29,474 40.2%
1960 34,989 18.7%
1970 39,648 13.3%
1980 40,829 3.0%
1990 41,882 2.6%
2000 44,779 6.9%
2010 45,989 2.7%
Est. 2013 47,556 3.4%
U.S. Decennial Census[25]
2013 Estimate[1]

As of the census of 2000, there were 44,779 people, 17,295 households, and 9,391 families residing within the city limits. The population density was 909.0 people per square mile (351.0/km²). There were 19,258 housing units at an average density of 391.0 per square mile (150.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 49.95% White, 47.34% African American, 0.15% Native American, 1.22% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.52% from other races, and 0.80% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.41% of the population.

There were 17,295 households out of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.1% were married couples living together, 19.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 45.7% were non-families. 34.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 3.01.

In the city the population was spread out with 21.5% under the age of 18, 24.4% from 18 to 24, 26.3% from 25 to 44, 16.0% from 45 to 64, and 11.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females there were 85.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were approximately 81.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $24,409, and the median income for a family was $32,380. Males had a median income of $26,680 versus $19,333 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,102. About 21.5% of families and 28.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.3% of those under age 18 and 16.7% of those age 65 or over.

Religion[edit]

The Hattiesburg Metropolitan area has an Evangelical Protestant majority with 66,000 members. The Southern Baptist Convention has 85 congregations and 53,000 members. The United Methodist Church has 35 congregations and 9,000 members. The third largest is the Presbyterian Church in America with 5 congregations and 1,518 members.[26]

The Catholic Church has 4 parishes.

Economy[edit]

Hattiesburg is home to several national business branches that hold thousands of jobs across the Pine Belt. It was headquarters to the now defunct International Filing Company and currently hosts branches of Kohler Engines and BAE Systems Inc., as well as the Coca-Cola Bottling Co., Pepsi Cola Bottling Co., and Budweiser Distribution Co. Companies such as Sunbeam (shared with Mr. Coffee and the Coleman Company) and Kimberly Clark used to manufacture in Hattiesburg.

The main shopping mall is Turtle Creek Mall.

Arts and culture[edit]

Saenger Theatre

Theaters[edit]

Galleries[edit]

  • A GALLERY, 134 E. Front Street.
  • Hattiesburg Arts Council Gallery at the Hattiesburg Cultural Center, 723 Main Street.
  • Lucile Parker Art Gallery. Located in the Thomas Fine Arts Building on William Carey University's Hattiesburg campus. The collection consists of 141 artworks by Lucile Parker, and 17 by Marie Hull. From August to May, the gallery features exhibitions of local, state, and nationally known artists.
  • Sarah Gillespie Collection at William Carey University, 498 Tuscan Avenue. This is an extensive collection of twentieth century Mississippi art.
  • University of Southern Mississippi Art Gallery.[27][28]

Museums[edit]

The Train Depot[edit]

The Hattiesburg Train Depot was constructed in 1910 by the Southern Railway Company, and was the city's largest and most architecturally significant depot. The City of Hattiesburg purchased the depot and 3.2 acres (1.3 ha) of land from Norfolk Southern Railway in 2000, and began a seven-year, $10 million restoration. The completed depot now functions as an intermodal transportation center for bus, taxi and rail, as well as a space for exhibitions, meetings and special events.[29]

Government[edit]

Hattiesburg is governed via a mayor-council system. The mayor is elected at large. The city council consists of five members who are elected from one of five wards.

Education[edit]

Public education in Hattiesburg is served by the Hattiesburg Municipal Separate School District, servicing grades K-12.

High schools[edit]

  • Hattiesburg High School (Grades 9-12)
  • Sacred Heart High School (Grades 7-12)
  • Presbyterian Christian School (Grades 9-12)
  • The Adept School
  • North Forrest High School
  • Oak Grove High School (Grades 9-12)

(Oak Grove Schools are under the Lamar County School District)

Alternative schools[edit]

  • Mary Bethune Attendance Center (Grades 7-11)

Middle schools[edit]

  • N. R. Burger Middle School (Grades 7 & 8)
  • Oak Grove Middle School (Grades 6-8)

Colleges[edit]

Hattiesburg is home to the main campuses of two institutions of higher learning: the public University of Southern Mississippi (USM) and the private Baptist-supported William Carey University. Both have campuses in other locations; USM has a campus in Long Beach, Mississippi, and William Carey has campuses in Gulfport, and New Orleans, Louisiana. The Forrest County Center of Pearl River Community College, a public institution, is located in Hattiesburg, with the main campus located in Poplarville, Mississippi. Antonelli College, a proprietary school, also has a campus in Hattiesburg, with the main campus located in Cincinnati, Ohio.

Private schools[edit]

  • Sacred Heart Catholic School (Grades PreK - 12)
  • Presbyterian Christian School (Grades PreK-12)
  • School of Excellence (Grades K-6) (Now Early Learning Center, 6 weeks to Pre-K)
  • Lamar Christian School (Grades K-4 to 12)
  • Bass Christian Elementary (Grades K-8)
  • Bass Memorial Academy (Grades 9-12)
  • Central Baptist School (Grades K-12)
  • Benedict Day School (Grades K-8)

Media[edit]

FM radio[edit]

AM radio[edit]

Television[edit]

Newspapers[edit]

  • Hattiesburg American, Hattiesburg's daily newspaper.
  • The Lamar Times, a weekly community newspaper serving the residents of West Hattiesburg and Lamar County.
  • The Petal News, the weekly newspaper of Petal, MS.
  • The Richton Dispatch, A weekly newspaper serving Perry County, MS.

Infrastructure[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Rail[edit]

Amtrak's Crescent train connects Hattiesburg with the cities of New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Charlotte, Atlanta, Birmingham and New Orleans. The Amtrak station is located at 308 Newman Street.

Rail freight service is offered by three Class I railroads: CN to Jackson and Mobile, Kansas City Southern to Gulfport, and Norfolk Southern to Meridian and New Orleans.

Mass transit[edit]

Hub City Transit bus

Hattiesburg owns and operates the city's mass transit service, HCT, Hub City Transit. HCT offers daily routes to many major thoroughfares. The Intermodal Depot downtown services Amtrak as well as the city transit services. Due to recent growth in passenger transport in the city, HCT is currently planning additional routes and services, including bus service to the suburbs of Oak Grove and Petal.

Air[edit]

Hattiesburg-Laurel Regional Airport is located in an unincorporated area in Jones County, near Moselle.[30] It offers daily flights between Hattiesburg and Atlanta, Georgia via Silver Airways. PIB airport also has an 18 hole golf course and business park located on the premises.

The city of Hattiesburg maintains the Hattiesburg Bobby L. Chain Municipal Airport (HBG) in the Hattiesburg/Forrest County Industrial Park. Located four miles south of the city center, the municipal airport provides business and general aviation services for much of South Mississippi.

Highways[edit]


I-blank.svg
I-blank.svg
Interstate Highways
Interstate 59, runs north to Meridian, Mississippi and south to New Orleans.
US blank.svg
US blank.svg
U.S. Highways
U.S. Highway 11 runs parallel to Interstate 59.
U.S. Highway 49 runs north to Jackson, Mississippi and south to Gulfport, Mississippi.
U.S. Highway 98 runs west to Columbia, Mississippi and southeast to Mobile, Alabama.
Circle sign blank.svg
Circle sign blank.svg
State Highways
Mississippi Highway 42
Mississippi Highway 589
Mississippi Highway 198
Mississippi Highway 24

Major Roads[edit]

Major East West Routes: 4th street (Hattiesburg, Mississippi), Hardy Street (AKA Highway 98 after passing Interstate 59), Lincoln Road, Classic Drive, 7th Street, and State Highway 42

Major North South Routes: Interstate 59, Highway 11/Broadway Drive, West Pine Street, Main Street, Highway 98, 28th Avenue, Golden Eagle Avenue, 38th Avenue, and 40th Street

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-06-15. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ United States Census Bureau Hattiesburg (city), Mississippi. Retrieved 2014-09-07.
  4. ^ Reagan L. Grimsley, Hattiesburg In Vintage Postcards, (SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2004.)
  5. ^ Reagan L. Grimsley, Hattiesburg in Vintage Postcards, Arcadia Publishing, 2004.
  6. ^ Clyde Kennard Framed and Jailed in MS ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans
  7. ^ "United States of America vs. Theron C. Lynd". University of Southern Mississippi. Archived from the original on 9 November 2004. 
  8. ^ "Historic Sites of the Civil Rights Movement in Hattiesburg". University of Southern Mississippi. Archived from the original on 22 January 2001. 
  9. ^ Freedom Ballot in MS ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans
  10. ^ Freedom Day in Hattiesburg ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans
  11. ^ Branch, Taylor (1998). Pillar of Fire. Simon & Schuster. 
  12. ^ Randall, Herbert (2001). Faces of Freedom Summer. University of Alabama Press. 
  13. ^ Carson, Clayborne (1981). In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s. Harvard University Press. 
  14. ^ Davis, Townsend (1998). Weary Feet, Rested Souls. W.W. Norton. 
  15. ^ Biography of Sam Bowers. University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law. Retrieved on April 24, 2008.
  16. ^ "United States Nuclear Tests: July 1945 through September 1992". US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office. December 2000. Retrieved 2014-09-07. 
  17. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  18. ^ "Subcounty population estimates: Mississippi 2010-2012" (CSV). United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2014-01-30. Retrieved 2014-01-30. 
  19. ^ Shapiro, Dean M. "The Trial Begins." Biloxi Confidential. Crime Library. 27. Retrieved on June 4, 2011.
  20. ^ "More snow by noon". Hattiesburg American. 2008-12-11. Retrieved 2008-12-29. [dead link]
  21. ^ "More snow by noon". Hattiesburg American. 2008-12-11. 
  22. ^ "Pine Belt Tornado Event". National Weather Service Jackson, MS. NOAA/NWS. Retrieved 14 February 2013. 
  23. ^ "Tornado hits Hattiesburg, Miss.". USAToday (Gannett). February 10, 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  24. ^ "Average Weather for Hattiesburg, MS - Temperature and Precipitation". The Weather Channel. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  25. ^ United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved January 30, 2014. 
  26. ^ The Association of Religion Data Archives - Maps & Reports
  27. ^ a b c "Museums". City of Hattiesburg. Retrieved July 2014. 
  28. ^ a b c "Arts". City of Hattiesburg. Retrieved July 2014. 
  29. ^ "Train Depot". City of Hattiesburg. Retrieved July 2014. 
  30. ^ "Contact." Hattiesburg-Laurel Regional Airport. Retrieved on July 15, 2011. "Our Address Airport Director, 1002 Terminal Dr. Moselle, MS 39459"

External links[edit]