Chicago Loop

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For the Chicago 'L' feature, see The Loop (Chicago Transit Authority).
The Loop
Community area
Community Area 32 – The Loop
Skyline of the Loop from Lake Michigan
Location within the city of Chicago
Location within the city of Chicago
Coordinates: 41°53′N 87°38′W / 41.883°N 87.633°W / 41.883; -87.633Coordinates: 41°53′N 87°38′W / 41.883°N 87.633°W / 41.883; -87.633
Country United States
State Illinois
County Cook
City Chicago
Neighborhoods
Area
 • Total 1.58 sq mi (4.09 km2)
Population (2010[1])
 • Total 29,283
 • Density 19,000/sq mi (7,200/km2)
  (population up 78.7% from 2000)
Demographics2010[1]
 • White 62.7%
 • Black 11.48%
 • Hispanic 6.86%
 • Asian 15.91%
 • Other 3.06%
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP codes 60601, 60602, 60603, 60604, and parts of 60605, 60606, 60607, and 60616
Median household income $78,124[1]
Source: U.S. Census, Record Information Services [clarification needed]
People in the loop in 1973

The Loop is the central business district of Chicago, Illinois. It is one of the city's 77 designated community areas. The Loop is home to Chicago's commercial core, City Hall, and the seat of Cook County. The community area is bounded on the west and north by the Chicago River, on the east by Lake Michigan, and on the south by Roosevelt Road, although the commercial core has expanded into adjacent community areas. As a business center, the Loop hosts the Chicago Board of Trade at the foot of LaSalle Street, and the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. The Loop is home to Grant Park, the State Street shopping district, and the Art Institute of Chicago. Other major cultural institutions that call this area home include the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, the Lyric Opera of Chicago, the Goodman Theatre, the Joffrey Ballet, the central public Harold Washington Library, and the Chicago Cultural Center.

In what is now the Loop Community Area, on the south bank of the Chicago River, near today's Michigan Avenue Bridge, the U.S. Army erected Fort Dearborn in 1803. It was the first settlement in the area sponsored by the United States. In 1908, Chicago addresses were made uniform by naming the intersection of State Street and Madison Street in the Loop as the division point for designating addresses, North, South, East or West on the Chicago street grid.

Etymology[edit]

It is believed the origin of the term loop is derived from the cable car turning loops in the downtown area, and especially those of two lines that shared a loop, constructed in 1882, bounded by Adams, Wabash, Wells, and Lake.[2][3] Other research has concluded that "the Loop" was not used as a proper noun until after the 1895–97 construction of the Union elevated railway loop.[4]

Population[edit]

According to the 2010 census, 29,283 people live in the Loop. The median sale price for residential real estate was $710,000 in 2005 according to Forbes.[citation needed]

Attractions[edit]

Loop architecture has been dominated by high-rises since early in its history. Notable buildings include the Home Insurance Building, considered the first skyscraper (demolished in 1931); the Chicago Board of Trade Building, a National Historic Landmark; and Willis Tower, the tallest building. Some of the historic buildings in this district were instrumental in the development of high-rises. Chicago's street numbering system – dividing addresses into North, South, East and West quadrants, originates in the Loop at the intersection of State Street and Madison Street.

Loop street scene in 1900; colorized photograph

Chicago was the nation's rail transportation hub and passenger lines reached seven Loop-area stations by the 1890s. Transfers from one to the other was a major business for taxi drivers until the long-distance lines gave way to Amtrak in the 1970s.

This area abounds in shopping opportunities, including the Loop Retail Historic District, although it competes with the more upscale Magnificent Mile area to the north, and with suburban shopping malls. It includes Chicago's former Marshall Field's department store location in the Marshall Field and Company Building; the original Sullivan Center Carson Pirie Scott store location (closed February 21, 2007); and Sears on State. Chicago's Downtown Theatre District is also found within this area, along with numerous restaurants and hotels.

Chicago has a famous skyline which features many of the tallest buildings in the world as well as the Chicago Landmark Historic Michigan Boulevard District. Chicago's skyline is spaced out throughout the downtown area, giving it a graceful bridgelike appearance. The Willis Tower, formerly known as the Sears Tower, the second tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, stands in the western Loop in the heart of the city's financial district, along with other buildings, such as 311 South Wacker Drive and the AT&T Corporate Center.

Chicago's third tallest building, the Aon Center, is located just south of Illinois Center. The complex is at the east end of the Loop, east of Michigan Avenue. Two Prudential Plaza is also located here, just to the west of the Aon Center.

The Loop contains a wealth of outdoor sculpture, including works by Pablo Picasso, Joan Miró, Henry Moore, Marc Chagall, Magdalena Abakanowicz, Alexander Calder, and Jean Dubuffet. Chicago's cultural heavyweights, such as the Art Institute of Chicago, the Goodman Theatre, the Chicago Theatre, the Lyric Opera at the Civic Opera House building, and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, are also in this area, as is the historic Palmer House Hilton hotel, found on East Monroe Street.

Chicago's lakefront, which is almost exclusively recreational park area from north to south, features Grant Park in this downtown area. Grant Park is the home of Buckingham Fountain, the Petrillo Bandshell, the Grant Park Symphony (where free concerts can be enjoyed throughout the summer), and Chicago's annual two-week food festival, the Taste of Chicago, where more than 3 million people try foods from over 70 vendors. A recent addition to Grant Park is the architecturally forward Millennium Park, which opened in the summer of 2004, featuring a Frank Gehry's Jay Pritzker Pavilion, Jaume Plensa's Crown Fountain and Anish Kapoor's Cloud Gate sculpture and spanning what were formerly open railyards on the city's lakefront.

The Chicago River, which delineates the area, also provides entertainment and recreational opportunities, including the annual dyeing of the river green in honor of St. Patrick's Day. Trips down the Chicago River, including architectural tours, by commercial boat operators are great favorites with both locals and tourists.

Government[edit]

The Loop is the seat of Chicago's government. It is also the government seat of Cook County, Illinois and houses an office for the governor of the State of Illinois. The century old City Hall/County Building houses the chambers of the Mayor, City Council and County Board.

Across the street, the Richard J. Daley Center accommodates a famous Picasso sculpture and the state law courts. Given its proximity to government offices, the Center's plaza serves as a kind of town square for celebrations, protests and other events.

The nearby James R. Thompson Center is the city headquarters for state government, with an office for the Governor. Many state agencies have offices here, including the Illinois State Board of Education.[5]

A few blocks away is the Everett McKinley Dirksen United States Courthouse housing federal law courts and other federal government offices. This is the seat of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit. The Kluczynski Federal Building is across the street. The Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago is located on LaSalle Street in the heart of the financial district. The United States Postal Service operates the Loop Station Post Office at 211 South Clark Street.[6]

Fire Department[edit]

East Monroe Drive

The Chicago Fire Department operates 3 Fire Stations in the Loop District:

  • Engine 1, Aerial Tower 1, Ambulance 41 - 419 S. Wells St. - South Loop
  • Engine 5, Truck 2, Special Operations Battalion 5-1-5, Collapse Unit 5-2-1 - 324 S. Des Plaines St. - West Loop/Near West Side
  • Engine 13, Truck 6, Battalion 1, EMS Field Chief 4-5-1, Dive Master 6-8-6, SCUBA Team 6-8-7 - 259 N. Columbus Dr. - East Loop/Near East Side

Neighborhoods[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1930 7,851
1940 6,221 −20.8%
1950 7,018 12.8%
1960 4,337 −38.2%
1970 4,965 14.5%
1980 6,462 30.2%
1990 11,954 85.0%
2000 16,244 35.9%
2010 29,283 80.3%
[7]

In addition to the government, financial, theatre and shopping districts, these neighborhoods are also part of the Loop community area.

New Eastside[edit]

buildings along the sides of a river in a panorama view
The Chicago River is the south border of the Near North Side (right) and the north border of the Loop; the Loop's Near East Side is to the left in this picture.

The New Eastside is a mixed-use district bordered by Michigan Avenue to the west, the Chicago River to the north, Randolph Street to the south, and Lake Shore Drive to the east. It encompasses the entire Illinois Center and Lakeshore East[8] is the latest lead-developer of the 1969 Planned Development #70, as well as separate developments like Aon Center, Prudential Plaza, Park Millennium Condominium Building, Hyatt Regency Chicago, and the Fairmont Hotel. The area has a triple-level street system and is bisected by Columbus Drive. Most of this district has been developed on land that was originally water and once used by the Illinois Central Railroad rail yards. The early buildings in this district such as the Aon Center and One Prudential Plaza used airspace rights in order to build above the railyards. The New Eastside Association of Residents (NEAR) has been the recognized community representative (Illinois non-profit corporation) since 1991 and is a 501(c)(3) IRS tax-exempt organization.

The triple-level street system allows for trucks to mainly travel and make deliveries on the lower levels, keeping traffic to a minimum on the upper levels. Through north-south traffic uses Middle Columbus and the bridge over the Chicago River. East-west through traffic uses either Middle Randolph or Upper and Middle Wacker between Michigan Avenue and Lake Shore Drive.

Printer's Row[edit]

Printer's Row, also known as Printing House Row, is a neighborhood located in the southern portion of the Loop community area of Chicago. It is centered on Dearborn Street from Congress Parkway on the north to Polk Street on the south, and includes buildings along Plymouth Court on the east and Federal Street to the west. Most of the buildings in this area were built between 1886 and 1915 for house printing, publishing, and related businesses. Today, the buildings have mainly been converted into residential lofts. Part of Printer's Row is an official landmark district, called the Printing House Row District.[9] The annual Printers Row Lit Fest is held in early June along Dearborn Street.[10]

South Loop[edit]

Dearborn Station at the south end of Printers Row, is the oldest train station still standing in Chicago; it has been converted to retail and office space. Most of the area south of Congress Parkway between Lake Michigan and the Chicago River, excepting Chinatown, is referred to as the South Loop. Perceptions of the southern boundary of the neighborhood have changed as development spread south, and the name is now used as far south as 26th Street.

The neighborhood includes former railyards that have been redeveloped as new-town-in-town such as Dearborn Park and Central Station. Former warehouses and factory lofts have been converted to residential buildings, while new townhouses and highrises have been developed on vacant or underused land. A major landowner in the South Loop is Columbia College Chicago, a private school that owns 17 buildings.

South Loop is zoned to the following Chicago Schools: South Loop School and Phillips Academy High School. Jones College Prep High School, which is a selective enrollment prep school drawing students from the entire city, is also located in the South Loop.

The South Loop was historically home to vice districts, including the brothels, bars, burlesque theaters, and arcades. Inexpensive residential hotels on Van Buren and State Street made it one of the city's Skid Rows until the 1970s. One of the largest homeless shelters in the city, the Pacific Garden Mission, was located at State and Balbo from 1923 to 2007, when it moved to 1458 S. Canal St.[11]

Historic Michigan Boulevard District[edit]

The Loop also contains the Chicago Landmark Historic Michigan Boulevard District, which is the section of Michigan Avenue opposite Grant Park and Millennium Park.

Economy[edit]

Willis Tower, formerly Sears Tower, is the second tallest building in the Western Hemisphere.

The Loop, along with the rest of downtown Chicago, is the second largest commercial business district in the United States, after New York City's Midtown Manhattan. Its financial district near LaSalle Street is home to the CME Group's Chicago Board of Trade and Chicago Mercantile Exchange.

Aon Corporation maintains its headquarters in the Aon Center.[12] Chase Bank has its commercial and retail banking headquarters in Chase Tower.[13] Exelon also has its headquarters in the Chase Tower.[14] United Airlines has its headquarters in 77 West Wacker Drive. United moved its headquarters to Chicago from Elk Grove Township, Illinois in early 2007.[15] In addition, United's parent company, United Continental Holdings, also has its headquarters in 77 West Wacker.[16] Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association has its headquarters in the Michigan Plaza complex.[17] Sidley Austin and Morton Salt are both headquartered in the Loop.[18][19]

The Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce is located in an office in the Aon Center, the French-American Chamber of Commerce in Chicago has an office in 35 East Wacker, the Netherlands Chamber of Commerce in the United States is located in an office at 303 East Wacker Drive, and the US Mexico Chamber of Commerce Mid-America Chapter is located in an office in One Prudential Plaza.[20]

Previously the grocery store company Red & White had its headquarters in the Loop.[21][22] McDonald's was headquartered in the Loop until 1971, when it moved to Oak Brook, Illinois.[23] When Bank One Corporation existed, its headquarters were in the Bank One Plaza (now Chase Tower).[24] When Amoco existed, its headquarters were in the Amoco Building (now the Aon Center).[25]

Diplomatic missions[edit]

Several countries maintain consulates in the Loop. They include Argentina,[26] Australia,[27] Brazil[28] Canada,[29] Costa Rica,[30] the Czech Republic,[31] Ecuador,[32] El Salvador,[33] France,[34] Guatemala,[35] Haiti,[36] India,[37] Indonesia,[38] Israel,[39] The Republic of Korea,[40] the Republic of Macedonia,[41] the Netherlands,[42] Pakistan,[43] Peru,[44] the Philippines,[45] South Africa,[46] Turkey,[47] and Venezuela.[48] In addition, the Taipei Economic and Cultural Office of the Republic of China is in the Loop.[49]

Education[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Roosevelt University, Columbia College Chicago, and Tribeca Flashpoint Media Arts Academy are all located in the Loop. DePaul University also has a campus in the Loop. The University of Notre Dame & University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign run their EMBA programs in their Chicago Campuses in the Loop.

National-Louis University is located in the historic Peoples Gas Building on Michigan Avenue across the street from the Art Institute of Chicago. The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, one of the nation's largest independent schools of art and design, is headquartered in Grant Park.

Harold Washington College is a City Colleges of Chicago community college located in the Loop. Adler School of Professional Psychology is a college located in the Loop.

Robert Morris University (Illinois) is located here. Argosy University has its head offices on the thirteenth floor of 205 North Michigan Avenue in Michigan Plaza.[50][51] Harrington College of Design is located at 200 West Madison Street after relocating from the Merchandise Mart.[52] Trinity Christian College offers an accelerated teaching certification program at 1550 S. State Street in the South Loop.

Spertus Institute, a center for Jewish learning & culture, is located at 610 S. Michigan Ave. Graduate level courses (Master and Doctorate) are offered in Jewish Studies, Jewish Professional Studies and Non-profit Management. Also housed in the Spertus building is Meadville Lombard Theological School which is affiliated with the Unitarian Universalist Association, a liberal, progressive seminary offering graduate level theological and ministerial training.

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

Chicago Public Schools serves residents of the Loop. Its main administrative offices are in the 125 South Clark Street.[53][54]

Some residents are zoned to the South Loop School, while some are zoned to the Ogden School.[55] Some residents are zoned to Phillips Academy High School, while others are zoned to Wells Community Academy High School.[56]

Jones College Prep High School, is also located here.

Muchin College Prep, a Noble Network of Charter Schools, is also located here, in the heart of Chicago on State Street.

Notable landmarks in the Loop[edit]

Gallery[edit]

Chicago Board of Trade on LaSalle Street 
Daley Plaza with Picasso and City Hall in background 
South Dearborn Street 
State Street Memorial Day Parade 
Skyscrapers along the Chicago River 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Paral, Rob. "Chicago Demographics Data". Retrieved September 21, 2012. 
  2. ^ The Loop. Encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
  3. ^ Joe Thompson, Cable Car Lines in Chicago
  4. ^ Patrick T. Reardon. "It All Starts Downtown". Hartford Courant, July 26, 2004 (from the Chicago Tribune). Retrieved March 19, 2009.
  5. ^ "Home page". Illinois State Board of Education. Retrieved March 23, 2009. 
  6. ^ "Post Office Location – LOOP". United States Postal Service. Retrieved April 11, 2009. 
  7. ^ Paral, Rob. "Chicago Community Areas Historical Data". Chicago Community Areas Historical Data. Retrieved August 30, 2012. 
  8. ^ "Lakeshore East Map". 
  9. ^ "Printing House Row District". Chicago Landmarks. City of Chicago. Retrieved 1 December 2013. 
  10. ^ "Printers Row Lit Fest". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 1 December 2013. 
  11. ^ Pacific Garden Mission, Chicago Tribune
  12. ^ "Contact Us". AON Corporation. Retrieved January 31, 2009. 
  13. ^ JPMorgan History | The History of Our Firm. Jpmorganchase.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
  14. ^ "Contact Us." Exelon. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
  15. ^ "Illinois Gov. Rod R. Blagojevich and Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley Welcome Chicago’s Hometown Airline". United Airlines. July 15, 2006. Retrieved January 31, 2009. 
  16. ^ "Board of Directors." United Continental Holdings. Retrieved October 3, 2010.
  17. ^ "Contact Us." Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
  18. ^ "Chicago." Sidley Austin. Retrieved December 17, 2009.
  19. ^ "Contact Us." Morton Salt. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
  20. ^ "Chicago". SkyTeam. Retrieved January 31, 2009. 
  21. ^ Life. October 26, 1953. ISSN 0024-3019. 123 (advertisement). Retrieved from Google Books on November 6, 2011. "RED & WHITE CORPORATION • 308 WEST WASHINGTON STREET CHICAGO 6, ILLINOIS"
  22. ^ "cjcompmed00026-0002-color.pdf." Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine. November 1937. Retrieved November 6, 2011. "Chicago:[...]Suite 512, Mercantile Exchange Bldg., 208 West Washington Street,[...]"
  23. ^ Cross, Robert. "Inside Hamburger Central." Chicago Tribune. January 9, 1972. G18. Retrieved September 17, 2009.
  24. ^ "Contact Information." Bank One Corporation. April 10, 2001. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
  25. ^ "Contacts." Amoco. February 12, 1998. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
  26. ^ "Argentine Consulates in the United States". Consulate-General of Argentina in New York. Retrieved January 31, 2009. [dead link]
  27. ^ "Australian Consulate-General in Chicago, United States of America". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved January 31, 2009. 
  28. ^ "Consulate General of Brazil in Chicago". Consulate General of Brazil in Chicago. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  29. ^ "Contact Us". Consulate-General of Canada in Chicago. Retrieved January 31, 2009. 
  30. ^ "Consulates in the United States". Embassy of Costa Rica Washington, DC. Retrieved January 31, 2009. [dead link]
  31. ^ "Czech criminal history record". Consulate-General of the Czech Republic in Chicago. Retrieved January 31, 2009. 
  32. ^ "Other Consulates in the USA". Consulate-General of Ecuador in Chicago. Retrieved January 31, 2009. 
  33. ^ "Norte América". Consulate-General of El Salvador in Miami. Retrieved January 31, 2009. 
  34. ^ "Address and Hours of operation". Consulate-General of France in Chicago. Retrieved January 31, 2009. 
  35. ^ "Home page". Consulate-General of Guatemala in Chicago. Retrieved January 31, 2009. 
  36. ^ "Welcome to the Consulate General of the Republic of Haiti in Chicago". Consulate-General of Haiti in Chicago. Retrieved January 31, 2009. 
  37. ^ "Consulate General of India, Chicago - Home". Consulate General of India, Chicago. Retrieved December 18, 2012. 
  38. ^ "Home page". Consulate-General of Indonesia in Chicago. Retrieved January 31, 2009. 
  39. ^ "General info: Mission Location". Consulate-General of Israel in Chicago. Retrieved January 31, 2009. 
  40. ^ http://south-korea.embassy-online.net/South-Korea-Consulate-General-Chicago.php.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  41. ^ "Diplomatic missions" (in Macedonian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Macedonia. Retrieved May 2, 2009. 
  42. ^ "Home page". Consulate-General of the Netherlands in Chicago. Retrieved January 31, 2009. [dead link]
  43. ^ "Chicago Consulate". Embassy of Pakistan in Washington, DC. Retrieved January 31, 2009. [dead link]
  44. ^ "Jurisdicciones Consulares en USA". Consulate-General of Peru in Chicago. Retrieved January 31, 2009. [dead link]
  45. ^ "Contact Us". Consulate-General of the Philippines in Chicago. Retrieved January 31, 2009. 
  46. ^ "Other Missions". Consulate-General of South Africa in New York. Retrieved January 31, 2009. 
  47. ^ "Contact". Embassy of Turkey in Washington, D.C. Retrieved January 31, 2009. 
  48. ^ "Home page". Consulate-General of Venezuela in Chicago. Retrieved January 31, 2009. 
  49. ^ "Home". Taipei Economic and Cultural Office Chicago. Retrieved January 31, 2009. 
  50. ^ Baeb, Eddie. (November 14, 2007). "School moving Chicago campus, HQ to Michigan Avenue". Chicago Business News. Retrieved January 31, 2009. 
  51. ^ "Argosy University, Chicago Campus 2nd Semester Summer Classes Start Today at New Location on Michigan Avenue". Fox Business. Retrieved January 31, 2009. [dead link]
  52. ^ "History of Our Design School". Interiordesign.edu. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  53. ^ "Board meeting schedule." Chicago Public Schools. Retrieved November 7, 2009.
  54. ^ "125 South Clark Street." MB Real Estate. Retrieved November 7, 2009.
  55. ^ "Near North/West/Central Elementary Schools." Chicago Public Schools. Retrieved November 7, 2009.
  56. ^ "West/Central/South High Schools." Chicago Public Schools. Retrieved November 7, 2009.
  57. ^ Roberta Smith (May 13, 2009). "A Grand and Intimate Modern Art Trove". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-06-13. 
  58. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Chicago Landmarks: Alphabetical Listing. City of Chicago's Official site. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
  59. ^ Noreen S. Ahmed-Ullah (July 16, 2008). "Buckingham Fountain's $25 million renovation to begin after Labor Day". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2011-06-08. 
  60. ^ "A toast to the skyline". Chicago Tribune (Tribune Company). November 16, 2007. pp. 2:3. 
  61. ^ Wolfe, Gerard R. (1996). Chicago: In and Around the Loop. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 210. ISBN 0-07-071390-1. 
  62. ^ Liza Kaufman Hogan (November 5, 2008). "Chicago's Grant Park turns into jubilation park". CNN. Retrieved 2008-11-11. 
  63. ^ "Conventions: The Cost of the New Chicago Fire". Time magazine. January 27, 1967
  64. ^ Orchestra Hall, NHL Database, National Historic Landmarks Program. Retrieved February 10, 2007.
  65. ^ "Sears Tower Being Renamed". Chicago Breaking News. March 12, 2009

External links[edit]