South Pars / North Dome Gas-Condensate field
|South Pars / North Dome Field|
|Start of production||1989|
|Peak of production (gas)||60,000 million cubic feet per day (1,700×106 m3/d)|
|Estimated gas in place||1,800,000×109 cu ft (51,000×109 m3)|
|Recoverable gas||1,260,000×109 cu ft (36,000×109 m3)|
|Producing formations||Kangan (Triassic)
Upper Dalan (Permian)
The South Pars / North Dome field is a natural gas condensate field located in the Persian Gulf. It is the world's largest gas field, shared between Iran and Qatar. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), the field holds an estimated 1,800 trillion cubic feet (51 trillion cubic metres) of in-situ natural gas and some 50 billion barrels (7.9 billion cubic metres) of natural gas condensates.
This gas field covers an area of 9,700 square kilometres (3,700 sq mi), of which 3,700 square kilometres (1,400 sq mi) (South Pars) is in Iranian territorial waters and 6,000 square kilometres (2,300 sq mi) (North Dome) is in Qatari territorial waters.
The field consists of two independent gas-bearing formations, Kangan (Triassic) and Upper Dalan (Permian). Each formation is divided into two different reservoir layers, separated by impermeable barriers. The field consists of four independent reservoir layers K1, K2, K3, and K4.
The K1 and K3 units are mainly composed of dolomites and anhydrites while K2 and K4, which constitute major gas reservoirs, comprise limestone and dolomite. A massive anhydrite (the Nar Member) separates the K4 from the underlying K5 unit which has poor reservoir qualities. The gross pay zone in the South Pars field is approximately 450 m thick, extending from depths of approximately 2750 to 3200 m. Reservoir strata dip gently to the NE. The average thickness of the reservoir units declines from South Pars (some 450 metres (1,480 ft)) to North field (385 metres (1,263 ft)). As in other reservoir structures in neighboring areas, the reservoir in the Qatar Arch is cut by a set of NNW-SSE trending faults. Diagenesis has a major effect on reservoir quality of the Field.
The field is a part of the N-trending Qatar Arch structural feature that is bounded by Zagros fold belt to the north and northeast.
In the field, gas accumulation is mostly limited to the Permian–Triassic stratigraphic units. These units known as the Kangan–Dalan Formations constitute very extensive natural gas reservoirs in the field and Persian Gulf area, which composed of carbonate–evaporite series also known as the Khuff Formation.
Permian–Early Triassic has been divided into Faraghan (Early Permian), Dalan (Late Permian) and Kangan (Early Triassic) Formations.
According to International Energy Agency (IEA), the combined structure is the world's largest gas field.
In-place volumes are estimated to be around 1,800 trillion cubic feet (51 trillion cubic metres) gas in place and some 50 billion barrels (7.9 billion cubic metres) of natural gas condensate in place. With in place volumes equivalent to 360 billion barrels (57 billion cubic metres) of oil (310 billion boe of gas and 50 billion boe of natural gas condensate) the field is the world's biggest conventional hydrocarbon accumulation.
The field recoverable gas reserve is equivalent to some 215 billion barrels (34.2 billion cubic metres) of oil and it also holds about 16 billion barrels (2.5 billion cubic metres) of recoverable condensate corresponding of about 230 billion barrels (37 billion cubic metres) of oil equivalent recoverable hydrocarbons.
The gas recovery factor of the field is about 70%, corresponding of about 1,260 trillion cubic feet (36×1012 m3) of total recoverable gas reserves which stands for about 19% of world recoverable gas reserves.
The estimates for the Iranian section are 500 trillion cubic feet (14×1012 m3) of natural gas in place and around 360 trillion cubic feet (10×1012 m3) of recoverable gas which stands for 36% of Iran's total proven gas reserves and 5.6% of the worlds proven gas reserves.
The estimates for the Qatari section are 900 trillion cubic feet (25×1012 m3) of recoverable gas which stands for almost 99% of Qatar's total proven gas reserves and 14% of the worlds proven gas reserves.
Table 1-"South Pars / North Field Gas Reserves"
|In Place Gas Reserve (trillion cu ft)||Recoverable Gas Reserve (trillion cu ft)|
However, since the field is a common field and the reservoir is highly homogenous, the ultimate recoverable reserves of each country may vary from this technical assessment which only considers the static data and does not include rate of gas migration. So, it is better to say that the ultimate recoverable reserves of each country would be a factor of cumulative gas production by each of them.
The Iranian section also holds 18 billion barrels (2.9 billion cubic metres) of condensate in place of which some 9 billion barrels (1.4 billion cubic metres) are believed to be recoverable, while Qatari section believed to contains some 30 billion barrels (4.8×109 m3) of condensate in place and at least some 10 billion barrels (1.6 billion cubic metres) of recoverable condensate.
The field is rich in liquids and yields approximately 40 barrels (6.4 m3) of condensate per 1 million cubic feet (28×103 m3) of gas. It has also very high level of well productivity which in average stands for 100 million cubic feet (2.8×106 m3) per day per well.
In 2005, Qatar Petroleum became worried the North Dome’s reserves were being developed too quickly, which could reduce reservoir pressure and possibly damage its long-term production potential. In early 2005, the government placed a moratorium on additional development projects at the North Dome pending a study of the field’s reservoirs. This assessment is not expected to end until after 2009, meaning new projects are unlikely to be signed before 2010. However, this did not affect projects approved or underway before the moratorium.
On 29 October 2007, Qatargas CEO Faisal Al Suwaidi stated that the 5 year moratorium on new North Field gas development projects, imposed in 2005, could be extended to 2011 or 2012.
The 2005 moratorium by Qatar and the subsequent extension of that raised some questions about the actual proven reserves in Qatari side of the field. There is some news that ConocoPhillips drilled an unexpected dry holes in the North Field and this event was at least a partial catalyst for a revamped perspective on the North field structure and potential.
Another supporting evidence for skepticism about the real scale of Qatari's reserves comes from the latest ongoing exploration round in Qatar which is targeting exploration of gas in pre-Khuff formation. Even one of the blocks is exactly located beneath the North Dome Field.
Some petroleum industry experts believe that 900 trillion cubic feet (25 trillion cubic metres) of natural gas reserves reported by Qatar stands for gas in place volume and consequently Qatar's recoverable gas reserves should be about 500 trillion cubic feet (14 trillion cubic metres) to 600 trillion cubic feet (17 trillion cubic metres). The moratorium applied by Qatar Petroleum for future development of the field is a supporting evidence of this belief. They believe, if as Qatar claims the North Dome holds 900 trillion cubic feet (25 trillion cubic metres) recoverable gas, the reservoir should be capable of producing much more than current planned capacity (see Table 2). The results of current ongoing study undertaken by Qatar on the field will determine the actual reserves of the Qatari section.
South Pars development
The South Pars Field was discovered in 1990 by National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC). The Pars Oil and Gas Company. a subsidiary of NIOC, has jurisdiction over all South Pars-related projects. Field development has been delayed by various problems - technical (i.e., high levels of mercaptans and foul-smelling sulfur compounds), contractual issues and, recently, politics.
Gas production started from the field by commissioning phase 2 in December 2002 to produce 1 billion cubic feet per day (28 million cubic metres per day) of wet gas. Gas is sent to shore via pipeline, and processed at Assaluyeh.
Condensate production from South Pars is currently 200,000 barrels per day (32,000 m3/d), and by 2010, could increase to over 500,000 barrels per day (79,000 m3/d). As of December 2010, South pars gas field's production capacity stands at 75 million cubic metres (2.6 billion cubic feet) of natural gas per day. Gas production at South Pars rose by nearly 30% between March 2009 and March 2010. The field's reserves are estimated at 14 trillion cubic metres (490 trillion cubic feet) of natural gas and 18 billion barrels (2.9 billion cubic metres) of natural gas condensates. Production at South Pars gas field will rise to 175 million cubic metres (6.2 billion cubic feet) per day in 2012.
NIOC is planning to develop the field in 24 to 30 phases, capable of producing about 25 billion cubic feet (710 million cubic metres) to 30 billion cubic feet (850 million cubic metres) of natural gas per day.
Each standard phase is defined for daily production of 1 billion cubic feet (28 million cubic metres) of natural gas, convert|40,000|oilbbl of condensate, 1500 tonnes of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and 200 tonnes of sulfur, however some phases have some different production plans.
Each of the phases is estimated to have an average capital spend of around US$1.5 billion, and most will be led by foreign oil firms working in partnership with local companies. Development of a South Pars phase by the Norwegian Statoil company has become infamous after extensive report of misconduct and bribery to the Horton Investments, an Iranian consultancy firm owned by Mehdi Hashemi Rafsanjani, son of former Iranian President Hashemi Rafsanjani. Statoil committed to spending US $300 million to construct three production platforms and a pipeline. The government of Mr Ahmadinejad, who came to power in 2005, has favoured local firms over foreign companies in the energy and other sectors.
By the beginning of 2008 phases 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 has been brought to production and by the end of 2008 phases 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 will be on stream. Phases 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 27 and 28 are under different development stages.
Financing is expected to come from a variety of sources including the Oil Ministry, withdrawals sources will come from a variety of sources including the Oil Ministry, withdrawals from the National Development Fund, the issuance of bonds both domestically and also internationally, and from domestic banks through an energy fund.
The Oil Ministry has called for the issue of more than $12 billion worth of bonds for a period of three years. Three billion euros will be allocated to the South Pars gas field and the rest will go to oil field development projects. As of December 2010, about $30 billion have been invested in South Pars gas fields' development plan. It is estimated that the amount will reach over $40 billion by 2015. The Ministry of Petroleum in Iran said in a revised statement in 2011 that Iran will invest some $90 billion between 2011 and 2015 ($60 billion will be allocated to the upstream sector and the rest to the downstream sector).
Once the eight remaining phases are fully developed by 2014, the facility will produce a total of 320,000 barrels per day (51,000 m3/d) of natural gas condensates and 4 million tons of sulfur as well as an annual sum of 4.4 million tons of LPG and 4 million tons of ethane gas.
South Pars Phases
- Phase 1 was developed by Petropars to produce 1 billion cubic feet (28 million cubic metres) per day of natural gas, 40,000 barrels per day (6,400 m3/d) of condensate, 1500 tons of LPG per day plus 200 tons of sulfur per day.
- Phases 2 and 3 were developed by a consortium of Total S.A., Petronas and Gazprom to produce 2 billion cubic feet (57 million cubic metres) per day of natural gas, 80,000 barrels per day (13,000 m3/d) of condensate, 3000 tons of LPG per day plus 400 tons of sulfur per day. It came online in March 2003.
- Phases 4 and 5 were developed by Eni and Petropars, to produce 2 billion cubic feet (57 million cubic metres) per day of rich natural gas, 75 million cubic feet (2.1 million cubic metres) per day of ethane, 80,000 barrels per day (13,000 m3/d) of condensate, 3000 tons of LPG per day plus 400 tons of sulfur per day.
- Phases 6, 7 and 8 being developed by Petropars and Statoil to produce lean gas for re-injection into the Aghajari oilfield, and heavy gas and condensate for export. It involves construction of three offshore platforms in addition to the land based facilities. Statoil is developing the offshore platforms while Petropars is developing the land based facilities. A 31-inch (790 mm) pipe will be laid from each platform to the coast. These phases will produce 3 billion cubic feet (85 million cubic metres) per day of natural gas, 70 million cubic feet (2.0 million cubic metres) of ethane, 120,000 barrels per day (19,000 m3/d) of condensate, 4500 tons of LPG per day plus 600 tons of sulfur per day.
- Phases 9 and 10 being developed by LG. These phases will produce 2 billion cubic feet (57 million cubic metres) per day of natural gas, 75 million cubic feet (2.1 million cubic metres) per day of ethane, 80,000 barrels per day (13,000 m3/d) of condensate, 3000 tons of LPG per day plus 400 tons of sulfur per day. Phases 9 & 10 were inaugurated by President Ahmadinejad on March 2009.
- Phases 11 will produce LNG through the Pars LNG project. The project was awarded to China National Petroleum Corporation in 2010 after that France's Total S.A. was excluded from the project by Iran.
- Phases 12 development begin carried out by Petropars as a LNG project. This phase will produce 2.5 billion cubic feet (71 million cubic metres) per day of rich natural gas, 75 million cubic feet (2.1 million cubic metres) of ethane, 80,000 barrels per day (13,000 m3/d) of natural gas condensate, 3000 tons of LPG per day plus 400 tons of sulfur per day. Venezuela’s state-owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) will finance 10% of the $7.8 billion project. Angola’s Sonangol Group has also been awarded a 20% stake in phase 12 project.
- Phase 13 and 14 development will be for Persian LNG production. Development was awarded to an Iranian company (Khatam-ol-Osea) for $5 billion. The Iranian Khatam-ol-Osea Consortium is made up of several large Iranian companies, namely Khatam al-Anbia Construction Headquarters, Oil Industries Engineering & Construction (OIEC), SADRA, ISOICO, IDRO, and NIDC. The contract to develop phase 13 was signed with a consortium comprising Mapna, SADRA and Petro Pidar Iranian companies and the phase 14 with another consortia consisting of Industrial Development and Renovation Organization (IDRO), National Iranian Drilling Company (NIDC) and Iranian Offshore Engineering and Construction Company (IOEC). Royal Dutch Shell and Repsol had been originally awarded phases 13 and 14 but were left out of the project by Iran due to their repeated delays.
- Phases 15 and 16 development was awarded to Khatam al-Anbia. These phases will produce 2 billion cubic feet (57 million cubic metres) per day of natural gas, 75 million cubic feet (2.1 million cubic metres) of ethane, 80,000 barrels per day (13,000 m3/d) of natural gas condensate, 3,000 tons of LPG per day plus 400 tons of sulfur per day. In July 2010, the project was transferred to Iran Shipbuilding & Offshore Industries Complex. At that time, the $2 billion project was already 50% complete. Phase 15 & 16 will be completed by March 2012.
- Phases 17 and 18 development was assigned to a consortium of Oil Industrial Engineering and Construction Company (OIEC), Iran Offshore Engineering and Construction (IOEC) and Petropars. These phases will produce 2 billion cubic feet (57 million cubic metres) per day of natural gas, 75 million cubic feet (2.1 million cubic metres) of ethane, 80,000 barrels per day (13,000 m3/d) of natural gas condensate, 3,000 tons of LPG per day plus 400 tons of sulfur per day. Phase 17 & 18 will be completed by March 2012.
- Phase 19 development was awarded to OIEC and Petropars. These phases will produce 2 billion cubic feet (57 million cubic metres) per day of natural gas, 75 million cubic feet (2.1 million cubic metres) of ethane, 80,000 barrels per day (13,000 m3/d) of natural gas condensate, 3,000 tons of LPG per day plus 400 tons of sulfur per day. As it is understood this phase is defined within phase 1 so it can be regarded as some kind of expansion for phase 1.
- Phases 20 and 21 development was awarded to OIEC. 2 billion cubic feet (57 million cubic metres) per day of natural gas, 75 million cubic feet (2.1 million cubic metres) of ethane, 80,000 barrels per day (13,000 m3/d) of natural gas condensate, 3,000 tons of LPG per day plus 400 tons of sulfur per day. In May 2008, Repsol and Royal Dutch Shell agreed to exchange block 13 with block 20 or 21
- Phases 22, 23 and 24 were awarded to Khatam al-Anbia, Petro Sina Arian and SADRA and are located in the north-eastern frontier of the field. The aim of phases 22, 23 and 24 development is to produce 42.5 million cubic metres (1.50 billion cubic feet) per day of natural gas, 57,000 barrels per day (9,100 m3/d) of natural gas condensate, and 300 tons of sulfur per day. The three phases also are designed to produce 800,000 tons of LNG and 750,000 tons of ethane per year.
- Phases 25 and 26 are in tender.
- Phases 27 and 28 development was assigned to Petropars on an EPC scheme. These phases will produce 2 billion cubic feet (57 million cubic metres) per day of natural gas, 75 million cubic feet (2.1 million cubic metres) of ethane, 75,000 barrels per day (11,900 m3/d) of natural gas condensate, 3,000 tons of LPG per day plus 400 tons of sulfur per day.
Table 2-South Pars Gas and Condensate Production Plan
|9&10||Consortium of LG Korea, OIEC and IOEC||1000||2000||2000||2000||2000||2000||2000||2000||2000|
|11||China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC)||1000||2000||2000|
|15&16||Khatam al-Anbia, replaced with OSOICO in 2010.||1000||2000||2000|
|17&18||Consortium of IDRO, IOEC and OIEC||1000||2000||2000|
|19||IOEC & Petropars||500||1500|
|Total Gas Production million cu ft/d||2,000||2,500||4,750||4,750||4,750||9,250||10,450||10,450||11,450||12,450||13,450||17,950||24,950||29,450|
|Total Condensate Production kbbl/d||80||100||190||190||190||370||420||420||460||500||540||720||1,000||1,200|
Table Sources: NIOC, Pars Oil & Gas Company, Shana and Media
Development delays and criticisms
While several phases of South Pars gas field are still waiting for development and the ongoing development phases are facing delays, NIOC authorities are conducting negotiations for development of other Iranian offshore gas fields like North Pars, Kish, Golshan, Ferdows and Lavan.
Many Iranian energy analysts believe that NIOC authorities should focus on full development of South Pars field prior to conduction of any new project for development of other undeveloped Iranian offshore gas fields.
The priority of South Pars full development is not only due to its shared nature with Qatar, but also with huge capability of the field to add significant liquid production to Iranian liquid export capacity.
On the 27 February 2009 one of the members of Iranian Parliaments, criticized lack of attention on the importance of acceleration of South Pars field development and the field development delays.
Scale and impacts of delays
By the end of 2008 Qatar’s cumulative production from the field was two times higher than Iran's cumulative production from the field. Qatar produced about 20 trillion cubic feet (570 billion cubic metres) of natural gas in the period of 1997 to 2008, while Iran produced about 10 trillion cubic feet (280 billion cubic metres) of natural gas in the period of 2003 to 2008. The 2:1 ratio of Qatar's cumulative gas production from the field to Iran's is forecasted to continue at least for the short term: by the end of 2011, Qatar's total cumulative production from the field will reach 41 trillion cubic feet (1.2 trillion cubic metres) of natural gas, while Iran's will stand at 21 trillion cubic feet (590 billion cubic metres) of natural gas in the same year. The ratio is maintained mainly because Qatar's annual production is almost twice the Iranian production level.
In 2011, Qatar will reach an annual production capacity 8 trillion cubic feet (230 billion cubic metres) of natural gas per year, while in that year Iran's production capacity will reach 4 trillion cubic feet (110 billion cubic metres) per year. If Iran could implement all of its South Pars planned development projects on time, then it would reach the production capacity of 8 trillion cubic feet (230 billion cubic metres) of natural gas per year, not earlier than 2015.
The most important impact of delays and lower production in Iranian side would be migration of gas to the Qatari part and a loss of condensate yield due to decreased field pressure.
North Dome development
The North Dome also known as North Field, was discovered in 1971, with the completion of Shell's North West Dome-1 well.
With falling oil and associated gas production, and depletion of the Khuff reserves, developing the North field became imperative. In 1984 it was decided that development would occur in phases. Phase 1 involved installing production, processing, and transport facilities for 800 million cubic feet (23 million cubic metres) of natural gas per day to serve local utilities and produce 5,000 tons per day of propane, butane, gasoline, and naphtha. In 1989 a gas sweetening plant and sulfur processing unit were added. Phase one was online by early 1991. Gas from North Field phase one has been primarily used for local demand, and injection into the Dukhan field. Phase two was expected to involve selling North Field gas to its neighbors, possibly through a Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) gas grid. Phase three involved exporting to Europe and Asia. Even before the Persian Gulf War, this phase ran into trouble. To justify the investment, Qatar Petroleum (QP) needed two large-scale long-term supply contracts. Despite efforts from QP managing director Jaber al-Marri, contracts were not forthcoming. This switched emphasis to domestic outlets. In 1988, a firm of international consultants presented a plan to QP for developing domestic projects to utilize Qatari gas. Suggestions included an aluminum smelter, a ferro-alloy production plant, methanol production facilities, and expansion of petrochemical and fertilizer operations.
Qatar rapidly expanded its production and exports from North Dome Field. Here are a number of milestones:
- 1989: Qatar begins production from North Field phase one (Alpha) at rate of 800 million cubic feet (23 million cubic metres) of natural gas per day.
- 1997: Qatar begins exporting by sending 5.7 billion cubic feet (160 million cubic metres) (0.16 million tons) of LNG to Spain.
- 2005: Qatar exports a total of 987 billion cubic feet (27.9 billion cubic metres) (27.9 million tons) of LNG. Of this, 316 billion cubic feet (8.9 billion cubic metres) went to Japan, 293 billion cubic feet (8.3 billion cubic metres) to South Korea, 213 billion cubic feet (6.0 billion cubic metres) to India, 161 billion cubic feet (4.6 billion cubic metres) to Spain, and 3 billion cubic feet (85 million cubic metres) to the United States.
- 2006: Qatar surpasses Indonesia as the world's largest LNG exporter.
- 2007: In March QP solidifies its leading role when RasGas completes its fifth LNG production train, giving the country 1.5 trillion cubic feet (42 billion cubic metres) of annual liquefaction capacity, the most in the world.
Subsequent phases of the North field development provided feedstock to LNG plants at Ras Laffan Industrial City.
Based on the current Qatar planned projects, production of LNG from North Dome Field may reach to 23 billion cubic feet (650 million cubic metres) to 27 billion cubic feet (760 million cubic metres) per day by 2012, any further increase in the production level of the Qatari side of the field is subject to the result of the ongoing study by Qatar Petroleum which is supposed to be released in 2012.
The prospects for further growth in Qatari gas production beyond 2012 are clouded by the uncertainty created by a moratorium on new export projects, which was imposed in 2005 while the effect of existing projects on North Field reservoirs was studied.
In order to monetize North Dome's vast resources of gas and liquids, Qatar has undertaken ambitious plans for establishment of the world's biggest LNG and GTL industry.
Qatar's LNG industry
Since 1997, Qatar has been exporting LNG from the North Field. In 2006, Qatar surpassed Indonesia as the world’s largest LNG exporter. Based on the massive gas resources of the field, Qatar is developing the world biggest LNG export facilities in order to reach the capacity of 77 million metric ton per year by 2012 (see table below).
Qatar's GTL industry
Oryx GTL (Sasol)
The ORYX GTL plant was commissioned in early 2007, as the first operational GTL plant in Qatar. The plant nameplate capacity is 34,000 barrels per day (5,400 m3/d), however, the plant has faced technical challenges and did not reach full capacity during the first year of operation. Modifications recommended by Template:Sasol assist with overcoming this shortfall and production capacity was reached/ maintained from 2009 onwards. The plant uses 330 million cubic feet per day (9.3×106 m3/d) of natural gas from the Al Khaleej Gas project. The ORYX GTL project uses Sasol's Slurry Phase Distillate (SPD) process.
Pearl GTL (Shell)
The project is under construction and will be the world's largest GTL plant which will have the capacity of 140,000 barrels per day (22,000 m3/d) of middle distillates and significant quantities of LPG and condensate. The first of two 70,000 barrels per day (11,000 m3/d) GTL trains is planned to start production in 2011. Around 1.6 billion cubic feet per day (45×106 m3/d) of natural gas will be supplied from the North field to the project. Shell has 100% of the equity in the integrated upstream and plant project.
Table 3-North Field Production Plan ( Million Cubic Feet per Day).
|Total million cu ft/d||860||1300||2700||2700||2700||2700||3400||4400||6000||6000||9840||13240||18340||20000||23000|
Table Sources: QatarGas, RasGas, Qatar Petroleum and internet
- Aghajari Gas Injection Project
- Dolphin Gas Project
- Ferdowsi Gas Field
- Golshan Gas Field
- Iran Gas Trunkline (IGAT)
- Iran Natural Gas Reserves
- Iran–Pakistan–India gas pipeline
- Kish Gas Field
- NIOC Recent Discoveries
- Pearl GTL
- Persian LNG
- Persian Pipeline
- World Largest Gas Fields
References and footnotes
- IEA, World Energy Outlook 2008 - Chapter 12 - Natural gas resources and production prospects, p.298
- CEDIGAZ:Current status of status of the World's gas giants
- "Gas Prospective Areas in the Zagros Domain of Iran and in Persian Gulf Iranian Waters". • Search and Discovery. • (PDF)
- H. Rahimpour-Bonab, B. Esrafili-Dizaji, V. Tavakoli (2010) DOLOMITIZATION AND ANHYDRITE PRECIPITATION IN PERMO-TRIASSIC CARBONATES AT THE SOUTH PARS GASFIELD, OFFSHORE IRAN: CONTROLS ON RESERVOIR QUALITY. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1747-5457.2010.00463.x/abstract
- V. Tavakoli, H. Rahimpour-Bonab, B. Esrafili-Dizaji (2011) Diagenetic controlled reservoir quality of Southnext termprevious termParsnext term gas field, an integrated approach. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631071310002191
- Jafar Aalia, Jafar., Hossain Rahimpour-Bonaba and Mohammad Reza Kamali. • "Geochemistry and origin of the world's largest gas field from Persian Gulf, Iran". • Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering. • (Volume 50, Issues 3-4). • March 16, 2006, • pp.161-175.
- IRAN - The Geology. • APS Review Gas Market Trends. • April 2, 2007
- 1 Barrel of crude oil = 5.8 × 106 BTU
- Eni World Oil and Gas Review 2006. • ENI.
- Qatar Petroleum Annual Report 2005, Page 25
- Pars Oil & Gas Company
- Qatar Petroleum, Speech by Qatar’s Minister of Energy and Industry, Doha, Qatar, May 5, 2003 
- Pars Oil and Gas Company
- IHS Energy
- "Moratorium on North Field development". • The Peninsula Qatar. • May 10, 2006
- Cohen, Dave. "Questions About the World's Biggest Natural Gas Field". The Oil Drum. June 9, 2006
- World Gas Intelligence Vol.XIX, No.51, December 17, 2008 - Page 4
- Iran Oil Ministry Annual Bulletin, 5th Edition,(available in Persian)(كتاب نفت و توسعه).
- "Market Profile for Iran", Energy and Electricity Forecast, Economist Intelligence Unit, 18 June 2008
- ^ http://regimechangeiran.blogspot.com/2005/03/rafsanjani-statoil-bribery-covered-in.html
- Nasseri, Ladane (6 June 2010). "Iran Ends Talks With Shell, Repsol to Develop South Pars Natural-Gas Field". Bloomberg.
- Shana.ir, NIOC Official News Agency
- Shana.ir, NIOC Official News Agency
- "Repsol, Shell renegotiating Iran gas deal: Repsol company source". • AFP. • May 12, 2008
- Fars News Agency, 27 February 2009
- EIA Qatar (2007)
- Qatar Petroleum [www.qp.com.qa]
- Qatar: Natural Gas. • Energy Information Administration (EIA). • United States Department of Energy
- QatarGas, RasGas, Qatar Petroleum and Internet
- Qatar: Country Analysis 2007 - Energy Information Administration - (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document)
- Iran: Country Analysis 2006 - Energy Information Administration - (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document)
- Northern Qatar Arch Extension - Zagros Fold Belt Province - USGS - (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document)
- World Energy Outlook 2005 - International Energy Agency - (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document)
- Annual Report 2005 - Qatar Petroleum - (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document)