South Region, Brazil
|— Region —|
|States||Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina|
|• Region||576,409.6 km2 (222,553.0 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 census)|
|• Density||48/km2 ( 120/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||2nd|
|• Total||R$502,9 billion (2nd)|
|• Per capita||R$ 18,257 (2nd)|
|• Category||0.890 – high (1st)|
|• Life expectancy||77.2 years (1st)|
|• Infant mortality||7.7% (5th)|
|• Literacy||97.3% (1st)|
|Time zone||BRT (UTC-03)|
|• Summer (DST)||BRST (UTC-02)|
The South Region of Brazil (Portuguese: Região Sul do Brasil) is one of the five regions of Brazil. It includes the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul and covers 576,409.6 km ², being the smallest portion of the country, occupying only about 7% of the territory of Brazil. Its whole area is smaller than that of the state of Minas Gerais, in Southeast Brazil, for example. It is a great tourist, economic and cultural pole. It borders Uruguay, Argentina, and Paraguay as well as Center-West Region, Southeast Region and the Atlantic Ocean.
Pre-Columbian History 
By the time the first European explorers arrived, all parts of the territory were inhabited by semi-nomadic Indian tribes, who subsisted on a combination of hunting, fishing, gathering, and agriculture.
Portuguese colonization 
European colonization in Southern Brazil started with the arrival of Portuguese and Spanish Jesuits. They lived among the Indians and made them become Catholics. Colonists from São Paulo (Bandeirantes) arrived in the same period. For decades, the Portuguese and Spanish crowns disputed over this region. Due to this conflict, the King of Portugal encouraged the immigration of settlers from the Azores Islands to Southern Brazil. Between 1748 and 1756, six thousand Azoreans arrived. They composed over half of the population of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina by the late 18th century.
German settlement 
Soon after Brazil's independence from Portugal (1822), the first Germans came to Brazil. Settlers from Germany were brought to work as small farmers, because there were many land holdings without workers. To attract the immigrants, the Brazilian government had promised large tracts of land, where they could settle with their families and colonize the region. The first immigrants arrived in 1824, settling in the city of São Leopoldo. In the next five decades, another 28 thousand Germans were brought to Rio Grande do Sul to work as small farmers in the countryside. By 1914, it is estimated that 50 thousand Germans had settled in this state.
In Santa Catarina, most German immigrants were not brought by the Brazilian government, but by private groups, such as the Hamburg Colonization Society, which were promoting the immigration of Europeans to the Americas. They created rural communities or colonies to these immigrants. Many of these German colonies had a great development and became large cities, such as Blumenau and Joinville, the largest city in Santa Catarina.
War of Tatters 
The War of Tatters was a Republican uprising that began in Southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina) in 1835. The rebels, led by generals Bento Gonçalves da Silva and Antônio de Souza Netto with the support of the Italian warrior Giuseppe Garibaldi, surrendered to imperial forces in 1845. This conflict occurred because in Rio Grande do Sul, the state's main product, the charque (bovine dried and salted meat), suffered the hard competition of charque from Uruguay and Argentina, which had free access to the Brazilian market while the gauchos had to pay high taxes inside Brazil. The Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the rebels in 1839. With his help the revolution spread through Santa Catarina, in the northern border of Rio Grande do Sul. After many conflicts, in 1845 the peace negotiations finished with the war.
Italian settlement 
Italian immigrants started arriving in Brazil in 1875. They were mostly peasants from the Veneto, but also from Trentino and Lombardia, Northern Italy. They were attracted to Southern Brazil to get their own lands and populate the South. Most of the immigrants worked as small farmers, mainly cultivating grapes in the Serra Gaúcha. Italian immigration to the region lasted until 1914, with a total of 100 thousand Italians settling in Rio Grande do Sul in this period and many others in Santa Catarina and Paraná.
In 1898, there were 300 thousand people of Italian origin in Rio Grande do Sul, 50 thousand in Santa Catarina and 30 thousand in Paraná. Nowadays, their Southern Brazilian descendants are 9.7 million, composing 35.9% of Southern Brazil's population.
The region received large numbers of European immigrants during the 19th century, who have had a large influence on its demography and culture. The main ethnic origins of Southern Brazil are Portuguese, Italian, Polish, and German.
|Porto Alegre||Rio Grande do Sul||1,409,351|
|Caxias do Sul||Rio Grande do Sul||435,564|
|Pelotas||Rio Grande do Sul||328,275|
|Canoas||Rio Grande do Sul||323,827|
Racial composition 
|Skin color/Race (2008)|
|White (European, Caucasian)||78.65%|
The region is highly urbanized (82%) and many cities are famous for their urban planning, like Curitiba and Maringá. It has a relatively high standard of living, with the highest Human Development Index of Brazil, 0.859 (2007), and the second highest per capita income of the country, $13.396, behind only the Southeast Region. The region also has a 94% literacy rate.
Portuguese, the official language of Brazil, is spoken by the entire population. In the south countryside, dialects of German or Italian origins are also spoken. The predominant dialects are Hunsrückisch and Venetian (or Talian). In Rio Grande do Sul and Curitiba there are some Yiddish speakers. In the northern region of Paraná there are Japanese speakers. There are Polish language and Ukrainian language speakers in Paraná as well,.
Palaeontological tourism 
The Rio Grande do Sul has a great potential for palaeontological tourism, with many paleontological sites and museums in Paleorrota. There is a large area in the center of the state that belongs to the Triassic. Here lived Rhynchosaur, thecodonts, exaeretodons, Staurikosaurus, Guaibasaurus, Saturnalia tupiniquim, Sacisaurus, Unaysaurus and many others.
See also 
- Immigration to Brazil
- German Brazilian
- Italian Brazilian
- Polish Brazilian
- Spanish immigration to Brazil
- Ukrainian Brazilian
- South Brazil Tourist Guide
- Pátria Sulista, official page
- RS VIRTUAL - O Rio Grande do Sul na Internet - História - Missões - Como foi o surgimento dos Sete Povos das Missões
- Imigrantes: Açorianos
- Imigração no Brasil: Histórico. Italianos Espanhóis Japoneses Judeus Portugueses Sírios e Libaneses Alemães
- "Estimativas populacionais 2008". Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). Retrieved 2008-09-01.
- "PNAD" (in Portuguese). 2008. Retrieved 2010-01-18.
- "Cresce o número de turistas estrangeiros em Foz do Iguaçu". Ministério do Turismo. Retrieved 2010-01-21.
- O alemão lusitano do Sul do Brasil | Cultura | Deutsche Welle | 20.04.2004