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R to L : Bira Beach, Tongkonan Traditional House of Toraja, Karst Maros, Bantimurung Waterfall, Ramma Valley in Bawakaraeng Mountain, Pine forest Malino, Parangloe Waterfall, Takabonerate national park, Londa cave, Samalona Island
|Motto: Todo Poli
(Keep the faith)
Location of South Sulawesi in Indonesia
|Founded||Oct 19th 1669|
|Founded As Province||Dec 13th 1960|
|• Governor||Syahrul Yasin Limpo (Golkar Party)|
|• Total||46,717.48 km2 (18,037.72 sq mi)|
|• Density||170/km2 (450/sq mi)|
|• Ethnic groups||Bugis (41.9%), Makassarese (25.43%), Toraja (9.02%), Mandar (6.1%)|
|• Religion||Islam (89.62%), Protestantism (7.62%), Roman Catholicism (1.54%), Buddhism (0.24%), Hinduism (0.72%), Confucianism (0.004) |
|• Languages||Buginese Makassarese (regional)|
|Time zone||CIT (UTC+08)|
The 2010 census recorded the province’s population as 8,032,551 - making it the most populated province in Sulawesi (46% of the population of Sulawesi is in South Sulawesi), and the sixth most populated in Indonesia. Its capital, Makassar, is a major regional center and the largest city on the island; it is situated on the western side of Sulawesi's southern peninsula.
- 1 Geography
- 2 Administrative Divisions
- 3 Demographics
- 4 History
- 5 Condition of South Sulawesi
- 6 Natural resources
- 7 Traditional
- 8 Radio and TV station list
- 9 References
South Sulawesi Province is located at 4°20′S 120°15′E. Its area is 45,764.53 km ². The province is bordered by Central Sulawesi and West Sulawesi in the north, the Gulf of Bone and Southeast Sulawesi in the east, by Makassar Strait to the west and the Flores Sea to the south.
Five years after independence, the government issued Law No. 21 of 1950, which became the basis of the legal establishment for Sulawesi province. Ten years later, the government passed Law No. 47 of 1960 which endorsed the formation of the South and Southeast Sulawesi. Four years after that, through Act No. 13 of 1964, the provinces of South Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi were separated.
Forty years later, the South Sulawesi government was split into two, with the regencies of Majene, Mamasa, Mamuju, North Mamuju and Polewali Mandar - until that date in South Sulawesi Province - were separated off into a new West Sulawesi province on October 5, 2004 under Act No. 26 of 2004.
The remaining South Sulawesi Province is divided into twenty-one regencies and 3 independent cities, listed below with their (provisional) populations at the 2010 Census.
|Selayar Islands Regency
|Pangkajene and Islands Regency
(Pangkajene Dan Kepulauan)
|Sidenreng Rappang Regency||1,883.25||238,419||271,801||284,127||Pangkajene Sidenreng|
|Tana Toraja Regency||2,054.30||392,726||221,795||231,013||Makale|
|North Toraja Regency
|North Luwu Regency
|East Luwu Regency
- # The 2000 Census population for Palopo city is included in the figure for Luwu Regency.
- * The 2000 Census population for North Toraja Regency is included in the figure for Tana Toraja Regency, which was formed in 2008 following the publication of Commission President Yudhoyono, numbered R.68/Pres/12/2007 on 10 December 2007, regarding the expansion of the twelve original districts and cities.
- *** The 2000 Census population for East Luwu Regency is included in the figure for North Luwu Regency.
South Sulawesi has a diverse range of ethnic groups. Here are three of them:
- The Buginese are the largest ethnic group in Sulawesi. This people inhabits the middle of the southern peninsula of Sulawesi. Many of these people have migrated to the outer islands around Sulawesi, even as far as Malaysia.
- The Makassarese are the second largest ethnic group in South Sulawesi. Their language is Makassar. Makassar people inhabit the southern part of the southern peninsula of Sulawesi including Jeneponto, Takalar, Bulukumba, Bantaeng, Gowa, Maros and Makassar. Total population is around 3 million people
- The Toraja are an ethnic group indigenous to a mountainous region of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Their population is approximately 650,000, of which 450,000 still live in the regency of Tana Toraja ("Land of Toraja").
- Makassar language is a language family spoken in Makassar and surrounding areas.
- Bugis language is one of the family of languages spoken in the region up to Pinrang Bone, Sinjai, Barru, Pangkep, Maros, Pare Pare, Sidrap, Wajo, Soppeng Until Enrekang area, this language is the predominant language in use by the community South Sulawesi.
- Pettae language is one of the languages spoken in the area of Tana Luwu, ranging from Siwa, Wajo, Enrekang Duri, Kolaka to the North, South East Sulawesi.
- Toraja is one of a family of languages spoken in the area of Tana Toraja and surrounding areas.
- The Mandar language is the language of the Mandar ethnic group, who lived in West Sulawesi province, precisely in Mamuju, Polewali Mandar, Majene and North Mamuju Regencies. In addition to the core in the tribal areas, they are also scattered in coastal parts of South Sulawesi, South Kalimantan and East Kalimantan.
- The Duri language is one of the Austronesian languages in South Sulawesi in the group Massenrempulu dialect. Among the group Massenremplu Language, Language spines have the closeness with Toraja language and language Tae 'Luwu. Speakers spread across the north of Mount Bambapuang, Enrekang to the border region of Tana Toraja.
|Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2010|
- The Konjo language is divided into two - the Coastal Konjo lthe Montain Konjo language. The Coastal Konjo live in coastal areas, notably the Bulukumba area, in the southeastern corner of the southern part of the island of Sulawesi. The Montain Konjo live in the mountains of southeastern Sulawesi, around Bawakaraeng.
South Sulawesi recorded 8,032,551 people in the decennial 2010 census, having a growth rate of 1.17 percent over the adjusted Indonesia 2000 census figure, less than the national average of 1.49 percent. West Sulawesi split off from South Sulawesi in 2004. There were 3,921,543 males and 4,111,008 females, 1,848,132 housing units with average of 4.34 per unit versus national average of 3.86, some 13.3 percent of the population was under the national poverty line. It is the major regional center for Sulawesi island and is the major recipient of migration from all over the island.
The majority religion is Islam in South Sulawesi as much as 89.62% (7.200.938), Protestantism 7.62% (612.751), Roman Catholicism 1.54% (124.255), Buddhism 0.24% (19.867), Hinduism 0.72% (58.393), Confucianism 0.004% (367).
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This island was first inhabited by humans about 30,000 years ago. The archaeological remains of the earliest inhabitants were discovered in caves near the limestone hills around Maros, about 30 km northeast and Makassar as the capital of South Sulawesi province. The possibility that the old cultural layers form Peeble and flake stone tools have been collected from the river terraces in the valley of Walanae, among Soppeng and Sengkang, including the bones of a giant pig and elephants now extinct.
During the golden era of the spice trade, from the 15th century until the 19th, South Sulawesi served as the gateway to the Maluku Islands, spice-producing lands. Kingdom of Gowa and Bone mighty plays an important role in the history of eastern Indonesia Ialu future .
At around the 14th century in South Sulawesi there were a number of small kingdoms, two prominent − the Kingdom of Gowa around Makassar and Bugis Kingdom located in Bone. In 1530, the Kingdom of Gowa began to develop themselves, and in the mid 16th century Gowa become one of the most important trade centers in eastern Indonesia. In 1605, the King of Gowa embraced Islam and made the Kingdom of Gowa Islamist, and between the years 1608 and 1611, the Kingdom of Gowa attacked and conquered the kingdom of Bone so that Islam could be spread to all regions of Makassar and Bugis.
Dutch Trading Company, better known as the VOC (Vereenigde Oost - Indische Compagnie) who came to the region in the 15th century saw the Kingdom of Gowa as an obstacle to its desire for control of VOC spice trade in this area. VOC later allied with the Bugis prince named Whitewater Palakka living in exile after the fall of the Bugis under the rule of Gowa .
Holland then returned to the sponsoring Palakka Bone, Bone simultaneously turned the people's resistance against the power and Sopeng Gowa. After a year-long battle, they defeated the Kingdom of Gowa. And King of Gowa, Sultan Hasanuddin was forced to sign the Treaty which greatly reduced the power of Bungaya Gowa. Furthermore Bone under Palakka became ruler in South Sulawesi.
Competition between the leaders of the Bugis kingdom of Bone coloured other South Sulawesi history. A Bone queen emerged to lead the resistance against the Dutch, who were busy dealing with the Napoleonic Wars in Europe. Yet once past the Napoleonic Wars, the Dutch returned to South Sulawesi and eradicated the queen's rebellion. But resistance of Makassar and Bugis people against colonial rule continued until 1905 or 1906. In 1905, the Dutch also managed to conquer Tana Toraja; resistance in this area continued until the early 1930s.
Before the proclamation of the Republic of Indonesia, South Sulawesi consisted of a number of independent kingdoms' territory and was inhabited by four ethnic groups namely Bugis, Makassar, Mandar and Toraja.
There are three major kingdoms that Luwu widely influenced, Gowa and Bone, which in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to achieve glory and has conducted trade relations and friendship with the people of European, Indian, Chinese, Malay and Arabic. After independence, issued Law No. 21 of 1950 which became the province of South Sulawesi Sulawesi Administrative and subsequently in 1960 became an autonomous region of South Sulawesi and Southeast by Act No. 47 of 1960. Separation of the autonomous region of South Sulawesi South Sulawesi and Southeast was established by Act No. 13 of 1964, so it became an autonomous region of South Sulawesi.
Condition of South Sulawesi
- Sulawesi economy grew 7.78 percent in 2008 and grew by 6.20 percent in 2009, or 7.34 percent (without nickel)
- Economic Growth First Quarter of 2010 reached 7.77 percent in the second quarter and is expected to reach 8.02 percent
- GDP in 2009 (ADHK) amounting to Rp 47.31 trillion and 99.90 Trillion (ADHB)
- Per capita income of USD 12.63 million in 2009.
- Human Development Index (HDI) South Sulawesi in 2008 reached 70.22
- Life Expectancy 69.60 in 2008
- Poor population of 12.31 percent in 2009, amounting to 963.6 thousand
- Unemployment rate of 8.90 percent in 2009, amounting to 296,559 people.
Agricultural areas in the province reached 1,411,446 ha, divided into an area of 550,127 ha of paddy fields and dry land area of 861,319 ha. Technical irrigated paddy fields to reach 317,727 ha, rain-fed area of 230,760 ha, 1,540 ha of tidal rice fields and rice paddies bee / polders with a total area of 100 ha of irrigation channels reach 244,304 ha. Rice fields is that in 2006 produced 3,365,509 tons of rice, consisting of 3,352,116 tons of rice and 13 393 tonnes of paddy fields. Compared to the last two years, increasing rice productivity is achieved, in 2004, rice production there reached 3,552,834 tons while in 2005 reached 3,619,652 tons. Beyond the rice fields before, in this province there is also dry land comprising an area of 178,734 ha yard, dry / garden area of 539,266 ha and 153,319 ha farm area.
As one of the national rice granaries, South Sulawesi annually produces 2,305,469 tons of rice. Of that amount, for local consumption only 884,375 tonnes and 1,421,094 tonnes of reserves remaining is distributed other eastern areas even exported to Malaysia, the Philippines and Papua New Guinea. Location of the largest rice production is in Bone regency, Soppeng, Wajo, Sidrap, Pinrang and Luwu (Bodowasipilu Area).
Plantation is a natural resource that is being developed as: crops in South Sulawesi in 2004 as many as 674,115 tonnes, 723,331 in 2005 whereas in 2006 and was expected to reach 696,084 tonnes in 2007 approximately 800,000 tons. If this was achieved, South Sulawesi would be the fifth-largest corn producer in Indonesia. Maize production are central in Bone regency, Jeneponto, Bulukumba and Bantaeng. On the activities of the President of South Sulawesi province to the event "Peak Food Day and Inauguration Opening of Indonesian Food in Makassar on 26 November 2006 stated that: on this auspicious occasion, I requested that the local government, provincial, district and city prepare programs real, to improve rural economic wheel. if the rural economy growing well, food insecurity and we can gradually do away with. I recalled the importance of the revitalization of agriculture, fisheries and forestry have I proclaimed some time ago".
In addition to corn, the South Sulawesi region also produces cassava, sweet potato. green beans peanuts and soybeans, for cassava production in 2004 as many as 592 350 tonnes, in 2005 as many as 586 350 tonnes, while in 2006 the production of cassava as much as 590 717 tonnes. While the sweet potato production by 61 790 tonnes in 2004, 76,500 tons in 2005 and in 2006 amounted to 73 430 tonnes produced. Peanuts produced as much as 41,191 tons in 2004, as many as 40,328 tons in 2005 and in 2006 produced as much as 41 759 tons, green beans in 2004 produced 27.06 tonnes, as much as 29,675 tons in 2005 and in 2006 as many as 28,554 tons. While for soybean production in 2004 amounted to 26 875 tonnes, in 2005 amounted to 27 269 tonnes and in 2006 amounted to 22,242 tonnes produced. Plantation is the natural resource sector that produces various kinds of commodities, such as hybrid coconut, cocoa, coffee, pepper, vanilla, tea, cashew and cotton.
Based on the Tata Guna Horan Agreement (TGHK) of 2004, reaching 3,090,005 ha of forest land, covering an area of 1,224,279.65 hectares of protected forest, limited production forest area of 488,551 ha of production forest and plain area of 131,041.10 ha, Dart forests this produced 147,739.24 mÃ, Â ³ timber, consisting of cedar 33345.9 mÃ, Â ³ timber concessions and 114,604.67 mÃ, Â ³ non-timber wood, non-wood production consists of 6478.67 tons of rattan and 180,126.7 tons of pine resin.
Plantation is the leading sector with different types of commodities, such as oil palm, hybrid coconut, cocoa, coffee, pepper, vanilla, sugarcane, rubber, tea, cashew and cotton. Of all, cocoa and coffee are excellent commodities. 662,615 ha of cocoa perkebunana wide, consisting of 657,334 ha of small holders and private estates 5,281 ha. The average growth reached 2% of cocoa per year, with production of 521,440 tons per year. Cocoa production centers located in East Luwu, North Luwu, Luwu, Wajo, Pinrang, Bone and Sinjai.
Plantation is the leading sectors with different types of commodities, such as oil palm, hybrid coconut, cocoa, coffee, pepper, vanilla, sugarcane, rubber, tea, cashew and cotton. Of all, cocoa and coffee are excellent commodities. 662 615 ha of cocoa perkebunana wide, consisting of 657,334 ha of smallholders and private estates 5,281 ha. The average growth reached 2% of cocoa per year, with production of 521 440 tons per year. Cocoa production centers located in East Luwu, North Luwu, Luwu, Wajo, Pinrang, Bone and Sinjai.
Potential fishery sector as much as 318 378 tonnes, consisting of as many as 291 969 tons of marine fisheries, inland waterways and public waters 6425 tons 19,984 tons. Exports in this sector in 2005 reached 1,700 tons of tuna fish fresh / frozen, 1,710 tons and 1,400 tons of grouper snapper, increased to 2,100 tonnes of tuna fish fresh / frozen, 1,950 tons and 1,745 tons of grouper snapper in 2006. Other marine products is seaweed, which in 2004 in favor cultivated on a coastline 1,900 km with a total production of 4642.7 tons. Currently South Sulawesi is the central development of seaweed production in Indonesia, especially for the type glacillaria and E Cottoni, each contributing 58% and 36% of the national seaweed products.
Various types of farms flourish there, especially cattle, buffalo, chickens, ducks, goats and so on. population of 2005 were 28,942,526 head of cattle per year and farm production reached 26,747,228.47 tons per year. Livestock population in 2004 to reach 738 140 head cow, buffalo tail 133 467, 118 101 horse tails, goat tail 555 927, 448 869 pigs tail, chicken and duck tail tail 4,118,276. Whereas in 2005 the total population 171.790 buffalo tails, horse 130 319, 567 749 ox tail, pig tails 570 917, and duck tail 3.53428 million. In 2006 as many as 245 350 population kerbing tails, horse tail 124 254, chicken and duck tails as much as 4,765,428 birds.
One of the factors that encourage high GRDP of South Sulawesi Province is mining sector. Its production includes gold, manganese, iron, iron sand, granite, lead, nickel as stone products. Nickel production reached 73,283,138 kg per year, are in Luwu East and North Luwu.
Many ethnic and vernacular languages are used by the people of South Sulawesi, but the most dominant ethnic groups as well as the most common languages used are Makassar, Bugis and Toraja. One of the famous culture is foreign to the culture and traditions of Tana Toraja are distinctive and interesting. Folk songs are often sung among the Makasar Ma'Rencong rencong, Pakarena and Anging Mamiri. While the song is Indo Logo Bugis, and Fur Alaina Tempe and to Tana Toraja is a song Tondo.
South Sulawesi has three types of traditional houses. The most known is the Home Stage / Rumah Panggung / Balla '/ Bola from Bugis Makassar, and Tongkonan from Toraja.
- Bola / Balla' Traditional House, traditional house from Bugis and Makassar, the building is now more difficult to find it at least 3 things that describe Botting langi' (the world over), Ale Kawa (middle world) and Awa Bola (the underworld). In addition to the unique philosophical and forms, the process of the establishment of the house is also very interesting. The owner must request consideration from Panrita Bola to find places and directions that are considered good. Some of the principles in the founding of the house is facing the sun should rise, overlooking the plateau and overlooking one of the cardinal directions.
- Tongkonan is the traditional ancestral house, or rumah adat of the Torajan people, in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Tongkonan have a distinguishing boat-shaped and oversized saddleback roof. Like most of Indonesia’s Austronesian-based traditional architecture tongkonan are built on piles. The construction of tongkonan is laborious work and it is usually built with the help of all family members. In the original Toraja society, only nobles had the right to build tongkonan. Commoners live in smaller and less decorated homes called banua.
Makassar Traditional Song (Kelong)
Bugis Traditional Song (Dendang)
Toraja Traditional Songs
** Songs that represent parts of Makassar
* Songs that represent parts of Bugis
# The Song that represents South Sulawesi Area
Culinary Makassar as a blend between the agrarian and maritime. On the west coast such as Makassar, Maros, Pangkep, Barru, Sidrap and eastern coastal Bone As coastal areas directly coincident with the area of rice fields. Agricultural areas in Bugis Makassar are quite extensive as in the Maros region, Pangkep, and Sidrap. Rice and other crops such as bananas are abundant, almost all dishes are, like Bugis Makassar cake, made from rice and banana major. Rice occupies the highest social strata in food.
Coastal areas of South Sulawesi is also becoming an important producer of fish, ponds scattered on the west coast with the results of Bolu (milkfish), Shrimp, Sunu (grouper) and Crab. The tradition of fishing in coastal and high seas, is well-developed, among others Tuna is caught.
Agrarian pattern also found in his footsteps in the Bugis Makassar dishes and mandar are made from beef or buffalo prime example is Coto, Konro, Sopsaudara, and Pallubasa.
Because it is near the coast, abundant catches of fish mean that people eat fish all the time. If people eat rice berlauk Fish Java, South Sulawesi ber of fish people eat rice as a side dish. Rice is always a little portion of the fish.
In South Sulawesi, the traditional food is diverse, ranging from soup, roasted, to traditional cakes. Here is the traditional food of South Sulawesi;
Traditional Weapons / Dagger
- Badik or Badek is a knife with a specific form developed by the Bugis and Makassar. The Badik is sharp single or double sided, with a length of about half a meter. Like a Kris, the blade shape is asymmetric and often decorated with prestige. However, different from the kris, badik never had a ganja (buffer strip).
Radio and TV station list
|Bosowa FM Makassar||88,5||FM|
|Fajar FM Makassar||89,3||FM|
|Medika FM Makassar||90,1||FM|
|Radio Suara Celebes FM||90,9||FM|
|RRI Pro 2 FM Makassar||96,8||FM|
|Delta FM Makassar||99,2||FM|
|Anak Muda FM Makassar||100,0||FM|
|Suara Celebes FM Makassar||100,4||FM|
|Telstar FM Makassar||102,7||FM|
|Radio SPFM Citra Wanita Makassar||103,5||FM|
|Merkurius FM Makassar||104,3||FM|
|Prambors FM Makassar||105,1||FM|
|Gamasi FM Makassar||105,9||FM|
|Savana FM Makassar||106,5||FM|
|Syiar FM Radio||107,1||FM|
|ACCa FM Palopo||101,2||FM|
|Radio As' Adiyah Sengkang||103,2||FM|
|Radio Adiafiry Watansoppeng||1008||AM|
|Station||Frequency||Networks||District / City|
|TVRI Sulawesi Selatan||37 UHF||TVRI||Makassar|
|Makassar TV||23 UHF||Kompas TV||Makassar|
|Fajar TV||49 UHF||JPMC||Makassar|
|SUN TV Makassar||51 UHF||SINDOtv||Makassar|
|Celebes TV||31 UHF||Bosowa Corporation||Makassar|
|Metro TV Sulsel||39 UHF||Metro TV||Makassar|
|Cakrawala TV||57 UHF||B-Channel||Makassar|
|RCTI Network Sulsel||33 UHF||RCTI||Makassar|
|VIVA Sport||E- UHF||Makassar|
|ArekTV Makassar||E- UHF||Makassar|
|NKTV Makassaar||E- UHF||Indonesia Network||Makassar|
|MCTV PARE||24 UHF||Pare-Pare|
|SINJAI TV||51 UHF||Sinjai|
- "Number of Population, Sex Ratio, Member of Household and Average Household Member by Regency/City in Sulawesi Selatan, 2005". Statistics of Sulawesi Selatan (Press release). BPS Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan. Retrieved 2007-08-28.
- Indonesia Official Census http://sp2010.bps.go.id/index.php/site/tabel?tid=321
- Indonesia's Population
- Indonesia Official Census http://sp2010.bps.go.id/index.php/site/tabel?tid=321
- Indonesian Religion http://sp2010.bps.go.id/index.php/site/tabel?tid=321