South Sulawesi languages
- Makassar: Bentong, Konjo, Makassarese, Selayar
- Seko: Budong-Budong–Panasuan, Seko
A 2008 analysis of the Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database fully supported the unity of Bugis, Makassar, and the northern language Tae’, and calculated with 80% confidence that Northern and Bugis were closer to each other than either was to Makassar.
The position of the Tamanic languages, usually represented by Mbalo (Maloh, Embalo), is unclear. Long left unclassified, Adelaar and Himmelmann (2005) took the view that it was especially close to the Buginese. However, the 2008 study found it to be a near isolate within Malayo-Polynesian, linking it at 75% confidence as an independent branch of Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian.
- K. Alexander Adelaar and Nikolaus Himmelmann, The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar. Routledge, 2005.
- Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database, 2008.
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