Borough of Southend-on-Sea
|Town, unitary authority area & Borough|
Aerial view of Southend-on-Sea
|Motto: Per Mare Per Ecclesiam
(By Sea, By Church)
Shown within Essex
|• Leadership||Leader & Cabinet|
|• Governing Body||Southend-on-Sea Borough Council|
|• Executive||TBA (council NOC)|
|• MPs||David Amess (C)
James Duddridge (C)
|• Total||41.76 km2 (16.12 sq mi)|
|• Total||Ranked 101st
|• Density||4,174/km2 (10,810/sq mi)|
|• Ethnicity||93.6% White
1.4% Mixed Race
|Time zone||GMT (UTC+0)|
|• Summer (DST)||British Summer Time (UTC+1)|
|ONS code||00KF (ONS)
Southend-on-Sea ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a seaside resort town and wider unitary authority area with borough status, in Essex, England, on the north side of the Thames estuary 40 miles (64 km) east of central London. It is bordered to the north by Rochford and to the west by Castle Point. It is home to the longest leisure pier in the world, Southend Pier. London Southend Airport is located 1.5 NM (2.8 km; 1.7 mi) north of the town centre.
- 1 History
- 2 Governance
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Transport
- 6 Education
- 7 Sport
- 8 Entertainment and culture
- 9 Notable people
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Originally the "south end" of the village of Prittlewell, Southend was originally home to a few poor fisherman huts and farms that lay at the southern extremity of Prittlewell Priory land. In the 1790s landowner Daniel Scratton sold off land either side of what was to become the High Street, and the Grand Hotel (now Royal Hotel) and Grove Terrace (now Royal Terrace) were completed by 1794. Due to the bad transportation links between Southend and London, there was not rapid development during the Georgian Era like Brighton. It was the coming of the railways in the 19th Century and the visit of Princess Caroline of Brunswick that Southend's status of a Seaside resort grew. During the 19th century Southend's pier was first constructed and the Clifftown development built, attracting many tourists in the summer months to its seven miles of beaches and bathing in the sea. Good rail connections and proximity to London mean that much of the economy has been based on tourism, and that Southend has been a dormitory town for city workers ever since. Southend Pier is the world's longest pleasure pier at 1.34 mi (2.16 km). It has suffered fires and ship collisions, most recently in October 2005, but the basic pier structure has been repaired each time. There has been significant loss of pier-head facilities since the major fire in 1976.
Southend, went into decline as a holiday destination from the 1960s, when holidays abroad became more affordable. Southend reinvented itself as the Home of the Access (credit card) due to it having one of the UK's first electronic telephone exchanges (it is still home to RBS Card Services - one of the former members of Access), with offices based in the former EKCO factory, Maitland House (Keddies), Victoria Circus and Southchurch Road. Since then, much of the town centre has been developed for commerce and retail, and during the 1960s many original structures were lost to redevelopment - such as the Talza Arcade & Victoria Market (replaced by what is now known as The Victoria shopping centre) and Southend Technical College (on the site of the ODEON Cinema). However, about 6.4 million tourists still visit Southend per year, generating estimated revenues of £200 million a year. H.M. Revenue & Customs (HMRC), (formerly H.M. Customs and Excise), are major employers in the town, and the central offices for the collection of VAT are located on in Alexanda House on Victoria Avenue. The University of Essex, Southend Campus has been developed locally to provide higher education facilities and to assist in boosting the economy. Southend also has over 80 parks and green spaces and 14 conservation areas.
There are nine railway stations on two lines within the borough which connect it to London.
Local government district
Southend-on-Sea was formed as a municipal borough in 1892 with the functions of local government shared with Essex County Council. In 1913 the borough was enlarged by the former area of Leigh on Sea Urban District. In 1914 the enlarged Southend gained the status of county borough, exempt from county council control and a single-tier of local government. The county borough was enlarged in 1933 by the former area of Shoeburyness Urban District and part of Rochford Rural District.
In 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, Southend became a district of Essex with borough status, however in 1998 it again became the single tier of local government when it became a unitary authority.
Seventeen wards each return three councillors, a total of 51. Councillors serve four years and one third of the council is elected each year, followed by one year without election. Following the 2014 election results, the composition of the council is:
The Southend-on-Sea Borough Council has been controlled by the Conservative Party since they gained control in the 2000 election; they maintained a minority administration after the 2012 local elections. Most day-to-day decisions are by an eight member executive headed by the council leader.
The Latin motto, 'Per Mare Per Ecclesiam', emblazoned on the municipal coat of arms, translates as 'By [the] Sea, By [the] Church', reflecting Southend's position between the church at Prittlewell and the sea as in the Thames estuary. The town is twinned with the resort of Sopot in Poland, and has been developing three-way associations with Lake Worth, Florida. Sopot has the longest wooden pier in Europe, Southend the longest iron pleasure pier in the world.
Southend Borough Council was criticised as one of the worst financially managed local authorities in England by the Audit Commission report for 2006/7 one of three to gain only one of four stars, the others being Liverpool and the Isles of Scilly. Areas of criticism were the use of consultants and the spending of £3.5 million on taxis during the 2006/7 financial year.
Members of Parliament
Southend is represented by two MPs at Westminster.
Since 2005 the MP for Rochford and Southend East has been James Duddridge (Conservative), who replaced Sir Teddy Taylor. Despite its name the majority of the constituency is in Southend, Rochford makes up only a small part and the majority of Rochford District Council is represented in the Rayleigh constituency. Both Southend seats are considered safe for the Conservative Party.
Southend is the seventh most densely populated area in the United Kingdom outside of the London Boroughs, with 38.8 people per hectare compared to a national average of 3.77. In mid-2006, 18% of the population was aged under 15, with the same proportion being aged over 65. The proportion of people aged 55–64 was 12%.
The Department for Communities and Local Government's 2010 Indices of Multiple Deprivation  data showed that Southend is one of Essex's most deprived areas. Out of 32,482 Lower Super Output Areas in England, area 014D in the Kursaal ward is 99th, area 015B in Milton ward is 108th, area 010A in Victoria ward is 542nd, and area 009D in Southchurch ward is 995th, as well as an additional 5 areas all within the top 10% most deprived areas in England (with the most deprived area having a rank of 1 and the least deprived a rank of 32,482).  Victoria and Milton wards have the highest percentage of ethnic minority population. Southend has the highest percentage of residents receiving housing benefit (19%) and the third highest percentage of residents receiving council tax benefit in Essex.
Save the Children's research data shows that for 2008/2009, Southend had 4,000 children living in poverty, a rate of 12%, the same as Thurrock, but above the 11% child poverty rate of the rest of Essex. 
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Southend-on-Sea at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
|Year||Regional Gross Value Added||Agriculture||Industry||Services|
Southend is served by two National Rail lines. Running from Southend Victoria north out of the town is the Liverpool Street line, a branch of the Great Eastern Main Line operated by Greater Anglia. The services operate to London Liverpool Street via Prittlewell, Southend Airport, Rochford, Hockley, Rayleigh, Wickford, Billericay, Shenfield and Stratford.
The London, Tilbury and Southend Railway, the Fenchurch Street line, is operated by c2c and runs from Shoeburyness in the east of the borough, west through Thorpe Bay, Southend East, Southend Central to Fenchurch Street in London via Benfleet and Basildon or Tilbury and Barking. Additionally, two services from Southend Central each weekday evening terminate at Liverpool Street.
Besides its main line railway connections, Southend is also the home of two smaller railways. The Southend Pier Railway provides transport along the length of Southend Pier, whilst the nearby Southend Cliff Railway provides a connection from the promenade to the cliff top above.
Two A-roads connect Southend with London and the rest of the country, the A127 (The Southend Arterial Road), via Basildon and Romford, and the A13, via Tilbury and London Docklands. Both are major routes. However, within the borough, the A13 is a single carriageway local route, whereas the A127 is entirely dual carriageway. Both lead to the M25 and eventually London.
Local public transport is by two main bus companies, Arriva Southend (formerly the council-owned Southend Corporation Transport) and First Essex Buses (formerly NBC/ Eastern National/ Thamesway). Minor companies include Stephensons of Essex, and Regal Busways. Southend has a bus station in Chichester Road which was developed from a temporary facility added in the 1970s. Previously Southend Bus station had sat on the London Road and was run by Eastern National, but this was demolished in the 1980s to make way for the Sainsburys Supermarket. Arriva Southend are the only bus company based in Southend, with their depot being located in Short Street (previously on the corner of London Road and Queensway and also a small facility in Tickfield Road). First Essex buses are based out of the depot in Hadleigh, but prior to the 1980s Eastern National had depots on the London Road (at the Bus Station) and Fairfax Drive.
London Southend Airport
London Southend Airport was developed from the military airfield at Rochford, opened as a civil airport in 1935, and now offers scheduled flights to destinations across Europe, corporate and recreational flights, aircraft maintenance and pilot training. In 2008 the airport was purchased by Stobart Air, part of the Stobart Group. Developments since 2011 include an ATC control tower, a new railway station, a new terminal opened alongside the station, and the runway has been extended by 300 metres (980 ft). It is currently used by EasyJet, Flybe, SkyWork Airlines and Stobart Air. First Choice and Thomson also operate charter flights from the airport.
All mainstream secondary schools are mixed-sex comprehensives, including Belfairs Academy, Cecil Jones College, Chase High School, Futures Community College, Shoeburyness High School, The Eastwood Academy and King John School
In 2004, Southend retained the grammar school system and has four such schools: Southend High School for Boys, Southend High School for Girls, Westcliff High School for Boys and Westcliff High School for Girls.
Additionally there are two single-sex schools assisted by the Roman Catholic Church: St Bernard's High School for Girls and St Thomas More High School for Boys. Both, while not grammar schools, contain a grammar stream; entrance is by the same exam as grammar schools.
Further and higher education
The main higher education provider in Southend is the University of Essex. The University established a campus in Southend. The detail of the campus could be found here: http://www.essex.ac.uk/about/campuses/southend/.
In addition, a number of secondary schools offer further education, but the largest provider is South Essex College, in a new building in the centre of town. Formerly known as South East Essex College, the college changed name in January 2010 following a merger with Thurrock and Basildon College. South Essex College offers 30-degree courses matriculated by the University of Essex, as well as a number of weekend and evening courses. The university's centre in the town is a single building on the High Street. The university has built its own centre in Southend, next to the college building on the site of the Odeon cinema. These buildings form the first two phases of the Southend Campus. Additionally, there is SEEVIC College. The East 15 Acting School, a drama school, has its second campus there. Also available is the Southend Adult Community College.
Southend has two football teams, one of league stature, Southend United, managed by Phil Brown. The other, Southend Manor, play in the Essex Senior League. United compete in Football League Two having been relegated after finishing 23rd at the end of the 2009–10 season. They have twice played in what is now the Football League Championship.
There are two rugby union clubs with nationwide profile, Southend RFC and Westcliff R.F.C., Southend having the superior men's first team (playing in National League 2 South). Southend was formerly home to the Essex Eels rugby league team. Southend was also home to the Essex Pirates basketball team that played in the British Basketball League between 2009 and 2011.
Essex County Cricket Club play in Southend one week a season. Previously the festival was held at Chalkwell Park and most recently Southchurch Park, but it has now moved to Garons Park next to the Southend Leisure & Tennis Centre. The only other cricket is local.
Old Southendians Hockey Club are based at Warner's Bridge in Southend.
The eight-lane, floodlit, synthetic athletics track at Southend Leisure and Tennis Centre is home to Southend-on-Sea Athletic Club. The facilities include all track and field events. The centre is also home to a 25m swimming pool and a world championship level diving pool with 1, 3, 5, 7, 10m boards, plus springboards with the only 1.3m in the UK.
Entertainment and culture
Southend Pleasure Pier
Southend-on-Sea is home to the world's longest pleasure pier, built in 1830 and stretching some 1.33 miles from shore. Since 1986, a diesel-hydraulic railway has run the length of the pier, replacing the electric service which opened in 1890. The pier has been beset by fires; a fire in 1995 destroyed the bowling alley at the start of the pier and another fire in October 2005 damaged the far end of the pier. The pier was also run through by a boat in 1984. The cafe at the end of the pier has been used by Jamie Oliver for his series Jimmy and Jamies Food Fight. The British record shore-caught Norway haddock(Sebastes viviparus) was caught from Southend pier by F.Fawke in 1973.
The Kursaal was one of the earliest theme parks, built at the start of the 20th century. It closed in the 1970s and much of the land was developed as housing. The entrance hall, a listed building, is a bowling alley arcade operated by Megabowl and casino.
The Cliff Lift
A short funicular railway, constructed in 1912, links the seafront to the High Street level of the town. The lift re-opened to the public in 2010, following a period of refurbishment.
Other seafront attractions
The town is known for its seafront and attractions.
An amusement park Adventure Island, formerly known as Peter Pan's Playground, straddles the pier entrance. Peter Pan's Playground was eventually renamed Adventure Island as its size and popularity grew, and has since grown into a large amusement park with over 50 rides. The seafront also houses the "Sea-Life Adventure" aquarium, owned by the Miller family, who also own Adventure Island.
The cliff gardens, which included Never Never Land and a Victorian bandstand were an attraction until slippage in 2003 made parts of the cliffs unstable, and the bandstand has been removed. The council has re-erected the bandstand in priory park but may return to the cliffs. Beaches include Three Shells and Jubilee Beach.
Art on the Railings is a regular exhibition for local artists who display their work on Pier Hill.
The London to Southend Classic Car run takes place each summer and features classic cars which line the seafront.
The Southend Shakedown, organised by Ace Cafe, is an annual event featuring motorbikes and scooters. There are other scooter runs throughout the year, including the Great London Rideout, which arrives at Southend seafront each year.
An airshow, dubbed Festival of the Air in 2009, use to place each May. Starting in 1986 – the first show starred a Concorde flypast whilst on a passenger charter flight – the show was one of Europe's largest free airshows and features high-speed military jets and sports aerobatic displays, which fly over the sea, parallel with the seafront. The RAF Falcons parachute display team and RAF Red Arrows jet aerobatics team were regular visitors to the show. The show has not been run since 2012 due to lack of sponsorship.
Each August Southend Carnival opens along the "Golden Mile" with the lighting of the Southend Illuminations.
The Southend-on-Sea Film Festival is an annual event that began in 2009 and is run by The White Bus who are based at TAP, Old Water Works in Southend. Ray Winstone attended the opening night gala in both 2010 and 2011, and has become the Festival Patron.
The films shown are a combination of world cinema, independent cinema, documentaries, children's films, sing-a-longs, popular classics, and British noir. The Festival usually takes place over 5 days in spring, at the Palace Theatre, Park Inn Palace Hotel, and the Southend Central Museum and Planetarium. Fringe events including musical performances take place at a variety of locations in Southend.
Leigh Folk Festival is a three-day event each summer in Old Leigh, featuring live music by the sea.
Leigh on Sea Fishing Festival is held in Old Leigh and is organised by local fishermen. It provides an opportunity to see the port in action and taste the local catch.
Old Leigh Regatta was re-established in the 1970s and takes place every September. It is a family event with stalls, dancing, local food, music, and water activities. The boat and yacht racing is started by a miniature cannon, made at the former Leigh foundry.
On the second and fourth Saturdays of the month, Southend hosts a farmers' market.
There are regular vintage fairs and markets in Southend, held at a variety of locations including the Leigh Community Centre, The Kursaal and The Railway Hotel.
The High Street has hosted a market every Thursday since 2013, replacing a weekly market that had taken place in York Road.
A record fair is frequently held at West Leigh Schools, Ronald Hill Grove, Leigh on Sea.
Southend High Street runs from the top of Pier Hill in the South, to Victoria Circus in the north. It currently has two shopping centre's - The Victoria (built during the 1960s and a replacement for the old Talza Arcade, Victoria Arcade and Broadway Market) and The Royals (built late 1980s replacing bottom part of High Street, Grove Road, Ritz Cinema, Grand Pier Hotel). Southend High Street has many chain stores, with Debenhams, Primark and Boots in the Royals, and Next anchoring The Victoria.
This was not always the case with many independent stores closing in the 1970s and 1980s - Keddies (department store), J L Dixons (department store), Brightwells (department store), Garons (grocers, caterers and cinema), Owen Wallis (ironmongers and toys), Bearmans (sports and toys) & R. A. Jones (jewellers) being the most notable. One of Southends most notable business, Schofield and Martin, was purchased by Waitrose in 1944 with the name being used until the 1960s. The Alexandra Street branch was the first Waitrose store in 1951 to be made self service. Southend is currently home to the largest store in the Waitrose portfolio.
One Southend family business that started in 1937 is still going strong is Dixons Retail. The oldest surviving independent retail business in Southend is Ravens, located just off the High Street in Southend and have existed since 1897.
The borough of Southend has shopping in other areas too. Leigh Broadway and Leigh Road in Leigh-on-Sea, Hamlet Court Road in Westcliff-on-Sea, Southchurch Road and London Road are where many of Southend's independent business now reside. Hamlet Court Road is still home to one of Southend's oldest business - Havens (department store) opened in 1901.
Art, galleries, museums and Libraries
Focal Point Gallery is South Essex's gallery for contemporary visual art, promoting and commissioning major solo exhibitions, group and thematic shows, a programme of events including performances, film screenings and talks, as well as offsite projects and temporary public artworks. The organisation is funded by Southend-on-Sea Borough Council and Arts Council England.
Southend Museums Service, part of Southend on Sea Borough Council, operates a number of historic attractions, an art gallery and a museum in the town. These include: The Beecroft Art Gallery, Southchurch Hall, Prittlewell Priory and the Central Museum on Victoria Avenue.
Leigh Art Trail began in 1997, and each year local artists display their work at a variety of locations through Leigh Broadway and in Old Leigh.
Westcliff Art Trail began in 2008 and follows a similar format to the Leigh Art Trail, with local artists showcasing their work in Westcliff shops, cafes and bars.
Southend has several small libraries located in Leigh, Westcliff, Kent Elms and Southchurch. The central library has moved from its traditional location on Victoria Avenue to The Forum in Elmer Approach, a new facility paid for by Southend Council, South Essex College and The University of Essex. It replaced the former Farringdon Multi Story Car Park.
There are three theatres. The Cliffs Pavilion is a large building to host concerts and performances on ice. The Edwardian Palace Theatre is a grade II building built in 1912. It shows plays from professional troupes and repertory groups, as well as comedy acts. The theatre has two circles and the steepest rake in Britain. Part of the theatre was a smaller venue called The Dixon Studio. They are both owned by Southend Council and run by Southend Theatres Ltd.
The most recent theatre is the New Empire Theatre. It is, unlike the other two, privately owned. It is used more by amateur groups. The theatre was converted from the old ABC Cinema, which had previously been The Empire Theatre built in 1896. The New Empire theatre closed in 2009 after a dispute between the trust that run the theatre and its owners.
Musical shows are also shown at the Plaza, a Christian community centre and concert hall based on Southchurch Road, which was formerly a cinema.
Southend currently has one cinema - the Odeon Multiplex at Victoria Circus which has 6 screens. The borough of Southend had at one time a total of 18 cinema theatres, with the most famous being the Odeon (formerly the Astoria Theatre), which as well as showing films hosted live entertainers including the Beatles and Laurel and Hardy. This building no longer stands having been replaced by the Southend Campus of the University of Essex.
Junk Club was predominantly held in the basement at The Royal Hotel between 2001 – 2006. The underground club night played and eclectic mix from Post Punk to Acid House, 60's Psychedelia to Electro. It was noted as spearheading what became known as the Southend Scene and was featured in the NME, Dazed & Confused, ID, Rolling Stone, Guardian and Vogue. Bands associated with the scene included; The Horrors, These New Puritans, The Violets, Ipso Facto, Neils Children and The Errorplains. The independent record label DiscError Recordings was set up by local designer Discordo who put together artwork for many of the new wave of Southend bands.
Southend has three major venues; Chinnerys, The Riga Club (formerly at the Cricketers Pub London Road) at O'Neills, and the Cliffs Pavilion. All have hosted appearances from a large number of artistes. The Railway Hotel is a live music pub, which features a variety of acts, as well as curating the Southend Pier Festival.
There have also been a number of popular music videos filmed in Southend, by such bands as Oasis, Morrissey, George Michael and many more, featuring Southend-on-Sea's various landmarks and attractions.
On 28 March 2008, Southend got its own radio station for the first time which is also shared with Chelmsford Radio formerly known as Dream 107.7 FM and Chelmer FM before that, Southend Radio started broadcasting on 105.1FM from purpose built studios adjacent to the Adventure Island theme park.
Places of worship
There are numerous churches around the borough catering to different Christian denominations. There are also two synagogues, one for orthodox Jews, in Westcliff, and a reform synagogue in Chalkwell. Three mosques provide for Muslim population; one run by the Bangladeshi community, where the sermon is given in Bengali as well as English and the mandatory Arabic. The others, both run by the Pakistani community, provide sermons in Urdu and Arabic, and English and Arabic.
York Road Market
Demolition of the historic market began on 23 April 2010 despite the attempts of locals to have the building renovated. The location is now home to a car park. A temporary market was held there every Friday until 2012 after the closure of the former Southend market site located at the rear of the Odeon. As of 2013, a market is now held in the High Street every Thursday with over 30 stalls.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (February 2012)|
- Trevor Bailey, cricketer for Essex & England
- Mathew Baynton, musician, writer, actor Horrible Histories
- David Bellos, professor/translator
- James Booth, actor Zulu (1964 Film)
- James Bourne, musician, singer Busted
- Chris Bourne, musician, bassist Hollywood Ending
- Tim Bowler, children's author
- Kevin Bowyer, concert organist
- Gary Brooker, lead singer of Procol Harum
- Dave Brown, comedian and actor, The Mighty Boosh
- Dean Chalkley, photographer
- Emma Chambers, actress
- Jeannie Clark, former professional wrestling manager
- Brian Cleeve, author and broadcaster
- Dick Clement, screen writer
- Jonathan Clements, author
- Peter Cook, architect
- Phil Cornwell, actor and impressionist
- Snowboy aka Mark Cotgrove, DJ and Latin percussionist
- Tina Cousins, singer
- Gemma Craven, actress
- Matthew Cutler, ballroom dancer
- Danielle Dax, musician, actress and performance artist
- Johnny Dean, singer/songwriter of Menswear
- Warwick Deeping, author
- Sam Duckworth, musician, AKA Get Cape. Wear Cape. Fly.
- Warren Ellis, comic book writer
- Nathalie Emmanuel, actress, Hollyoaks
- Lee Evans, comedian
- Mark Foster, swimmer
- John Fowles, author
- Benjamin Grosvenor, musician
- Roy Hay, musician, Culture Club
- Sir William Heygate, Lord Major of London 1823
- Joshua Hayward, guitarist for The Horrors
- John Hodge, aeropsace engineer NASA
- John Horsley, actor The Fall and Rise of Reginald Perrin
- John Heald, cruise director for Carnival Cruise Lines
- John Hutton, politician
- Daniel Jones, musician, producer and former member of Savage Garden
- R. A. Jones, store owner and town benefactor
- Phill Jupitus, comedian
- Mickey Jupp, musician
- Russell Kane, comedian
- Dominic Littlewood, TV presenter, most notably To Buy or Not to Buy
- John Lloyd, tennis player
- Robert Lloyd, opera singer
- Robert D. Martin, Academic
- Ron Martin, Southend United chairman, 1998–present
- Lee Mead, musical theatre actor
- Jon Miller (TV presenter), TV presenter
- Helen Mirren, actress
- Peggy Mount, actress
- Tris Vonna Michell, artist
- Dicky Moore, singer/songwriter, guitarist in Scritti Politti
- Maajid Nawaz, former Islamist activist who now campaigns against extremism
- Bob Parr, multi Emmy Award-winning television producer
- Annabel Port, broadcaster
- Spencer Prior, footballer
- Lara Pulver, actress
- Rachel Riley, Countdown co-presenter
- Joy Sarney, singer
- Simon Schama, historian / TV presenter
- Jake Shillingford, singer/songwriter, My Life Story
- Anne Stallybrass, actress
- Vivian Stanshall, musician (Bonzo Dog Doh Dah Band)
- Keith Taylor, politician
- Peter Taylor, football manager
- Theoretical Girl, singer/songwriter
- Kara Tointon, actress, EastEnders
- Hannah Tointon, actress
- Robin Trower, rock-blues guitarist
- Rhys 'Spider' Webb, bassist of The Horrors
- Michael Wilding, actor
- Lead View Table
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- "Fire burns through Southend Pier". CBBC Newsround. 10 October 2005. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- James Bettley (2007). Nikolaus Pevsner, ed. Essex. Pevsner Architectural Guides: The Buildings of England. Yale University Press. pp. 690–691. ISBN 0-300-11614-4.
- Laura Smith (30 January 2008). "Echo News – Official: Council is wasting our cash". Retrieved 21 July 2008.
- Uncited (14 March 2012). "Southend Council wins council of the year at Local Government Chronicle awards". Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
- includes hunting and forestry
- includes energy and construction
- includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
- John Robert Day, John Reed (2005). The story of London's underground (9 ed.). Capital Transport. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-85414-289-4.
- "Southend Cliff Railway". The Heritage Trail. Retrieved 15 May 2009.
- The Southend Standard, 18 June 2012
- SAC Official Club Website
- Southend Pleasure Pier.
- British record fish committee
- "Historic cliff lift reopens following refurbishment". BBC Essex. 25 May 2010. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Echo-news report on the Southend Shakedown
- Airshow website (Retrieved 2 June 2009)
- Essex Farmers Markets
- "Southend Museums". Southend Museums Service. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- 'The beach boys', Guardian Unlimited Arts article on the scene
- "Music Videos Shot in Southend", Love Southend
- Sarfend.co.uk's page on Radio in Southend
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Southend-on-Sea.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Southend-on-Sea.|
- Southend Borough Council
- Southend Punk History – Local Music History Site
- Southend Museums Service
- "Southend-on-Sea". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
- Southend-on-Sea at DMOZ
Blackburn with Darwen
|LGC Council of the Year