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|Founded||February 1, 1944|
|Ceased operations||July 1, 1979 (merged with North Central Airlines to become Republic Airlines)|
|Headquarters||William B. Hartsfield Airport
Greater Atlanta, Georgia
|Key people||Frank Hulse (Founder)|
Southern Airways (IATA: SO, ICAO: SOU, Call sign: Southern) was a regional airline (known at the time as a "local service air carrier" as designated by the federal Civil Aeronautics Board) operating in the United States from their founding by Frank Hulse in 1949 until 1979 when they merged with North Central Airlines to become Republic Airlines, which on October 1, 1986, then became part of Northwest Airlines, which, in turn, was merged into Delta Air Lines in 2008. Southern was headquartered at William B. Hartsfield Airport, near Atlanta.
Aircraft and routes
As a local service airline, Southern Airways covered the south-central U.S. In 1955 their network spanned from Memphis south to New Orleans and east to Charlotte and Jacksonville. In August 1953 Southern flew to 29 airports and in August 1967 to 50.
In May 1968 Southern's routes extended from Tri-Cities in Tennessee south to New Orleans and Jacksonville, and east from Baton Rouge and Monroe, Louisiana to the coast at Myrtle Beach and Charleston. Later in 1968 a route sprouted northward: three weekday Douglas DC-9-10s from Columbus GA (CSG) nonstop to Washington Dulles and on to New York LaGuardia. These originated at Eglin Air Force Base, FL (VPS).
Like most local service airlines Southern flew only Douglas DC-3s for the first few years. In 1961 they began adding 22 40-passenger secondhand Martin 4-0-4s acquired from Eastern Air Lines, newer aircraft that were pressurised and had a forward passenger door and a rear ventral stairway. The last DC-3 was retired in 1967.
Southern's first 65-75 passenger Douglas DC-9-10s arrived in 1967 followed by 85-95 passenger DC-9-30s in 1969. The last scheduled flight by a Martin was on 20 April 1978 from Atlanta to Gadsden, Alabama and back.
Some DC-9s were bought new. Unlike other local service airlines Southern did not use turboprops in the 1960s, but by the time of the North Central merger Southern had replaced their Martins with several 19-passenger Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner IIs.
|Revenue passenger traffic, in millions of passenger-miles (scheduled flights only)|
By 1971 Southern was flying to New York City and Chicago and south to Orlando and Miami. U.S. government regulation didn't allow Southern to fly nonstop from New York or Washington, D.C. to Atlanta, so Southern had nonstops to Columbus, Georgia, then on to Dothan, Alabama; Mobile, Alabama; Panama City, Florida, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida; and/or Gulfport/Biloxi, Mississippi. Many flights had five or six stops.
With more DC-9s, many routes once served with prop aircraft were served with jets that linked small cities to Atlanta and Memphis:
- Columbus, Georgia to Washington, DC continuing to New York City.
- Meridian, Mississippi to Birmingham, Alabama; Columbus, Mississippi; and Laurel/Hattiesburg, Mississippi.
- Tuscaloosa, Alabama to Atlanta, Georgia and Columbus, Mississippi.
- Muscle Shoals/Florence, Alabama to Memphis, Tennessee and Huntsville/Decatur, Alabama with continuing eastbound service to Atlanta.
- Greenville, Mississippi to Memphis, Tennessee and Monroe, Louisiana with continuing southbound service to Baton Rouge and New Orleans.
- Columbia, South Carolina to Greenville/Spartanburg and Charleston, South Carolina.
- Albany, Georgia to Atlanta, Georgia; Valdosta, Georgia; Dothan, Alabama; and Columbus, Georgia.
One DC-9-14 flew Miami to Orlando, Tallahassee, Panama City, Eglin AFB, Mobile, Gulfport, New Orleans, Birmingham, Atlanta, Huntsville, Memphis, St Louis and terminated at Chicago Midway. Total time was 14hr 32min.
Southern Airways was billed as the "Route of the Aristocrats."  and they used the slogan "Nobody's Second Class on Southern" in their television commercials. They were famous for their promotional shot glasses: for a time, differently designed shot glasses were issued each year. Original Southern shot glasses are valued by collectors of airline memorabilia.
During the early 1970s before strict airport security was implemented across the United States, several airlines experienced hijackings. Southern Airways Flight 49, a DC-9 en route from Memphis to Miami was hijacked on November 10, 1972 during a stop in Birmingham, Alabama. The three hijackers boarded the plane armed with handguns and hand grenades. At gunpoint, the hijackers took the airplane, the plane’s crew of four, and 27 passengers to nine American cities, Toronto, and eventually to Havana, Cuba. During the long flight the hijackers threatened to crash the plane into the Oak Ridge, Tennessee, nuclear facilities, insisted on talking with President Richard Nixon, and demanded a ransom of $10 million. Southern Airways was only able to come up with $2 million. Eventually the pilot talked the hijackers into settling for the $2 million when the plane landed in Chattanooga for refueling. Upon landing in Havana the Cuban authorities arrested the hijackers and, after a brief delay, sent the plane, passengers, and crew back to the United States. The hijackers and $2 million stayed in Cuba.
Southern Airways accounted for the $2 million by debiting it to an account entitled “Hijacking Payment.” This account was reported as a type of receivable under “other assets” on Southern’s balance sheet. The company maintained that they would be able to collect the cash from the Cuban government and that, therefore, a receivable existed. Southern Airways was repaid $2 million by the Cuban government, which was attempting to improve relations with the United States.
Difficulties and merger
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By the late 1970s, Southern Airways began to experience difficulties. Two fatal accidents (See Southern Airways Flight 932 November 14, 1970 and Southern Airways Flight 242 April 4, 1977) blighted the airline's otherwise excellent safety record. Improved highways and an increasing willingness among passengers to drive to airports farther away for more convenient flights made many of Southern's routes obsolete. With dramatic increases in the price of jet fuel in the 1970s, many of Southern's routes were no longer cost effective.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (June 2013)|
- Douglas DC-3
- Martin 4-0-4
- Douglas DC-9-14 - 27 used
- Douglas DC-9-15 - 9 used, including a DC-9-15F
- Douglas DC-9-31 - 9 used
- Douglas DC-9-32F - 1 used
- Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner - "Metro II" series turboprop aircraft
- World Airline Directory. Flight International. March 20, 1975. "503.
- Killion, 1997, p. 70
- Killion, 1997, p. 70
- Handbook of Airline Statistics (biannual CAB publication)
- Aopa pilot. July 2011.
- Accounting, 23e, Warren Reeve Duchac, page 52, ISBN 978-0-324-66296-2, © 2009 South-Western
- "." airliners.net, September 23, 1976. Retrieved on October 29, 2011.
- Cities Served By Southern
- Killion, Gary L, The Martinliners, Airways International Inc, 1998, ISBN 0-9653993-2-X