Southern Expeditionary Army Group

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Southern Expeditionary Army Group
1938 terauchi hisaichi.jpg
Japanese General Count Terauchi Hisaichi, right, commanding officer of the Southern Expeditionary Army Group.
Active November 6, 1941 - September 2, 1945
Country Japan Empire of Japan
Branch War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army.svg Imperial Japanese Army
Type Infantry
Role Army group
Garrison/HQ Saigon
Engagements World War II

The Southern Expeditionary Army (南方軍 Nanpo gun?) was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. It was responsible for all military operations in South East Asian and South West Pacific campaigns of World War II.[1] Its military symbol was NA.[2]

The Southern Expeditionary Army Group was formed on November 6, 1941, under the command of Gensui Count Terauchi Hisaichi, with orders to attack and occupy Allied territories and colonies in South East Asia and the South Pacific.

Operational history[edit]

The Philippines[edit]

Plans for an invasion of the Philippines were finalized on November 13–15, by Lt General Masaharu Homma, Lt General Hideyoshi Obata, Vice Admiral Ibō Takahashi and Vice Admiral Nishizo Tsukahara.

These plans called for air attacks against the Philippines, beginning on X-Day, by the 5th Army Air Force Division and the 11th Naval Air Fleet. At this time, Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy units were to land on Batan Island, Luzon (at Aparri, Cagayan, Vigan, and Legazpi City), and at Davao, Mindanao, and to seize airfields. Following the elimination of American air support, the main body of the IJA 14th Army was to land at Lingayen Gulf, while another force landed at Lamon Bay. These forces were then to attack Manila in a pincer attack. After this, the islands of Manila Bay were to be taken. In the resulting Battle of the Philippines (1942), Japanese forces accomplished their primary objectives.

French Indochina[edit]

For further detail and references, see Invasion of French Indochina.

On July 22, 1941, Japanese forces invaded Vichy French Indochina and occupied its naval and air bases.

Netherlands East Indies[edit]

For further detail and references, see Netherlands East Indies campaign.

On January 18, 1942, the commander of 16th Army Lt. General Hitoshi Imamura arrived at Takao, Taiwan from his base at Saigon. He received an order to hasten the invasion preparation toward Java. But due to shipping shortages, he had to adjust the plans. On January 21, he arrived at Manila to inspect the IJA 48th Division and to have discussion with the commander of the IJN 3rd Fleet. The Netherlands East Indies was invaded in a three-prong attack by using 3 groups: western, center and eastern group.

Western invasion group[edit]

The IJA 2nd Division of the IJA 16th Army, which was assembled in Taiwan, was ordered on January 25 to move in to Cam Ranh Bay and became the main force of western invasion group. At Cam Ranh Bay, the troops were trained for the tropical jungle warfare. On the 30th, the attack order was announced. The western group was carried aboard 56 transport ships and left for Java on February 18. By midnight on February 28, the ships landed at Merak and Bantam Bay on Java island.

Following the surrender of Hong Kong, the 228th, 229th and 230th Infantry Regiments from the IJA 38th Division were also deployed to Netherlands East Indies separately. On February 13, the 229th and 230th assaulted Palembang on Sumatra and then joined the main force. On February 28 midnight the 230th Infantry Regiment landed on Eretan Wetan on Java.

Center invasion group[edit]

The center group was composed of IJA 48th Division, left for Java on February 8, 1942 from Lingayen Gulf, in the Philippines. On February 25, the convoy arrived at Balikpapan and the Sakaguchi detachment (56th Regiment Group) joined the force. They landed at Kragan on Java by midnight February 28.

Earlier on January 11, the Sakaguchi detachment and 2nd Kure Special Naval Landing Force occupied Tarakan.[3] They secured Balikpapan on January 23.[4] On 10 February Bandjermasin, the capital of Dutch Borneo was occupied.[5]

Eastern invasion group[edit]

The Eastern invasion group included the Sasebo Combined Naval Landing Force and 1st Yokosuka Special Naval Landing Force. They left Davao on January 9 and during the early morning of January 11, arrived at and occupied Menado.[6] The Sasebo Combined Special Naval Landing Force then attacked and occupied Kendari on January 23.[7] Makassar was captured on 9 February by the Sasebo Combined Special Naval Landing Force.[8] All these are on Celebes island.

The 1st Kure Special Naval Landing Force and 228th Infantry Regiment from 38th Army and Airplane Carrier Division 2 from Japan, reached Ambon on January 30.[9]

Thailand and Burma[edit]

For further detail and references, see Burma campaign.

Malaya and Singapore[edit]

For further detail and references, see Malayan Campaign.

South West Pacific[edit]

For further detail and references, see South West Pacific theatre of World War II.

List of commanders[edit]

Commanding Officer[edit]

Name From To
1 Gensui Count Terauchi Hisaichi 6 November 1941 31 August 1945

Chief of Staff[edit]

Name From To
1 Lieutenant General Osamu Tsukada 6 November 1941 1 July 1942
2 Lieutenant General Kuroda Shigenori 1 July 1942 19 May 1943
3 Lieutenant General Shimizu Kinori 19 May 1943 22 March 1944
4 Lieutenant General Iimura Jo 22 March 1944 26 December 1944
5 Lieutenant General Numata Takazo 26 December 1944 September 1945

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jowett, The Japanese Army 1931-45
  2. ^ Japanese Wikipedia article of Southern Expeditionary Army Group
  3. ^ L, Klemen (1999–2000). "The capture of Tarakan Island, January 1942". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942. 
  4. ^ L, Klemen (1999–2000). "The capture of Balikpapan, January 1942". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942. 
  5. ^ L, Klemen (1999–2000). "The capture of Bandjermasin". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942. 
  6. ^ L, Klemen (1999–2000). "The Fall of Menado, January 1942". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942. 
  7. ^ L, Klemen (1999–2000). "The Fall of Kendari, January 1942". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942. 
  8. ^ L, Klemen (1999–2000). "The capture of Makassar, February 1942". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942. 
  9. ^ L, Klemen (1999–2000). "The Japanese Invasion of Ambon Island, January 1942". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942. 

External links[edit]