||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (January 2014)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|China||1,500,000-4,000,000; 6,000,000? (2013)|
|Southern Mongolian, Baarin Mongolian, Ordos Mongolian, Chakhar Mongolian|
|Tibetan Buddhism, Shamanism, Atheism|
|Related ethnic groups|
The Manchus secured their control over Southern Mongolia in 1632. By 1636, most Southern Mongolian nobles had submitted to the Manchu-Qing Empire. Southern Mongolian Sunud's leader Tengis revolted against the Qing in the 1640s and the Khalkha Khanate (Northern Yuan) battled against the Qing to protect Sunud.
In 1755 Amursanaa of Khoid, Chingünjav of Khotogoid and Southern Mongolian Khorchin Wang Sevdenbaljir rose against the Manchu-Qing domination but Sevdenbaljir arrested before this uprising and an uprising in Southern Mongolia subdued.
On February 2, 1913 the Bogd Khanate sent Mongolian cavalries to liberate Southern Mongolia from China. Russia refused to sell weapons to the Bogd Khanate and Russian king Nicholas II called it as "Mongolian imperialism". The United Kingdom urged Russia to abolish Mongolian independence because it was concerned that "if Mongolians gain independence then Central Asians will revolt". 10,000 Mongolian and Southern Mongolian cavalries (about 3,500 Southern Mongols) defeated 70,000 Chinese soldiers and liberated almost whole Southern Mongolia, however, Mongolian army retreated due to lack of weapon in 1914.
The Inner Mongolian people carried on a separatist struggle against the Chinese government. From 1912 to 1947 almost 10 separate Mongol national governments were formed in Inner Mongolia, declaring either rebellion against China. Of these, the most powerful and influential was the autonomous government (Mengjiang) led by the Prince of Sunud, Demchugdongrub. This government stood for about 10 years and included a little more than half the territory of Inner Mongolia. The Southern Mongols established short-lived Republic of Inner Mongolia in 1945.
In 1912 the struggle in Inner Mongolia for national liberation intensified under the influence of Mongolia's independence and almost all of the 49 banners (banner is the traditional unit of local administration in Mongolia) declared their allegiance to the new Theocratic Mongolian state. Many armed uprisings broke out as a result of this, but they were defeated by China's superior force with many thousands of Mongols, down to ordinary citizens being persecuted in the ensuing repression. In these uprisings anything from a few score to tens of thousands of people were involved. The number of those killed during 1912-1949 of the Kuomintang could be numbered in the hundreds of thousands.
The Manchu's Manchukuo state (1932-1945) invaded Barga and some part of Southern Mongolia with help of the Empire of Japan (1868-1947). The Mongolian army advanced to the Great Wall of China during the Soviet–Japanese War of 1945 (Mongolian name:Liberation War of 1945). The Japanese Empire supported Pan-Mongol separatism since the 1910s but there has never been active relations between Mongolia and Imperial Japan due to Russian resistance. The Southern Mongolian puppet Mengjiang state (1936-1945) was established with support of Japan in 1936.
Mongolian leader marshal Khorloogiin Choibalsan called Southern Mongolians and Xinjiang Oirats to migrate to Mongolia during the war but the Soviet Army blocked Southern Mongolian migrants way. It was a part of Pan-Mongolian plan and few Oirats and Southern Mongols (Huuchids, Bargas, Tümeds, about 800 Uzemchins) arrived. Southern Mongolian leaders carried out active policy to merge Southern Mongolia with Mongolia since 1911. They founded the Inner Mongolian Army in 1929 but the Inner Mongolian Army disbanded after ending World War II.
Part of Choibalsan's plan was to merge Southern and Western Mongolia with Mongolia. By 1945, Chinese communist leader Mao Zedong requested Soviet to prevent Mongolian and Southern Mongolian reunification because the Communists needed additional manpower to defeat the Japanese Empire and Kuomintang (Taiwan). Mao allegedly promised to merge Southern Mongolia with Mongolia.
After the end of World War II, the Chinese Civil War resumed between the Chinese Nationalists (Kuomintang), led by Chiang Kai-shek, and the Chinese Communist Party, led by Mao Zedong. In December 1949, Chiang evacuated his government to Taiwan.
50,000 (official Chinese figures) Southern Mongols were massacred during the Cultural Revolution in the 1960s and 200,000 people heavily injured. China forbade Mongol traditions, celebrities and teaching Mongolic languages during the revolution. In Inner Mongolia, some 790,000 people were persecuted (official Chinese figures). These are the lowest possible figures given according to Chinese official statistics. In fact the numbers maybe far larger than these figures. The total number of Southern Mongols was 1,600,000 (official figures) in the 1960s.
The Southern Mongols protested against China in 2011. The Inner Mongolian People's Party is a member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization and Southern Mongolian leaders are attempting to secede from the Chinese government.
Southern Mongolian ethnic groups
- Abaga Mongols
- Chahar Mongols
- Gorlos Mongols
- Kharchin Mongols
- Khorchin Mongols
- Naiman (Southern Mongols)
- Ordos Mongols
- Urad Mongols
- Üzemchin Mongols
- Түмэдхүү, ӨМӨЗО-НЫ ХҮН АМЫН ХУВИРАЛТЫН ЗУРГИЙГ ҮЗЭЭД (Southern) Mongolian Liberal Union Party (Mongolian)
- Өвөр Монголын хүн ам (Mongolian)
- Inner Mongolian People's Party
- L.Jamsran, Mongolian revolution of 1911. 1996
- The Nationality Question in Inner Mongolia and the Ethnic Opposition
- Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of the PRC, 1998
- Southern Mongolian Human Rights Information Center
- Mongolian Liberal Union Party (separatists)
- Opposition in Inner Mongolia
- What’s happening in Southern Mongolia?
- Inner Mongolia in 'War-Like State'
- China must allow free reporting in Inner Mongolia
- Enghebatu Togochog on Inner Mongolia
- Southern Mongolia : Many Detained, Some Fled After Protests
- South Mongolia Peoples Party
- Free Southern Mongolia Inner Mongolia
- South Mongolia Support Group