Southern Pacific class GS-4
||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (June 2011)|
|Southern Pacific GS-4|
SP4449 standing idle under steam, waiting to start Christmas excursion, December 13, 2005.
|Builder||Lima Locomotive Works|
|Serial number||7798–7817, 7848–7855|
|Build date||April–May 1941, March–April 1942|
|UIC classification||2′D2′ h2|
|Gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)|
|Driver diameter||80 in (2,032 mm)|
|Wheelbase||88.23 ft (26.9 metres)|
|Axle load||69,000 lb (31.3 tonnes)|
|Weight on drivers||275,700 lb (125.1 tonnes)|
|Locomotive weight||475,000 lb (215.5 tonnes)|
|Locomotive and tender
|788,730 lb (357.8 tonnes)|
|Fuel type||Fuel oil|
|Fuel capacity||6,275 US gal (23,750 l; 5,225 imp gal)|
|Water capacity||23,300 US gal (88,000 l; 19,400 imp gal)|
|Boiler pressure||300 psi (2.07 MPa)|
|Firegrate area||90.4 sq ft (8.40 m2)|
|4,887 sq ft (454.0 m2)|
|Superheater area||2,086 sq ft (193.8 m2)|
|Cylinder size||25 1⁄2 in × 32 in (648 mm × 813 mm)|
|Tractive effort||64,800 lbf (288.24 kN), 78,000 lbf (346.96 kN) with booster|
|Railroad(s)||Southern Pacific Company|
|First run||April 1941|
|Disposition||#4449 restored, remainder scrapped|
The GS-4 was a streamlined 4-8-4 Northern type steam locomotive used on the Southern Pacific Company from 1941 to 1958. They were built by the Lima Locomotive Works and were numbered 4430 through 4457. GS stands for "Golden State" or "General Service."
Unlike the GS-3, the GS-4 had a dual-headlight casing (top headlight was a mars light) on the silver smokebox. Another change was the all-weather cab. It retained the skyline casing atop of the boiler, skirting on the sides, an air horn to supplement the whistle and teardrop classification lights. They carried the orange and red "Daylight" paint scheme.
The GS-4s were passenger engines capable of 110 mph (180 km/h). (Timetable speed limit never exceeded 75 mph.) Southern Pacific's premier passenger trains were pulled by GS-4s, the Coast Daylight, San Joaquin Daylight, Lark, Cascade, Golden State and Sunset Limited. During wartime and in the first years after the war some of the GS-4 locomotives were painted black; by 1948 all had been repainted into Daylight colors. Starting in March 1950 most were painted black again and had their side skirts removed for easier maintenance, and were re-assigned to the San Jose-San Francisco commute trains, freight service and the occasional San Joaquin Daylight (steam locomotives remained on that train as late as 1956 which made the San Joaquin Daylight the last streamliner train to be pulled by steam on the Southern Pacific) until new diesels arrived and they were retired. The last GS-4 engines were deskirted and painted black in 1956; a GS-4 pulled its last passenger train in January 1957. All were retired by 1958. GS-4 number 4443 pulled one of the final steam excursions on the Southern Pacific in 1957.
Southern Pacific 4449 is the only surviving GS-4 locomotive and is one of the most recognizable locomotives of all time. 4449 was donated to the City of Portland (in Oregon), in 1958 and moved to Oaks Amusement Park for static display. In December 1974 the locomotive was removed from Oaks Park to undergo restoration. From August 1975 to December 1976, 4449 shared duties with several other steam locomotives pulling the American Freedom Train throughout the U.S. The 4449 is still operational, and since mid-2012 it resides at the Oregon Rail Heritage Center in Portland along with other preserved locomotives and rolling stock.
The tender of SP 4444 (the last GS-4 to be scrapped) was rebuilt by SP and used as a "hammer car" to test impacts on hydracushion boxcars; it was scrapped in the early 1970s.
- Diebert, Timothy S. and Strapac, Joseph A. (1987). Southern Pacific Company Steam Locomotive Conpendium. Shade Tree Books. ISBN 0-930742-12-5.
- The American Freedom Train Foundation (1975). The American Freedom Train Official Commemorative Program 1975 / 1976. The American Freedom Train Foundation.
- Friends of SP 4449
- The Southern Pacific (i.e. "Espee") Golden State Locomotives Classes GS-1 to GS-6
- The Southern Pacific Technical and Historical Society
- The Museum of America's Freedom Trains
- Southern Pacific Coast Daylight Engines