Southern Rhodesian general election, 1980

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Southern Rhodesian general election, 1980
Southern Rhodesia
1979 ←
February 1980
→ 1985

All 100 seats in the House of Assembly
  First party Second party Third party
  Mugabe 1982 c.jpg Joshua Nkomo (1978).jpg Ian Smith 1975.jpg
Leader Robert Mugabe Joshua Nkomo Ian Smith
Party ZANU-PF ZAPU RF
Last election N/A N/A 28
(White Roll)
Seats won 57
(Common Roll)
20
(Common Roll)
20
(White Roll)
Seat change N/A N/A Decrease 8
Popular vote 1,668,992
(Common Roll)
638,879
(Common Roll)
13,621
(White Roll)
Percentage 63.0%
(Common Roll)
24.1%
(Common Roll)
83.0%
(White Roll)

Prime Minister before election

Abel Muzorewa
UANC

Prime Minister-designate

Robert Mugabe
ZANU-PF

General elections were held in Southern Rhodesia in February 1980 to elect a government which would govern the country after it was granted independence as Zimbabwe, in accordance with the conclusions of the Lancaster House Agreement. The election was won by the Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) and its leader Robert Mugabe therefore became the first Prime Minister of Zimbabwe.

Constitutional background[edit]

Agreement at Lancaster House on the fundamentals of the constitution was relatively easy. The new House of Assembly was to comprise 100 members, of whom 80 would be elected on a common roll by every adult citizen. The intention was to move to election in single member constituencies but owing to the lack of an electoral roll and the timescale, the first election was to be conducted by provinces using closed lists put forward by the political parties. Voters had their fingers marked with an invisible ink that showed up under Ultraviolet light to detect attempts to vote twice. To qualify for seats in a province, a party needed to achieve a threshold of 10% of the vote, and then the seats among the eligible parties were divided proportionately.

The remaining 20 members of the House of Assembly were to be elected by the 'white roll' comprising those people (mostly white) who had previously qualified to vote. This election was conducted in 20 single member constituencies which had been drawn up by a Delimitation Commission in 1978 and were the same as those used in the 1979 'internal settlement' election. Voters who were registered on the white roll were ineligible to participate in the common roll election.

Implementation[edit]

Following the passage in Zimbabwe Rhodesia of the Constitution of Zimbabwe Rhodesia (Amendment) No. 4 Act 1979 on 11 December 1979, and the arrival of Lord Soames as Governor the next day, the fourteen year U.D.I. rebellion came to an end and the colony of Southern Rhodesia returned to legality under British law. The United Kingdom Parliament then passed the Zimbabwe Act to put in place the country's independence constitution. On 21 December 1979, the formal agreement to a ceasefire in the Rhodesian Bush War (or second Chimurenga) was signed; Lord Soames also signed proclamations lifting the ban on ZANU-PF and the Zimbabwe African People's Union and granting a general amnesty to all those who had taken up arms in the war. British Army forces then set up 16 assembly points throughout Southern Rhodesia where Patriotic Front guerillas could disarm and return to civilian life; 18,300 did so by the deadline of 6 January.[1]

While the Rhodesian authorities were in charge of administration on the ground, the formal Returning Officer was Sir John Boynton (1918–2007) who had just retired as chief executive of Cheshire County Council.

Election campaigning[edit]

Common roll[edit]

Over Christmas 1979, many former Patriotic Front soldiers returned to their former homes to prepare for the election.[2][3] Tragically for ZANU-PF, its military leader Josiah Tongogara was killed in a car crash in Mozambique. Tongogara was known to be a supporter of the two Patriotic Front parties, ZANU-PF and ZAPU, fighting the election with a joint list, and it was immediately speculated that his death was arranged by opponents of this policy.[4]

On 13 January, Joshua Nkomo, leader of ZAPU, returned to Southern Rhodesia after three years' exile and addressed a rally of between 100,000 and 150,000 at Highfield township in Salisbury.[5] He was followed on 27 January by Robert Mugabe of ZANU-PF, who addressed 200,000 (the crowd would have been larger had organisers not turned some away for safety reasons).[6][7]

Abel Muzorewa, who had led the unity government of Zimbabwe Rhodesia, campaigned vigorously on behalf of his United African National Council which had won the most votes the previous year. However, attendance at his rallies was reported to be poor, and Muzorewa's habit of inveighing against other Zimbabwean politicians was thought to detract from his appeal as a man of unity.[8] James Chikerema, who had fallen out with Muzorewa in June 1979, entered the field with his Zimbabwe Democratic Party which grew increasingly close to ZAPU (he held unity talks with Nkomo);[9] Chikerema complained about intimidation by supporters of ZANU-PF.

ZANU-PF presented a moderate manifesto that showed little of the party's professed alliance with communist China, although party speakers often threatened that the war might continue if the party did not win. The party complained bitterly to Lord Soames about official bias against it. The Registrar-General of Elections refused to put the party's intended logo on ballot papers because it contained an image of an AK47 rifle and he considered it detrimental to public order.[10] ZANU-PF posters were confiscated if they were considered inflammatory, and many party activists and some candidates were arrested.[11] Soames responded by accusing ZANU-PF of intimidating voters in 23 out of the 56 districts of the colony.

ZAPU caused something of a stir by deciding to fight the elections under the name "Patriotic Front".[10] They campaigned most heavily in the Ndebele areas, where the ZAPU army ZIPRA made particular strides in trying to integrate with the Southern Rhodesian forces.

White roll[edit]

Rural constituencies used at this election.
Constituencies in Salisbury.
Constituencies in Bulawayo.

Comparatively little interest was shown in the election for the 20 white roll seats, partly because those elected were unlikely to have much influence in the independent Zimbabwe, but mostly because all seats were expected to be won easily by the Rhodesian Front under Ian Smith. Fourteen out of the twenty seats were filled unopposed, and only two candidates in the other seats could put up a reasonable challenge to the Rhodesian Front candidate. One was Dr Timothy Stamps, a newcomer to politics, in the Kopje constituency covering the centre of Salisbury. Stamps advocated co-operation with the new black-led government. In addition, Nick McNally, who had led the liberal 'National Unifying Force' which opposed white dominance, fought in Mount Pleasant in the Salisbury suburbs.

Twelve out of the 20 Rhodesian Front candidates were reported to favour merging their party with Muzorewa's United African National Council to create a biracial party, following their experience in government together in Zimbabwe Rhodesia.[8] White opinion was generally supportive of Muzorewa's government for including competent Ministers, and hoped that Muzorewa would win enough common roll seats to deprive ZANU-PF of a majority.

Results[edit]

Party White roll Common roll Total
seats
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
ZANU-PF 1,668,992 63.0 57 57
ZAPU-PF 638,879 24.1 20 20
Rhodesian Front 13,621 83.0 20 20
United African National Council 219,307 8.3 3 3
ZANU-Ndonga 53,343 2.0 0 0
Zimbabwe Democratic Party 28,181 1.1 0 0
National Front of Zimbabwe 18,794 0.7 0 0
National Democratic Union 15,056 0.6 0 0
United National Federal Party 5,796 0.2 0 0
United People's Association of Matabeleland 1,181 0.0 0 0
Independents 2,781 17.0 0 0
Invalid/blank votes 52,746
Total 16,402 100 20 2,702,275 100 80 100
Source: African Elections Database

Provincial common roll results[edit]

Province NDU NFZ PF UANC ZANU ZANU-PF ZDP Other parties
Votes % Votes % Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Votes % Seats Votes % Votes (%)
Manicaland (11) 1,837 0.6 1,283 0.4 4,992 1.6 19,608 6.2 16,843 5.4 263,972 84.1 11 5,251 1.7
Mashonaland Central (6) 1,216 0.7 1,086 0.6 3,947 2.3 14,985 8.6 3,671 2.1 146,665 83.8 6 2,446 1.4 UNFP 914 (0.5%)
Mashonaland East (16) 2,359 0.4 1,668 0.3 28,805 4.6 75,237 11.9 2 9,499 1.5 508,813 80.5 14 4,466 0.7 UNFP 1,593 (0.3%)
Mashonaland West (8) 2,211 0.8 2,589 0.9 37,888 13.4 1 28,728 10.2 1 4,688 1.7 203,567 71.9 6 3,261 1.2
Matabeleland North (10) 1,840 0.5 4,517 1.1 313,435 79.0 9 30,274 7.6 3,218 0.8 39,819 10.0 1 1,333 0.3 UNFP 1,340 (0.3%), UPAM 729 (0.2%)
Matabeleland South (6) 927 0.5 2,494 1.4 148,745 86.4 6 5,615 3.3 694 0.4 11,787 6.8 775 0.5 UNFP 619 (0.4%), UPAM 452 (0.3%)
Midlands (12) 2,218 0.6 3,087 0.9 94,960 27.1 4 30,245 8.6 5,792 1.7 209,092 59.7 8 3,387 1.0 UNFP 1,330 (0.4%)
Victoria (11) 2,448 0.7 2,070 0.6 6,107 1.9 14,615 4.5 8,938 2.7 285,277 87.3 11 7,262 2.2

Candidates and elected members[edit]

Common roll candidate lists[edit]

Manicaland Province[edit]

NDU NFZ PF UANC ZANU ZANU-PF ZDP
1. M.T. Muchabaiwa 1. L. Mazaiwana 1. P. Chipudla 1. E.S. Mazaiwana 1. N. Sithole 1. K. Kangai 1. A.K. Chinhamora
2. L. Mazaiwana 2. J. Nxahe 2. G. Marange 2. D.C.Z. Mukome 2. N. Mukono 2. M. Nyagumbo 2. M.T. Marange
3. T. Shamu 3. E. Chapita 3. A. Chadzingwa 3. J.M. Chirimbani 3. D. Zamchiya 3. D. Mutasa 3. F.H.M. Hlatwayo
4. B. Mufunde 4. M. Sithole 4. P. Makoni 4. E.S.M. Nyandoro 4. A. Sawanha 4. W. Ndangana 4. J. Nyandoro
5. S. Makoni 5. M. Mutendeni 5. L. Dlakama 5. M.P. Chambara 5. L. Guramatumhu 5. F. Shava 5. D.S. Musanesa
6. P. Tsungo 6. C. Mushonga 6. T.C. Ngorima 6. L. Mtungwazi 6. M. Sithole 6. V. Chitepo 6. A.A. Manyati
7. N. Chiza 7. P. Makoni 7. W. Dlamini 7. J.Z. Ruredzo 7. D. Mungunyana 7. N.P. Nhiwatiwa 7. F.H.T. Govera
8. A. Makoni 8. L. Chimbwanda 8. S. Chatsama 8. B. Gwanzura 8. M. Gurira 8. M. Mahachi 8. D.M. Mlambo
9. E. Chasarasara 9. H. Bonga 9. M. Masiyakurima 9. J.R. Zvinoira 9. W. Nduku 9. T. Dube 9. J. Mkandi
10. M. Mundopah 10. D. Tsikai 10. O. Chibanda 10. L.C. Charidza 10. N. M'tambara 10. C. Makoni 10. A. Siwela
11. C. Matsvaira 11. L. Munyuki 11. S. Hhahla 11. F.K. Kadzombe 11. F. Mamvura 11. E. Sanyangare 11. M. Nyabadza

Mashonaland Central Province[edit]

NDU NFZ PF UANC UNFP ZANU ZANU-PF ZDP
1. F. Maruta 1. M. Chikanda 1. J. Msika 1. A.B. Mutiti 1. C.N. Zhanje 1. E. Tsvaringe 1. E.Z. Tekere 1. E.M. Zhuwarara
2. J.C.M. Chereni 2. C. Murwira 2. P. Takundwa 2. J.B. Cohen 2. M. Mukono 2. B. Gambanga 2. T.R. Nhongo 2. N.Z. Mombemuriwo
3. W. Murewerwi 3. M. Wandakanda 3. T. Chimanikire 3. E.P.S. Ncube 3. J.C. Matonzi 3. B. Muchenje 3. S.T. Sekeramayi 3. C.G. Kusema
4. L. Tsangadzi 4. C. Maroodza 4. A. Masawi 4. E. Chidavaenzi 4. M. Gombe 4. F.C. Dotito 4. F.J. Masango 4. J.C. Negomo
5. T. Magwaro 5. E.R. Mazarura 5. J. Padzakashamba 5. C.C. Mabharanga 5. J. Eppie 5. T. Mufunga 5. G. Rutanhire 5. J. Tendere
6. P. Mavunga 6. S. Mabasa 6. S. Kakora 6. M.N. Chagadama 6. R. Ruwaridzo 6. S. Chimanikire 6. J. Kaparadza 6. J. Chigariro

Mashonaland East Province[edit]

NDU NFZ ZAPU UANC UNFP ZANU ZANU-PF ZDP
1. H.T. Chihota 1. C. Chitando 1. J. Chinamano 1. A.T. Muzorewa 1. B.C. Chanetsa 1. J. Mandaza 1. R.G. Mugabe 1. J.R.D. Chikerema
2. K.N.K. Muskwe 2. A. Mutungi 2. Felix Magalela Mafa Sibanda 2. S.C. Mundawarara 2. G.T. Chinyani 2. K.N. Malindi 2. DUBE 2. E. Dumbutshena
3. D. Madamombe 3. M. Gwande 3. D. Madzimbamuto 3. D.T. Nyamuswa 3. J. Malindi 3. T. Chizengeni 3. R. Marere 3. P. Wakatama
4. L. Jero 4. F. Nhamo 4. S. Marembo 4. S.V. Mtambenengwe 4. J. Masawi 4. D. Mudzi 4. W. Mangwende 4. A.E. Chikandamina
5. G. Nyawiri 5. M. Moyo 5. E. Jirira 5. M.A. Mawema 5. D. Mugomeza 5. J. Kadziviti 5. M. Mvenge 5. D.T. Gomo
6. C. Mudzudzu 6. C. Mvura 6. K. Ndluni 6. A.G. Rumano 6. M. Musara 6. E. Nyandoro 6. E. Shirihuru 6. P. Makahamadze
7. E. Tafirenyika 7. M. Dube 7. S. Mutunyani 7. B.M. Mutasa 7. K. Bakasa 7. M.J. Mudzi 7. E. Pswarayi 7. C. Zvimba
8. A.T. Muskwe 8. C. Matenga 8. G. Musariri 8. F.D.H. Muzorewa 8. W. Badza 8. W. Marimo 8. G. Ziyenge 8. P. Kunaka
9. C. Mbirori 9. J. Moyo 9. R. Nyandoro 9. J.M. Gopo 9. O. Zhakata 9. W. Pasipanodya 9. P. Murambiwa 9. Z.M. Gamanya
10. A. Madamombe 10. T. Mutandi 10. J. Chirisa 10. G.M. Magaramombe 10. D. Tafira 10. P. Foya 10. J. Hunda 10. N. Samkange
11. S. Mupfuwi 11. S. Muchenje 11. D. Katsande 11. C.J.K. Nyahwata 11. P.C. Mutandwa 11. R. Rutsito 11. H. Nyazika 11. E. Matiza
12. M. Vera 12. E. Mukamba 12. S. Metha 12. A. Chikwanha 12. M.Z. Charumbira 12. C.C. Musambwa 12. G.G. Chidyausiku 12. N. Mukahadzi
13. C. Chiponda 13. P. Musarurwa 13. T.V. Mpofu 13. N.T. Mtandi 13. R. Kachindamoto 13. C. Manomano 13. A. Kabasa 13. C. Chimutsa
14. A. Nyandoro 14. J. Fambisayi 14. S. Bgoni 14. L. Kabaira 14. J. Mupandaguta 14. C. Matanganyidze 14. S. Rambanepasi 14. T. Takadiyi
15. I. Chivunga 15. S. Mhike 15. E. Patsike 15. D.M. Mbidzo 15. F. Nevanji 15. J. Chimwala 15. T. Munyati 15. W. Mabvakure
16. R. Muswaka 16. T. Jangire 16. Mrs. Mangwende 16. H.H. Mufanechiya 16. H. Nyagomo 16. E. Sithole 16. J. Jekanyika 16. D. Nyere

Mashonaland West Province[edit]

NDU NFZ ZAPU-PF UANC ZANU ZANU-PF ZDP
1. X. Mutenderi 1. F. Kavande 1. A.M. Chambati 1. T.G. Mukarati 1. P. Mhlanga 1. R.D. Manyika 1. S.J. Samkange
2. M. Mani 2. P. Makoni 2. K. Mano 2. Ken Chitate 2. N. Bangajena 2. J. Chivaura 2. M.B. Gumbo
3. L. Marufu 3. C. Pasipamire 3. L. Chiwanza 3. R.C.N. Madzima 3. E. Machingauta 3. N. Shamuyarira 3. S. Paraffin
4. F. Chikosha 4. V. Muketiwa 4. M. Nziramasanga 4. S.B. Kawonza 4. P. Mombeshora 4. A. Mudzingwa 4. T.E.T. Madamombe
5. P. Muzowoneyi 5. J. Ngondo 5. K. Bhebe 5. J.Z. Mudzengi 5. T. Dlamini 5. S. Mombeshora 5. M. Hoyi
6. B. Mashoko 6. A. Maririmba 6. C. Kadenhe 6. R.T. Sadomba 6. J. Madiro 6. E. Chikowore 6. D.B. Goromonzi
7. P. Mbizi 7. B. Munyuki 7. C. Mashayamombe 7. I.A. Adam 7. P. Munyuki 7. M. Chivende 7. P. Kutama
8. S. Nyakadzino 8. N. Kamwana 8. M. Musarurwa 8. T.T. Tsanangurai 8. S. Chinembiri 8. N. Bangure 8. G. Maseko

White roll constituency results[edit]

Polling day was 14 February 1980. A dagger (†) indicates a member of the Zimbabwe Rhodesia House of Assembly for that constituency. A double dagger (‡) indicates a white non-constituency member.

Constituency Candidate Party Votes %
AVONDALE †John Alfred Landau RF unopposed
BORROWDALE †David Colville Smith RF unopposed
BULAWAYO CENTRAL †Patrick Francis Shields RF unopposed
BULAWAYO NORTH †Wilfred Denis Walker RF unopposed
BULAWAYO SOUTH †Wallace Evelyn Stuttaford RF 3,715 92.0
Dr Francis Robert Bertrand Ind 289 7.2
Jan (John) Francis Betch Ind 36 0.9
CENTRAL †Rowan Cronjé RF unopposed
EASTERN †Desmond Butler RF unopposed
GATOOMA/HARTLEY †Pieter Kenyon Fleming-Voltelyn van der Byl RF unopposed
HATFIELD †Richard Cartwright RF unopposed
HIGHLANDS Robert James Gaunt RF unopposed
KOPJE †Dennis Divaris RF 1,999 65.5
Dr Timothy John Stamps Ind 1,053 34.5
LUNDI †Donald Galbraith Goddard RF unopposed
MAKONI Norman Arthur Tapson RF 1,396 76.4
Petrus Christophel van der Merwe Ind 431 23.6
MARLBOROUGH †William Michie Irvine RF unopposed
MAZOE/MTOKO André Sothern Holland RF unopposed
MIDLANDS †Henry Swan Elsworth RF unopposed
MOUNT PLEASANT †Jonas Christian Andersen RF 2,683 79.4
Nicholas John McNally Ind 698 20.6
NORTHERN †Esmond Meryl Micklem RF unopposed
SOUTHERN †Ian Douglas Smith RF 2,253 93.8
Johannes Jacobus Hulley Ind 113 4.7
Donovan Peter Speedie Ind 37 1.5
WESTERN †Alexander Moseley RF 1,579 92.7
Lawrence Alastair Bronson Ind 124 7.3

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nicholas Ashford, "Guerillas flock in as deadline passes", The Times, 7 January 1980, p. 5.
  2. ^ Frederick Cleary, "Tumultuous Salisbury welcome for guerillas", The Times, 27 December 1979, p. 1.
  3. ^ BBC News online 'On this Day', 26 December 1979.
  4. ^ "Military chief of Mugabe forces dies in collision", The Times, 28 December 1979, p. 4.
  5. ^ Nicholas Ashford, "Nkomo returns to a hero's welcome", The Times, 14 January 1980, p. 1.
  6. ^ Nicholas Ashford, "Mr Mugabe calls on whites to stay in Rhodesia", The Times, 28 January 1980, p. 1.
  7. ^ BBC News online 'On this day', 27 January 1980.
  8. ^ a b Nicholas Ashford, "Mugabe party 'will win most seats in poll'", The Times, 31 January 1980, p. 6.
  9. ^ Nicholas Ashford, "Rhodesia reservists called up to stand by in election", The Times, 7 February 1980, p. 6.
  10. ^ a b Frederick Cleary, "Nkomo party is Patriotic Front now", The Times, 15 January 1980, p. 7.
  11. ^ Nicholas Ashford, "Arrests fuel charges of official bias against Mr Mugabe", The Times, 15 February 1980, p. 8.