Southern right whale

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Southern right whale[1]
Southern right whale6.jpg
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Cetacea
Family: Balaenidae
Genus: Eubalaena
Species: E. australis
(Desmoulins, 1822)
Binomial name
Eubalaena australis
Cypron-Range Eubalaena australis.svg
Range map
Synonyms[3]
  • B. glacialis (Mueller, 1776)
  • B. antarctica (Lesson, 1828)
  • B. antipodarum (Gray, 1843)
  • Hunterus temminckii (Gray, 1864)
  • Macleayius australiensis (Gray, 1865)
  • E. capensis (Gray, 1866)
  • Halibalaena britannica (Gray, 1873)
  • E. glacialis australis (Tomilin, 1962)
  • B. glacialis australis (Scheffer & Rice, 1963)

The southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) is a baleen whale, one of three species classified as right whales belonging to the genus Eubalaena. Like other right whales, the southern right whale is readily distinguished from others by the callosities on its head, a broad back without a dorsal fin, and a long arching mouth that begins above the eye. Its skin is very dark grey or black, occasionally with some white patches on the belly. The right whale's callosities appear white due to large colonies of cyamids (whale lice). It is almost indistinguishable from the closely related North Atlantic and the North Pacific right whales, displaying only minor skull differences. It may have fewer callosities on its head and more on its lower lips than the two northern species.[4][5] Approximately 10,000 southern right whales are spread throughout the southern part of the Southern Hemisphere.

The maximum size of an adult female is 15 m (49 ft)[6] and can weigh up to 47 tonnes (46 long tons; 52 short tons).[6] The testicles of right whales are likely to be the largest of any animal, each weighing around 500 kg (1,100 lb). This suggests that sperm competition is important in the mating process.[7] Right whales cannot cross the warm equatorial waters to connect with the other (sub)species and (inter)breed: their thick layers of insulating blubber make it impossible for them to dissipate their internal body heat in tropical waters.

Proportion and number of molten colored individuals are considerably notable in this species that cannot be observed in the other species in Northern Hemisphere. Some whales remain white even after growing up.[8]

Taxonomy[edit]

The right whales were first classified in the Balaena genus in 1758 by Carolus Linnaeus, who at the time considered all of the right whales (including the bowhead) as a single species. Through the 1800s and 1900s, in fact, the Balaenidae family has been the subject of great taxonometric debate. Authorities have repeatedly recategorized the three populations of right whale plus the bowhead whale, as one, two, three or four species, either in a single genus or in two separate genera. In the early whaling days, they were all thought to be a single species, Balaena mysticetus.[5]

The southern right whale was initially described as Balaena australis by Desmoulins in 1822. Eventually, it was recognized that bowheads and right whales were in fact different, and John Edward Gray proposed the Eubalaena genus for the right whale in 1864. Later, morphological factors such as differences in the skull shape of northern and southern right whales indicated at least two species of right whale—one in the Northern Hemisphere, the other in the Southern Ocean.[5] As recently as 1998, Rice, in his comprehensive and otherwise authoritative classification, Marine mammals of the world: systematics and distribution, listed just two species: Balaena glacialis (all of the right whales) and Balaena mysticetus (the bowheads).[9]

In 2000, Rosenbaum et al. disagreed, based on data from their genetic study of DNA samples from each of the whale populations. Genetic evidence now clearly demonstrates that the northern and southern populations of right whale have not interbred for between 3 million and 12 million years, confirming the southern right whale as a distinct species. The northern Pacific and Atlantic populations are also distinct, with the North Pacific right whale being more closely related to the southern right whale than to the North Atlantic right whale.[10]

It is believed that the right whale populations first split because of the joining of North and South America. The rising temperatures at the equator then created a second split, into the northern and southern groups, preventing them from interbreeding.[11]

In 2002, the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) accepted Rosenbaum's findings, and recommended that the Eubalaena nomenclature be retained for this genus.[12]

The cladogram is a tool for visualizing and comparing the evolutionary relationships between taxa. The point where a node branches off is analogous to an evolutionary branching – the diagram can be read left-to-right, much like a timeline. The following cladogram of the Balaenidae family serves to illustrate the current scientific consensus as to the relationships between the southern right whale and the other members of its family.

Family Balaenidae
 Family Balaenidae 
  Eubalaena (right whales)  

 E. glacialis North Atlantic right whale




 E. japonica North Pacific right whale



 E. australis Southern right whale




 Balaena (bowhead whales) 

 B. mysticetus bowhead whale



The right whale family, Balaenidae[10]

Other junior synonyms for E. australis have included B. antarctica (Lesson, 1828), B. antipodarum (Gray, 1843), Hunterus temminckii (Gray, 1864), and E. glacialis australis (Tomilin, 1962) (see side panel for more synonyms).[1][3]

Behavior[edit]

Like other right whales, they are rather active on the water surface, and being curious and playful towards human vessels. According to the quantity of observations, Southern rights seem more active and tend to interact with human more than other two species in Northern Hemisphere. One behavior unique to the southern right whale, known as sailing, is that of using their elevated flukes to catch the wind, remaining in the same position for considerable amount of time. It appears to be a form of play and is commonly seen off the coast of Argentina and South Africa.[4] Some other species such as Humpback whales are also known to display. Right whales are often seen interacting with other cetaceans, especially Humpback whales[13] and dolphins. There is a record of a Southern right and a Humpback thought to be involved in mating activities off Mozambique.[14]

They have very strong maternal connections with locations and gene pools they were born in,[15] and they are known to return to their 'birth spots' on 3-years intervals.

All species of right whales are curious, playful, and very gentle to other species including humans. In water, they are known to avoid themselves not to harm swimmers.[16][17] Legends of the Whale Rider is renowned in New Zealand, and real riders can be seen occasionally.[18]

Population and distribution[edit]

The southern right whale spends summer in the far Southern Ocean feeding, probably close to Antarctica. It migrates north in winter for breeding and can be seen by the coasts of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, Namibia, Mozambique, Peru, Tristan de Cunha, Uruguay, Madagascar, New Zealand and South Africa. The total population is estimated to be around 10,000. Since hunting ceased, stocks are estimated to have grown by 7% a year. It appears that the South American, South African and Australasian groups intermix very little if at all, because maternal fidelity to feeding and calving habitats is very strong. The mother also passes these choices to her calves.[19]

The most recent population estimates, published by National Geographic in October 2008, put the southern whale population at 10,000. The estimate of 7,000 followed a March 1998 IWC workshop. Researchers used data about adult female populations from three surveys (one in each of Argentina, South Africa and Australia, collected during the 1990s) and extrapolated to include unsurveyed areas, number of males and calves using available male:female and adult:calf ratios to give an estimated 1999 figure of 7,500 animals.[20]

Many locations throughout Southern Hemisphere were named after presence of Southern rights where whales are either rare or missing today in some of these locations, such as Walvis Bay, Punta Ballena, Right Whale Bay, Whangarei Harbour, Wineglass Bay, and so on.

Africa[edit]

Hermanus in South Africa has become known as a mecca for whale watching, during the southern hemisphere winter months (June - October) the Southern Right Whales migrate to the coastal waters of South Africa, with in excess of 100 whales known to be in the Hermanus area. Whilst in the area, the whales can be seen with their young as they come to Walker Bay to calve and mate. Many behaviours such as breaching, sailing, lobtailing, or spyhopping can be witnessed. In False Bay whales can be seen from the shore from July to October while both Plettenberg Bay and Algoa Bay are also home to the Southern Right Whales from July to December. They can be viewed from land as well as by boat with licensed operators conducting ocean safaris throughout the year.

In Namibia, most of confirmed whales are restricted to the south of Luderitz, the southern edge of the country, and only a handful animals venture further north of historical breeding grounds.

In contrast to the case in South Africa, right whales are becoming regular migrants but with very small numbers off Mozambique and Madagascar. The first sighting off Mozambique since the end of whaling was in 1997.[21] Recent increases in numbers of whales visiting the north-eastern part of South Africa, the so-called Dolphin Coast such as around Ballito[22] and off Umdloti Beach,[23] indicates the whales' normal ranges are expanding and that re-colonizing into historical habitats will likely continue as more whales migrate further north.

Latin America[edit]

In Brazil, more than 300 individuals have been cataloged through photo identification (using head callosities) by the Brazilian Right Whale Project, maintained jointly by Petrobras (the Brazilian state-owned oil company) and the International Wildlife Coalition. The State of Santa Catarina hosts a concentration of breeding and calving right whales from June to November, and females from this population also calve off Argentinian Patagonia and Uruguay. In recent years, possibly due to changing habitat environments by human activities and conflicts with local fisheries, the number of whales visiting the coasts are decreasing.[24]

During the 2012 annual meeting of the International Whaling Commission's Scientific Committee, data was presented regarding the continued phenomena of southern right whale strandings and high rate of mortality at Península Valdés, Argentina. Between 2003 and 2011, a total of 482 dead right whales were recorded at Península Valdés. There were at least 55 whale deaths in 2010, and 61 in 2011. As in previous years, the vast majority of strandings were calves of the season.[25] There are increasing sightings along Golfo San Jorge[26] and on Tierra del Fuego[27] in recent years.

In Uruguay, coastal areas such as Punta del Este host congregating sites for whales in breeding seasons, but not likely as calving grounds.[28] Their recovery helped creating a whale-sanctuary off Latin America[29] whose creation had been prevented for nearly as a decade by pro-whaling nations such as Japan.

For critically endangered Chile/Peru population, CCC, the Cetacean Conservation Center has been working a separate program for right whales. Aside from vagrants' records, Peru's coastlines possibly host the northernmost of confirmed range of the species. The Alfaguara project may possibly target this species as well in the future. Forging grounds of this population is currently undetected, but possibly down south of Caleta Zorra to southern fiords. Some hope arising for establishment of new tourism industry in eastern side of the Strait of Magellan as the number of sightings increases. It is unknown whether these increases are due to re-colonization by whales from Patagonian population.

Oceania[edit]

Historically, populations in Oceanian regions had been very robust. There were stories of early settlers complaining that sounds of cavorting whales kept them awake at night in various locations such as on Wellington Bay and River Derwent. Satellite tracking conducted suggests that there are at least some interactions between populations in these two nations, but unknown for what extent.

Australia[edit]

Southern Right Whales can be found in many parts of southern Australia, with the largest population to be found at the Head of the Bight in South Australia. Over 100[30] individuals are seen there annually from June to October. Visitors can view the whales from cliff top boardwalks and lookouts, with whales swimming almost directly below. The Head of the Bight is located in a sparsely populated area in the middle of the Nullabor. A more accessible location for viewing whales in South Australia is Encounter Bay where the whales can be seen just off the beaches of the Fleurieu Peninsula centred around the surfing town of Middleton, South Australia. A newer nursery ground has been established on Eyre Peninsula especially at Fowlers Bay as well. Numbers are much smaller at these locations compared to the Bight, with an average of a couple of whales per day. In recent years there have been regular sightings of more than ten whales at a time off Basham Beach.[31][32] A Whale Centre for information on the history of whaling and now whale watching in the area can be found at Victor Harbor. Whale numbers are scarcer in Victoria that the only established breeding ground where whales use each year had been at Warrnambool, but in very small numbers. However, the whales seem to re-colonize and extending their wintering habitats into other areas as the numbers of whales seen at Warrnambool do not show dramatically increases, but numbers of sightings occurred in other areas are showing slow but good increases. These are around Melbourne such as in Port Phillip Bay, at Ocean Grove, on Mornington Peninsula and in Apollo Bay. Tasmania is also a newer wintering ground showing dramatic increases in recent years. Western Australia, New South Wales, and Queensland coasts once had been normal habitats. Historical range was much wider and was spread on entire coasts of the continent (exclunding along Northern Territory); up to Exmouth and Shark Bay on west coast and Hervey Bay and Moreton Bay on east coast. East coast population is still endangered and very small (in low-tens),[33] contributing in small numbers and limited re-colonization, but increases have been confirmed in many areas such as vicinity to Sydney Harbor, Port Stephens, Twofold Bay, Jervis Bay, at Broulee,[34] Moruya River,[35][36] Narooma,[37] Byron Bay,[38] and so on.

Some whales can be seen around in subantarctic regions such as Macquarie Island.[39] It is unknown whether historical oceanic habitats such as Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island would be re-colonized by Australian populations in the future.

New Zealand[edit]

Many features are still unknown about right whale populations in New Zealand waters. However, studies by Department of Conservation and sightings reported by locals helped to deepen understanding. Scientists used to believe there was a very small, remnant population of southern right whales inhabiting New Zealand's "main" islands (North and South Island), containing probably 11 reproductive females.[40] In winter, whales migrate north to New Zealand waters and large concentrations occasionally visit the southern coasts of South Island. Bay areas along Foveaux Strait from Fiordland region to northern Otago are important breeding habitats for right whales, especially Preservation Inlet,[41] Te Waewae Bay,[42] and Otago Peninsula.[43][44] Calving activities are observed all around the nation, but with more regularity around North Island shores from Taranaki coast in west to Hawke's Bay, Bay of Plenty in east, and Hauraki Gulf areas such as Firth of Thames or Bay of Islands in north. The population at sub-Antarctic Auckland Islands is showing a remarkable recovery while recovery state in Campbell Islands are slower.[45] Other than a handful of confirmed observations, very little information are available for whether whales still migrating to historical oceanic habitats of Kermadec Islands[46] and Chatham Islands.[47]

Recent study revealed that the right whale populations from New Zealand's main islands and the one from sub-Antarctic islands interbreed though it is still unknown whether the two stock originally came from a single population.[48]

Other[edit]

In oceanic islands and offshore waters other than above mentioned areas, very little about presence and recovery status of southern right whales are known. Due to illegal whaling by Soviet Union, recovery of the population off Tristan da Cunha[49] and adjacent areas such as Gough Island had been severely slowed, resulting in relatively little number of visiting animals. In addition, whales were historically seen on offshore of Indian Ocean of mid-latitude area.

Whaling[edit]

Sculpture of southern right whale at Cockle Creek on Recherche Bay, Tasmania, where bay whaling was performed extensively during the 1840s and 1850s.
Main article: History of whaling

By 1750 the North Atlantic right whale was as good as extinct for commercial purposes and the Yankee whalers moved into the South Atlantic before the end of the 18th century. The southernmost Brazilian whaling station was established in 1796, in Imbituba. Over the next one hundred years, Yankee whaling spread into the Southern and Pacific Oceans, where the American fleet was joined by fleets from several European nations.

The southern right whale had been coming to New Zealand waters in large numbers before the 19th century, but was extensively hunted from 1830-1850. Hunting gradually declined with the whale population and then all but ended in coastal New Zealand waters.[50] The beginning of the 20th century brought industrial whaling, and the catch grew rapidly. By 1937, according to whalers' records, 38,000 were captured in the South Atlantic, 39,000 in the South Pacific, and 1,300 in the Indian Ocean. Given the incompleteness of these records, the total take was somewhat higher.[51]

As it became clear that stocks were nearly depleted, right whaling was banned in 1937. The ban was largely successful, although some illegal whaling continued for several decades. Madeira took its last two right whales in 1968. Illegal whaling continued off the coast of Brazil for many years and the Imbituba station processed right whales until 1973. The Soviet Union admitted illegally taking over 3,300 during the 1950s and '60s,[52] although it only reported taking 4.[53]

Whales began to be seen again in Australian and New Zealand waters from the early 1960s.[50]

Conservation[edit]

The southern right whale, listed as "endangered" by CITES, is protected by all countries with known breeding populations (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, New Zealand, South Africa and Uruguay). In Brazil, a federal Environmental Protection Area encompassing some 1,560 km2 (600 sq mi) and 130 km (81 mi) of coastline in Santa Catarina State was established in 2000 to protect the species' main breeding grounds in Brazil and promote regulated whale watching.[54]

The Southern right whale is listed on Appendix I[55] of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) as this species has been categorized as being in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant proportion of their range.

The Southern right whale is covered by the Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of Cetaceans and Their Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region (Pacific Cetaceans MoU).[56]

Whale and gull off Península Valdés.

Gull attacks[edit]

One possibly significant contributor to the calf mortality rate has alarmed scientists – since at least 1996, kelp gulls off the coast of Patagonia have been observed attacking and feeding on live right whales.[57] The kelp gull uses its powerful beak to peck down several centimetres into the skin and blubber, often leaving the whales with large open sores – some of which have been observed to be half a meter in diameter. This predatory behavior, primarily targeted towards mother/calf pairs, has been continually documented in Argentinian waters, and continues today. Observers note that the whales are spending up to a third of their time and energy performing evasive maneuvers – therefore, mothers spend less time nursing, and the calves are thinner and weaker as a result. Researchers speculate that many years ago, waste from fish processing plants allowed the gull populations to soar. Their resulting overpopulation, combined with reduced waste output, caused the gulls to seek out this alternative food source.[58] Scientists fear that the gulls' learned behaviour could proliferate, and the IWC Scientific Committee has urged Brazil to consider taking immediate action if and when similar gull behaviour is observed in their waters. Such action may include the removal of attacking gulls, following Argentina's lead in attempting to reverse the trend.[25]

Whale watching[edit]

A southern right whale approaches close to whale watchers near Península Valdés in Patagonia.
See also: Whale watching

Africa[edit]

The southern right whale has made Hermanus, South Africa one of the world centers for whale watching. During the winter months (June to October), southern right whales come so close to the shoreline that visitors can watch them from the shore as well as from strategically placed hotels. Hermanus also has two boat–based whale watching operators. The town employs a "whale crier" (cf. town crier) to walk through the town announcing where whales have been seen. Southern right whales can also be watched at other winter breeding grounds. In False Bay whale-watching can be done from the shore or from the boats of licensed operators in Simon's Town. Plettenberg Bay along the Garden Route of South Africa is another mecca for whale watching not only for Southern Rights (July to December)but throughout the year. There are both land based and Ocean Safaris boat based Whale encounters on offer in this beautiful town. Southern right whales can also be seen off the coast of Port Elizabeth with marine eco tours running from the Port Elizabeth harbour, as some southern right whales make Algoa Bay their home for the winter months.

Whales are occasionally observed during tours in Namibia, Mozambique and Madagascar.

Latin America[edit]

In Brazil, Imbituba in Santa Catarina has been recognized as the National Right Whale Capital and holds annual Right Whale Week celebrations in September, when mothers and calves are more often seen. The old whaling station there is now a museum that documents the history of right whales in Brazil. In Argentina, Península Valdés in Patagonia hosts (in winter) the largest breeding population, with more than 2,000 catalogued by the Whale Conservation Institute and Ocean Alliance.[59] As in the south of Argentina, the whales come within 200 m (660 ft) of the main beach in the city of Puerto Madryn and form a part of the large ecotourism industry. Uruguay's Parliament on September 4, 2013, has become the first country in the world to make all of its territorial waters a safehaven for whales and dolphins. Every year, dozens of whales are sighted, especially in the departments of Maldonado and Rocha during the months of winter.[60] Swimming activities for commercial objectives had been banned in the area in 1985,[61] but is legalized in Gulf of San Matías where this is the only location in the world for tourists to be permissioned to swim with the species.[62]

Though their number is dangerously small, land-based sightings of whales are on increase in recent years off Chile and Peru, with some hope to create new tourism industries, especially in the strait of Magellan.

Oceania[edit]

In Australia's winter and spring, southern right whales can be seen from the Bunda Cliffs and Twin Rocks, both along the remote Great Australian Bight in South Australia.[4] In Warrnambool, Victoria, there exists a nursery which is popular with tourists in the winter and spring. Their normal range is extending as the species recovering and re-colonizing to other areas of continents, especially around coastal waters of New South Wales and Tasmania. In Tasmania, the first birth record since 19th century and several more following birth were recorded in River Derwent since after in 2010.

For same reason, southern rights may provide chances for public to observe whales from shore on New Zealand coasts with more regularity than in the past decades, especially in southern Fiordland, Southland to Otago coast,[63] and on North Island coast especially in Northland and some other locations such as Bay of Plenty and South Taranaki Bight. Births of calves could have always been occurred on main islands' coast, but firstly confirmed of two cow-calf pairs in 2012.[64][65]

Subantarctic[edit]

In many of Subantarctic Islands and vicinity to Antarctica[66] where are without regulations, whales can be observed on expedition tours with increasing probabilities. Auckland Islands are specially designed sanctuary for right whales where any kind of watching-tourism are prohibited without permission.[67]

See also[edit]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

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  47. ^ http://www.doc.govt.nz/conservation/land-and-freshwater/offshore-islands/chatham-islands/chatham-islands-marine-mammals/
  48. ^ "Southern right whale expedition 2009: Media release 1 September 2009". Doc.govt.nz. 1 September 2009. Retrieved 16 June 2012. 
  49. ^ Tristan da Cunha Government and the Tristan da Cunha Association. "Cetacea - Whales and Dolphins around the Tristan da Cunha Islands". Retrieved 5 April 2014. 
  50. ^ a b Gaskin, D.E. (July 1964). "Return of the Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis Desm.) to New Zealand Waters, 1963". Tuatara 12 (2): 115–118. Retrieved 22 July 2007. 
  51. ^ Tonnessen, J. N. and A. O. Johnsen (1982). The History of Modern Whaling. United Kingdom: C. Hurst & Co. ISBN 0-905838-23-8. 
  52. ^ Tormosov D.D., Mikhaliev Y.A., Best P.B., Zemsky V.A., Sekiguchi K., Brownell R.L. (November 1998). (abstract) "Soviet catches of southern right whales Eubalaena australis, 1951-1971. Biological data and conservation implications". Biological Conservation 86 (2): 185–197. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(98)00008-1. Retrieved 22 July 2007. 
  53. ^ Reeves, Randall R., Brent S. Stewart, Phillip J. Clapham and James. A Powell (2002). National Audubon Society: Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. United States: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. ISBN 0-375-41141-0. 
  54. ^ Petrobras, Projeto Baleia Franca. http://www.baleiafranca.org.br/ More information on Brazilian right whales is available in Portuguese
  55. ^ "Appendix I" of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS). As amended by the Conference of the Parties in 1985, 1988, 1991, 1994, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2008. Effective: 5 March 2009.
  56. ^ Official webpage of the Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of Cetaceans and Their Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region
  57. ^ Increased harassment of Right Whales (Eubalaena australis) by Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) at Península Valdés, Argentina. Rowntree, V.J., P. MacGuiness, K. Marshall, R. Payne, J. Seger, and M. Sironi, 1998. Marine Mammal Science. 14(1): 99 - 115. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1998.tb00693.x
  58. ^ Gulls' vicious attacks on whales. BBC News, 24 June 2009.
  59. ^ "Ocean Alliance". Retrieved May 2013. 
  60. ^ "Uruguay se convirtió en un santuario de ballenas y delfines". Ecología. Cromo.com.uy. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  61. ^ http://www.cethus.org/pdf/swim_or_dive_with_cetacean_in_latin_america_sc_55_ww9.pdf.
  62. ^ http://www.rufford.org/rsg/projects/els_vermeulen
  63. ^ http://tvnz.co.nz/national-news/southern-right-whale-back-in-nz-waters-video-5395784
  64. ^ http://www.stuff.co.nz/southland-times/news/7320397/First-known-NZ-whale-birth-since-end-of-hunting
  65. ^ http://www.3news.co.nz/Rare-whale-sighting-off-Auckland-coast/tabid/1160/articleID/266268/Default.aspx
  66. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xnDVAMQ2lJQ
  67. ^ http://www.doc.govt.nz/conservation/marine-and-coastal/other-marine-protection/auckland-islands/

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