Map of the Russian dialects of the primary formation (Southern Russian is red)
Southern Russian is one of the main groups of Russian dialects.
Territory [ edit ]
The territory of the
primary formation (i.e. that consists of "Old" Russia of the 16th century before Eastern conquests by Ivan IV) is entirely 11 modern regions ( oblasts): Belgorod, Bryansk, Kaluga, Kursk, Lipetsk, Oryol, Ryazan, Smolensk Tambov, Tula, Voronezh; and some southern parts of 3 regions: Moscow, Pskov and Tver
Phonology [ edit ]
/o/ undergoes different degrees of vowel reduction mainly to [a] (strong akanye), less often to [ɐ], [ə], [ɨ]. Unstressed
/o/, /e/, /a/ following palatalized consonants and preceding a stressed syllable are not reduced to [ɪ] (like in the Moscow dialect), being instead pronounced [æ] in such positions (e.g. несл и is pronounced [nʲæsˈlʲi], not [nʲɪsˈlʲi]) – this is called yakanye/яканье. [2 ]
Fricative instead of the Standard and Northern /ɣ/ /ɡ/. Soft [3 ] /ɣʲ/ is usually [j~ʝ].
Semivowel in the place of the Standard and Northern /w~u̯/ /v/ and final /l/.
/x~xv~xw/ where the Standard and Northern have /f/. Protetic
/w~u̯/ before /u/ and stressed /o/: во́кна, ву́лица, Standard Russian окна, улица "windows, street". Protetic
/j/ before /i/ and /e/: етот, ентот, Standard Russian этот "this". In
Pskov (southern) and Ryazan sub-groups only one voiceless affricate exists. Merging of Standard Russian /t͡ʃ/ and /t͡s/ into one consonant whether /t͡s/ or /t͡ɕ/.
Morphology [ edit ]
/tʲ/ in 3rd person forms of verbs (this is unpalatalized in the Standard and Northern dialects): [4 ] он ходить, они ходять "he goes, they go" Occasional dropping of the 3rd person ending
/tʲ/ at all: он ходи, они ходя "he goes, they go" Oblique case forms of personal pronouns
мяне́, табе́, сабе́ instead of Standard Russian мне, тебе, себе "me, you, -self".
Relation to other dialects [ edit ]
Some of these features such as akanye/yakanye, a
debuccalized or lenited /ɡ/, a semivowel and palatalized final /w~u̯/ /tʲ/ in 3rd person forms of verbs are also present in modern Belarusian and some dialects of Ukrainian (Eastern Polesian), indicating a linguistic continuum.
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
Bibliography [ edit ]
Crosswhite, Katherine Margaret (2000), "Vowel Reduction in Russian: A Unified Account of Standard, Dialectal, and 'Dissimilative' Patterns" (PDF), University of Rochester Working Papers in the Language Sciences 1 (1): 107–172
Shevelov, George Y. (1977), "On the Chronology of h and the New g in Ukrainian", in Harvard Ukrainian Studies (PDF), vol 1 (2), Cambridge: Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, pp. 137–152
Sussex, Roland; Cubberley, Paul (2006). "Dialects of Russian". The Slavic languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 521–526. ISBN 978-0-521-22315-7.