|Great Qi / Great Tang
大齊 / 大唐
|-||961-975||The Last Ruler|
|Historical era||Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period|
|-||Coup d'etat||937 937|
|-||Renamed from "Qi" to "Tang"||939|
|-||Surrendered to Song||975 975|
Southern Tang (Chinese: 南唐; pinyin: Nán Táng; also referred to as Nantang), later known as Jiangnan (江南), was one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China created following the Tang Dynasty from 937–975. Southern Tang replaced the Wu Kingdom when Li Bian (a.k.a. Xu Zhigao) deposed the emperor Yang Pu.
The capital was located in Jinling (also known as Xidu), located in present-day Nanjing in Jiangsu Province. The territory comprised parts of modern Fujian, Jiangsu and Anhui provinces and the whole of Jiangxi Province.
Southern Tang was conquered in 976 by the Northern Song Dynasty.
Li Bian was an orphan who was adopted by the Wu prince Yang Xingmi. He was then adopted by Xu Wen, the Prime Minister of Wu and was renamed Xu Zhigao. Upon Xu Wen's death, he took over power in Wu, and was made a prince of Qi. In 937 he proclaimed himself emperor. In 940, he changed his name back to Li Bian and renamed the state to Tang (history would refer to it as Southern Tang). Thus, the Southern Tang began as an empire, however under Li Jing it was no longer diplomatically possible to claim the title of emperor in facing other states, thus he assumed the title of king instead, thus technically lowering the political status of the realm.
The state was at first relatively large and prosperous compared to the other Ten States of that period. Li Bian's rule was comparatively stable and prosperous.
Li Jing took over when his father Li Bian died in 943.
The Southern Tang was able to expand its holdings far beyond those of its Wu Kingdom predecessor. It took advantage of a rebellion in the Kingdom of Min when the northwest revolted and set up the Kingdom of Yin. Min appealed for help, but instead of helping, the Southern Tang absorbed the rebellious territory into its own. Then, by 945, the Southern Tang completed its conquest of the Min Kingdom and absorbed it into its own boundaries.
As with the Min, the Southern Tang was able to take advantage of internal squabbles within Chu to expand its territory even further. The Ma family had internal squabbles. The Southern Tang sent in an army in 951 and removed the ruling family to their own capital in Nanjing, and absorbed the territory.
The Last Ruler Li Yu (Li Houzhu) took over the state upon the death of his father in 961. The Song dynasty had conquered the northern part of the state located in Huainan, and thus Li Yu reigned no longer as an emperor but as the Ruler of the State of Jiangnan (Jiangnan guozhu 江南國主). Li Yu managed to maintain a semi-independent status of vassal of the Song but had to finally surrender after fighting for almost a year in 975. He was taken to the Song capital in Kaifeng where he offered his formal surrender to the Song emperor in early 976.
|Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4)||Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 )||Personal Names||Period of Reigns||Reign periods (Nian Hao 年號) and Western equivalents|
|Convention for this kingdom only : Nan (Southern) Tang + posthumous names. Hou Zhu was referred to as Li Hou Zhu|李後主 Lǐ Hòu Zhǔ.|
|先主 Xiān Zhǔ or Liè Zǔ||Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign||李昪 Lǐ Biàn||937-943||Shengyuan (昇元 Shēng Yuán) 937-943|
|中主 Zhōng Zhǔ or Yuan Zong||Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign||李璟 Lǐ Jǐng||943-961||Baoda (保大 Bǎo Dà) 943-958
Jiaotai (交泰 Jiāo Tài) 958
|Hou Zhu|後主 Hòu Zhǔ or 吳王 Wú Wáng||None||李煜 Lǐ Yù||961-975||(Under Li Yu, the Southern Tang did not have its own titles for reign periods)|
- Kurz, Johannes L. (2011). China's Southern Tang Dynasty (937-976). Routledge. ISBN -9780415454964.
- Mote, F.W. (1999). Imperial China (900-1800). Harvard University Press. pp. 14–16. ISBN -0674012127.
- Wu, John C. H. (1972). The Four Seasons of Tang Poetry. Charles E.Tuttle. ISBN -978-0804801973.
- Wu, 212