Southern woolly lemur
|Southern woolly lemur|
Zaramody et al., 2006
|Southern woolly lemur range|
The southern woolly lemur (Avahi meridionalis), or southern avahi, has been recently recognized as a separate species of woolly lemur in 2006 by Zaramody et al. It is a nocturnal and pair-living species. Groups can range from 2 (the parental pair only) to 5 individuals (including the offspring of subsequent years). A study in Sainte Luce forest revealed home range varied from 2.2 to 3.5 ha and that males can have larger home range and cover longer daily distances than females (which can spend more time feeding), in agreement with the territory defence and mate guarding hypotheses.
The species is restricted to the reserve of Andohahela and the area of Sainte Luce. Further studies are required to determine the exact distribution range and especially the limits with its sister species Peyrieras' woolly lemur (A. peyrierasi). In southeastern littoral forests, sympatric lemur species of Avahi meridionalis are the brown mouse lemur (Microcebus rufus), the greater dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus major), the fat-tailed dwarf lemur Cheirogaleus medius and the collared brown lemur (Eulemur collaris) in Sainte Luce Forest, and the Southern Lesser Bamboo Lemur (Hapalemur meridionalis) in Mandena Forest.
Dorsal fur is grey-brown toning down to light grey distally, while ventrum is grey. The tail is red-brown and darkens distally. The southern woolly lemur has a mean weight of 1.2 kg (2.6 lb) for females and 1.1 kg (2.4 lb) for males, with a mean head-body length of 27 cm (11 in) and 25 cm (9.8 in) for females and males, respectively.
Avahi meridionalis eats leaves (and buds) and, much more rarely, flowers and appears not to base food choice on abundance. Avahi meridionalis can eat adult leaves with higher content of easily soluble protein (than non-food leaves) and switch, as soon as possible, on young leaves, richer in crude protein, and poorer in acid detergent fiber and sugar. In Sainte Luce, A. meridionalis also ate leaves with condensed tannins, alkaloids, and intermediate concentrations of polyphenolics. Contrary to previous studies that considered Avahi spp. a specialist, A. meridionalis acted as leaf eating generalists with moderate selectivity, based on nutritional quality and tolerance of a wide array of plant secondary metabolites.
The southern woolly lemur lives primarily in fragments of south-eastern rain littoral forest of Madagascar (Mandena and Sainte Luce). Degradation level, more than fragment size, seems to affect density and birth rates of the populations of this species.
- Hoffmann, M. (2008). Avahi meridionalis. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
- Zaramody A., Fausser J.-L., Roos C., Zinner D., Andriaholinirina N., Rabarivola C., Norscia I., Tattersall I., and Rumpler Y (2006). "Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the eastern woolly lemur (Avahi laniger)". Primate Report 74: 9–22.
- Norscia, I.; Borgognini-Tarli, S. M. (2008). "Ranging behavior and possible correlates of pair-living in southeastern avahis (Madagascar)". International Journal of Primatology 29: 153–171. doi:10.1007/s10764-007-9219-4.
- Bollen, A.; Donati, G. (2006). "Conservation status of the littoral forest of south-eastern Madagascar: A review". Oryx 40: 57–66. doi:10.1017/S0030605306000111.
- Fausser, J. L.; Prosper, P.; Donati, G.; Ramanamanjato, J. B.; Rumpler, Y. (2002). "Phylogenetic relationships between Hapalemur species and subspecies based on mitochondrial DNA sequences". BMC Evolutionary Biology 2: 4. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-2-4. PMC 101410. PMID 11914128.
- Norscia, I.; Ramanamanjato, J. B.; Ganzhorn, J. R. U. (2011). "Feeding Patterns and Dietary Profile of Nocturnal Southern Woolly Lemurs (Avahi meridionalis) in Southeast Madagascar". International Journal of Primatology. doi:10.1007/s10764-011-9562-3.
- Norscia, I. (2008). "Pilot survey of avahi population (woolly lemurs) in littoral forest fragments of southeast Madagascar". Primates 49 (1): 85–88. doi:10.1007/s10329-007-0061-2. PMID 17805480.