Lewes

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Coordinates: 50°52′32″N 0°01′04″E / 50.875627°N 0.017855°E / 50.875627; 0.017855

Lewes
Lewes-udsigt.jpg
Lewes viewed from Lewes Castle
Lewes shield.jpg
Shield of Lewes
Lewes is located in East Sussex
Lewes
Lewes
 Lewes shown within East Sussex
Area  11.4 km2 (4.4 sq mi) [1]
Population 16,222 (Parish-2007)[1]
    - Density  3,679 /sq mi (1,420 /km2)
OS grid reference TQ420104
    - London  44 miles (71 km) N 
Civil parish Lewes
District Lewes
Shire county East Sussex
Region South East
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LEWES
Postcode district BN7
Dialling code 01273
Police Sussex
Fire East Sussex
Ambulance South East Coast
EU Parliament South East England
UK Parliament Lewes
Website http://www.lewes-town.co.uk/
List of places
UK
England
East Sussex

Lewes /ˈlɨs/ is the county town of the administrative county of East Sussex, England and historically of all of Sussex. It is a civil parish and is the centre of the Lewes local government district. The settlement has a history as a bridging point and as a market town, and today as a communications hub and tourist-oriented town. At the 2001 census it had a population of 15,988.[2]

History[edit]

Archaeological evidence points to prehistoric dwellers in the area. Scholars think that the Roman settlement of Mutuantonis was here, as quantities of artefacts have been discovered in the area. The Saxons built a castle, having first constructed its motte as a defensive point over the river; they gave the town its name.[3]

After the Norman invasion, William the Conqueror rewarded William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey with the Rape of Lewes, a swathe of land along the River Ouse from the coast to the Surrey boundary. He built Lewes Castle on the Saxon site; and he and his wife, Gundred also founded the Priory of St Pancras, a Cluniac monastic house, in about 1081. Lewes was the site of a mint during the Late Anglo-Saxon period and thereafter a mint during the early years after the Norman invasion. In 1148 the town was granted a charter by King Stephen. The town became a port with docks along the Ouse River.

The town was the site of the Battle of Lewes between the forces of Henry III and Simon de Monfort in the Second Barons' War in 1264, at the end of which de Monfort's forces were victorious. The battle took place in fields now just west of Landport. (Professor David Carpenter gave a lecture about the Battle of Lewes at Lewes Town Hall in the summer of 2010; it can be heard at the following website.[4] )

At the time of the Marian Persecutions of 1555–1557, Lewes was the site of the execution of seventeen Protestant martyrs, who were burned at the stake in front of the Star Inn. This structure is now the Town Hall. A memorial to the martyrs was unveiled on Cliffe Hill in 1901. [5] Through the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Lewes developed as the county town of East Sussex, expanding beyond the line of the town wall. It was an active port and developed related iron, brewing and ship building industries.

In 1846 the town became a railway junction, with lines constructed from the north, south and east to two railway stations. The development of Newhaven ended Lewes's period as a major port.[citation needed] During the Crimean War, some 300 Finns serving in the Russian army captured at Bomarsund were imprisoned at Lewes.[6] Lewes became a borough in 1881.

Governance[edit]

Lewes became one of the non-county boroughs within the then Sussex, East county under the Local Government Act 1933. In 1974 it became a civil parish with the title of town;[7] there are three wards, Bridge, Castle and Priory, each being served by six councillors.[8] The Mayor for 2013/14 is Councillor Dr Micheal Turner and the Deputy Mayor is Councillor Leung Fuk (“Sam”) Li.[9]

For many years, Lewes was dominated by the Conservative Party, both at local and national levels. Since 1991, however, when the Liberal Democrats won the District Council for the first time, there has been a swing away from the Conservatives, although they experienced a revival in the 2007 District Council elections. In the East Sussex County Council elections of 2009 the town returned an Independent in the Lewes Division with an increased majority over the Liberal Democrats.

The Liberal Democrats' parliamentary candidate, Norman Baker, won the Lewes constituency in the 1997 general election narrowly, and then again in 2001 with a much increased majority and share of the vote. Baker held the seat in 2005, with a small swing of 1.6% in the Conservatives' favour, although they too saw their share of the vote fall. Baker held Lewes in 2010 with a reduced majority, but 52% of the vote. The Liberal Democrats entered a coalition agreement with the Conservative Party on 11 May 2010, and Baker was appointed Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for the Department for Transport. On 7 October 2013, Baker was appointed Minister of State at the Home Office.

Lewes is the seat of the East Sussex County Council, whose offices are located at County Hall in St Anne’s Crescent. Lewes District Council, the second tier of local government, is administered from offices in the High Street.[10]

The head office of Sussex Police is in Lewes.[11] On 31 March 2009 Hilary Benn, Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, announced his decision to confirm the designation of the South Downs National Park, which came into being exactly one year later and includes the town of Lewes within its boundaries.

Geography[edit]

You can see Lewes lying like a box of toys under a great amphitheatre of chalk hills ... on the whole it is set down better than any town I have seen in England.

William Morris (1834-1896)
Panoramic view of Lewes

Lewes is situated on the Greenwich Meridian,[12] in a gap in the South Downs, cut through by the River Ouse, and near its confluence with the Winterbourne Stream. It is approximately seven miles north of Newhaven, and an equal distance north-east of Brighton.

The South Downs rise above the river on both banks. The High Street, and earliest settlement, occupies the west bank, climbing steeply up from the bridge taking its ancient route along the ridge; the summit on that side, 2.5 miles (4 km) distant is known as Mount Harry. On the east bank there is a large chalk cliff Cliffe Hill that can be seen for many miles, part of the group of hills including Mount Caburn, Malling Down (where there are a few houses in a wooded area on the hillside, in a development known as Cuilfail) and Golf Hill (home to the Lewes Golf Club). The two banks of the river are joined by Willey's Bridge (a footbridge), the Phoenix Causeway (a recent concrete road bridge, named after the old Phoenix Ironworks) and Cliffe Bridge (an eighteenth-century replacement of the mediaeval crossing, widened in the 1930s and now pedestrianised).

The High Street runs from Eastgate to West-Out, forming the spine of the ancient town. Cliffe Hill gives its name to the one-time village of Cliffe, now part of the town. The southern part of the town, Southover, came into being as a village adjacent to the Priory, south of the Winterbourne Stream. At the north of the town's original wall boundary is the St. John's or Pells area, home to several nineteenth-century streets and the Pells Pond. The Pells Pool, built in 1860, is the oldest freshwater lido in England. The Phoenix Industrial Estate lies along the west bank of the river. This area is home to the old fire station and subject of a potential regeneration project.

Malling lies to the east of the river and had eighteenth and nineteenth-century houses and two notable breweries. Road engineering and local planning policy in the 1970s cleared many older buildings here to allow the flow of traffic; it now goes along Little East Street, across the Phoenix Bridge and through the Cuilfail Tunnel to join the A27.

The town boundaries were enlarged twice (from the original town walls), in 1881 and 1934. They now include the more modern housing estates of Wallands, South Malling (the west part of which is a previously separate village with a church dedicated to St. Michael), Neville, Lansdown, and Cranedown on the Kingston Road.[13]

Countryside walks can be taken starting from several points in Lewes. One can walk over Mount Caburn to the village of Glynde starting in Cliffe, traverse the Lewes Brooks (an RSPB reserve) from Southover, walk to Kingston near Lewes also from Southover, or wander up along the Ouse to Hamsey Place from the Pells. The South Downs Way rises just below Lewes and hikers often stop off at the town.

Natural sites and events[edit]

Three Sites of Special Scientific Interest lie within the parish: Lewes Downs, Lewes Brooks and Southerham Works Pit. Lewes Downs is a site of biological interest, an isolated area of the South Downs.[14] Lewes Brooks, also of biological importance, is part of the floodplain of the River Ouse, providing a habitat for many invertebrates such as water beetles and snails.[15] Southerham Works Pit is of geological interest, a disused chalk pit displaying a wide variety of fossilised fish remains.[16] The Railway Land nature reserve is on the east side of the town next to the Ouse, and contains an area of woodland and marshes known as the Heart of Reeds. The Winterbourne stream, a tributary of the Ouse, flows through it. This stream flows most winters and dries up in the summer, hence its name. It continues through Lewes going through the Grange Gardens and often travelling underground. The Heart of Reeds is one of the sites in East Sussex and Kent home to the marsh frog, an introduced species. It is popular with pond-dippers and walkers. A centre for the study of environmental change is due to be built at the entrance to the nature reserve.[17]

On 27 December 1836, an avalanche occurred in Lewes, the worst ever recorded in Britain. A large build-up of snow on the nearby cliff slipped down onto a row of cottages called Boulters Row (now part of South Street). About fifteen people were buried, and eight of these died. A pub in South Street is named The Snowdrop in memory of the event.

On 21 August 1864, Lewes suffered an earthquake shock measuring 3.1 on the Richter scale.[18]

In October 2000 the town suffered major flooding during an intense period of severe weather throughout the United Kingdom. The commercial centre of the town and many residential areas were devastated. In a government report into the nationwide flooding, Lewes was officially noted the most severely affected location.[19] As a result of the devastation, the Lewes Flood Action group formed, to press for better flood protection measures.[20]

Climate[edit]

Climate in this area has mild dfferences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[21]

Climate data for Lewes, UK
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8
(46)
8
(46)
9
(48)
11
(52)
15
(59)
17
(63)
19
(66)
20
(68)
18
(64)
14
(57)
11
(52)
8
(46)
13.2
(55.6)
Average low °C (°F) 5
(41)
4
(39)
6
(43)
7
(45)
10
(50)
12
(54)
15
(59)
15
(59)
13
(55)
10
(50)
7
(45)
5
(41)
9.1
(48.4)
Avg. precipitation days 17 13 14 13 9 11 9 9 13 14 15 17 154
Source: Weatherbase [22]

Religious buildings[edit]

Church of England[edit]

  • St. Michael's is located at the top of the High Street and like St. Peter's in nearby Southease it has a round tower (with a shingled spire). Its length runs along the street rather than away from it and the cemetery is separated from the High Street by stone walls with iron railings on top. Next to it is a building which is used upstairs as a Sunday School.
  • Further west is St. Anne's,[23] a quiet church surrounded by its graveyard, which gives its name to the street it is on.
  • St John sub Castro (Latin for St. John-under-the-Castle) is the northernmost church in the old town. The surrounding town quarter is called St. John's. The church's boundaries are actually protected on one side by the Town Walls, although originally St. John's was a small Saxon building. It was destroyed in the 19th century but the main door was kept and used as an east door for the large new church, built in 1839 by George Cheeseman[24] in flint and brick. In the graveyard there is a memorial to the Finnish prisoners kept in the old naval prison in the 19th century. St. John's Church Hall is a couple of streets away in Talbot Terrace.
  • In Cliffe there is St. Thomas à Becket's, where the Orthodox Community also worship.
  • In Southover, St John the Baptist's is located on Southover High Street next to the local War Memorial. The nave incorporates the hospitium of the Priory of St Pancras.[25] Neighbouring it is Church End and down the road at St. James Street cul-de-sac, the Church Hall.
  • St. Michael, South Malling dates from 1628 and was once in a village of its own. The development of the suburbs has connected South Malling to Lewes although the church mainatins its village setting by the River Ouse, with the neighbouring rectory.

Deconsecrated[edit]

  • All Saints' is next to the site of a Priory of Grey Friars (Franciscan monks) the only relic of which is an archway at the end of the church boundary wall, which is on the line of the town wall. The medieval tower survives, abutting a later brick nave by Amon Wilds (1806)[24] and nineteenth-century Gothic style chancel. This church is now deconsecrated and serves as a community arts space, home to the Film at All Saints.[26] Lewes Film Club, the [Oyster Project] Community Cafe each Wednesday 12 - 2 (not December or August) and many local organisations.

Roman Catholic[edit]

The Roman Catholic church is dedicated to St. Pancras in memory of the Priory and is a red-brick building over the street from St. Anne's.

Non-conformist[edit]

  • The Religious Society of Friends (finished 1784) is a Quaker meeting house next to the former All Saints Church (now an arts centre) on Friar's Walk.
  • The Jireh Chapel, off Malling Street, is a Grade I listed building,[27] being a rare survivor of its type dating from 1805. It now houses the Lewes Free Presbyterian Church.
  • Westgate Chapel is a sixteenth-century building located in a yard at the top of the High Street (Grade 2 listed). So called because of its position at the old West Gate of the town wall, the Chapel first officially opened for worship as Westgate Meeting in 1700 as English Presbyterian but soon joined by an Independent congregation. Its liberal stance allowed it to become a Unitarian church by 1820 (when the congregation of Southover General Baptist Chapel joined) and is still a Unitarian chapel today.
  • Eastgate Chapel is a very different building; a neo Norman design of 1843 in dark flint, it originally had a pepper pot dome but this was removed in favour of a traditional spire in case traffic vibrations below made it fall off. A modern extension was added to the church.
  • Christ Church Hall, a modern building, serves both the United Reformed Church and the Methodist worshippers.
  • Southover General Baptist Chapel was built in Eastport Lane in 1741. The congregation's views moved towards Unitarianism, and in the 19th century they joined Westgate Chapel. The building has been a house since 1972, but had various religious and secular uses before that.

Demography[edit]

In 2001 the service industries were by far the biggest employers in Lewes: over 60% of the population working in that sector. A little over 10% are employed in manufacturing, mostly in the smaller industrial units, particularly those in The Mallings Business Centre.

The town is a net daytime exporter of employees with a significant community working in London and Brighton whilst it draws in employees of the numerous local government and public service functions on which its local economy is strongly dependent.

An important part of the town’s economy is based on tourism,[28] because of the town's many historic attractions and its location.

Lewes Bonfire[edit]

Procession of the martyrs crosses, as part of Lewes' Bonfire Night celebrations
Main article: Lewes Bonfire

The town's most important annual event is the Lewes Bonfire celebrations on 5 November, Guy Fawkes Night. In Lewes this event not only marks the date of the uncovering of the Gunpowder Plot in 1605, but also commemorates the memory of the seventeen Protestant martyrs burnt at the stake for their faith during the Marian Persecutions. The celebrations, which controversially involve burning an effigy of the Pope, are the largest and most famous bonfire night celebrations in the country.[29][30]

Economy[edit]

The Harveys Brewery in the centre of Lewes

The Lewes Chamber of Commerce represents the traders and businesses of the town.[31] The town has been identified as unusually diversified with numerous specialist, independent retailers, counter to national trends toward 'chain' retailers and large corporate retail outlets.

Lewes Farmers' Market, one of the first in the UK, was started in the 1990s by Common Cause Co-operative Ltd[32] and is a very popular re-invention of Lewes as a market town. The Farmers' Market takes place in pedestrianised Cliffe High Street on the first Saturday of every month, with local food producers coming to sell their wares under covered market stalls. A weekly food market in the Lewes Market Tower was established in July 2010 by Transition Town Lewes to allow traders to sell local produce. Occasionally French traders from the Twin Town of Blois attend, vending on Cliffe Bridge.

From 1794 beers, wines and spirits were distributed from Lewes under the Harveys name, and the town is today the site of Harvey & Son's brewery celebrated as one the finest ale producers in England.

In September 2008, Lewes launched its own currency, the Lewes Pound, in an effort to increase trade within the town.[33][34] One Lewes Pound is equal to £1. Like the similar local currency in Totnes, the initiative is part of the Transition Towns movement. The Lewes Pound and the Transition Towns movement have received criticism for a failure to address the needs of the wider Lewes population, especially lower socio-economic groups.[35] Such local currency initiatives have been more widely criticized in light of limited success stimulating new spending in local economies and as an unrealistic strategy to reduce carbon emissions.[36] The Lewes Pound can be exchanged for the same amount of pounds sterling in several shops in Lewes and can be spent in a wide range of local businesses. Many of the notes were sold on Ebay at a higher amount. Early numbers and sequenced notes fetched very high prices from foreign collectors.

Landmarks[edit]

Lewes Castle

The town is the location of several significant historic buildings, including Lewes Castle, the remains of Lewes Priory, Bull House (the former home of Tom Paine), Southover Grange and public gardens, and a sixteenth-century timber-framed Wealden hall house known as Anne of Cleves House because it was given to her as part of her divorce settlement from Henry VIII, though she never lived there. Anne of Cleves House and the Castle are owned and maintained by the Sussex Archaeological Society (whose headquarters are in Lewes). The Round House, a secluded former windmill in Pipe Passage, was owned by the writer Virginia Woolf.

The steep and cobbled Keere Street is home to many historic buildings, including a timber framed antiquarian bookshop. The gardens of the buildings on the east side of the street border the old Town Walls. The Prince Regent once drove his carriage down the Street, and a sign at the bottom commemorates this event.

The ancient street pattern survives extensively as do a high proportion of the medieval building plots and oak framed houses, albeit often masked with later facades. The eighteenth century frontages are notable and include several, like Bartholomew House at the Castle Gate, that are clad in mathematical tiles which mimic fine brick construction. Numerous streets of eighteenth and nineteenth century cottages have survived cycles of 'slum clearance' as models of attractive town housing.

At the highest point of the old town the Portland stone and Coade stone facade of the Crown Court (1808–12, by John Johnson), the brick Market Tower and florid War Memorial mark the historic centre, although trade has tended to concentrate on the lower land in modern times. At the lowest part of the town, by the river, Harvey & Son's Brewery, 'The Cathedral of Lewes' is an unspoilt nineteenth-century tower brewery and is the only one of the town's five original major breweries still in use. The railway station is the other important monument of the industrial era.

Bull House: Thomas Paine's home

Southover Grange was built in the sixteenth century with Caen limestone taken from the ruins of Lewes Priory. The house and its gardens were bought by the borough council and opened to the public in 1945. It is used as a nursery school and as a venue for weddings and exhibitions. The north wing is home to Lewes Register Office, a craft shop and The Window café (open in spring and summer). The Grange gardens are divided by the Winterbourne stream and contain formal bedding displays, a wildflower area, a knot garden and some notable trees, including a large Magnolia grandiflora, a mulberry tree dating perhaps to the seventeenth century and a tulip tree planted by Queen Elizabeth II. The gardens are open to the public during daylight hours all year round.

Pelham House dates back to the sixteenth century and features architecture of all subsequent eras and a private landscaped garden facing the Downs. It now serves as an independent hotel. Shelleys Hotel is likewise of some antiquity with a private garden and family associations with Percy Shelley.

The centre of Lewes is notable for a consistently high calibre of regional vernacular architecture and variety of historic construction materials and techniques.

Public Sculpture[edit]

Historic[edit]

With Eric Gill's move to Ditchling, the artistic community there gave rise to other sculptors in the Lewes district such as his nephew John Skelton and Joseph Cribb. Skelton's studio in Streat has continued as an educational and artist's workshop since his death in 1999[37] . Eric Gill and Jacob Epstein conceived a great scheme for doing some collossal figures together around 1910 for a modern Stonehenge on 6 acres of land at Asheham House, Beddingham, south-east of Lewes. William Rothenstein agreed to buy the lease but the scheme failed.[38]

Edward Perry Warren first saw Lewes House in 1889 and with his partner John Marshall they were prodigious collectors of fine antique sculpture there. Eric Gill was introduced to Warren by Roger Fry and the stone carving Ecstasy purchased, which is now in the Tate Gallery collection. William Rothenstein suggested that Warren might like to acquire Rodin's new sculpture The Kiss and after several visits, in 1904 the Lewes Kiss arrived at Lewes House. In 1906 Rodin requested that Warren lend The Kiss to an important exhibition in Regent Street, London. This made it famous in Britain for the first time. The Kiss was returned to the stables at Lewes House, where it remained until 1914 until offered to Lewes Town Council. It was placed in the Town Hall, at the South End of the Assembly Room on 2 December 1914. Early in 1915, The Kiss was wrapped in canvas and marked off with a guard rail. The Town Council returned the statue, saying only that the room did 'not lend itself to such a noble piece of statuary.' On 26 February 1917, The Kiss was once more taken to the stable block where it was to remain until Warren's death in 1928. After a short period on loan to Cheltenham, The Kiss was purchased in 1953 by public subscription and is now one of the Tate's most popular attractions.

It returned on loan to Lewes in 1999 for the exhibition Rodin in Lewes.[39]

Present day[edit]

The Helmet (1964), by Enzo Plazzotta stands in the grounds of Lewes Priory.[40] The Cuilfail Spiral (1983) by Peter Randall-Page sits on the roundabout at the north end of the Cuilfail Tunnel; made of 7 pieces of Portland limestone. The Magnus Inscription, (c.1200) sits in the East wall of St John Sub Castro on the Junction of Abinger Place and Lancaster Street.[41] The Janus Head (1997) by John Skelton and Lewes Group (2010) by Jon Edgar[42] sit in Southover Grange Gardens.

Transport[edit]

Lewes railway station, looking east. South Downs in the distance

Lewes, from its inception, has been an important transport hub.[43] Its site as a bridging point was probably originally a ford: today the main routes avoid the town centre. The A27 trunk road taking traffic along the south coast between Eastbourne and Southampton passes to the south of the town. The A26 from Maidstone to Newhaven; and the A275 (the London road) both come in from the north. The Brighton & Hove Bus and Coach Company serve the town. The Bus Station was closed for a while but reopened in late 2008.

Lewes railway station was originally the junction for six routes. The town still enjoys hourly fast trains from London. The two erstwhile rural rail routes to the north, linking to East Grinstead and Uckfield respectively, are both now closed, but the East Coastway Line, connecting Brighton with Eastbourne and Hastings, and the branch to Seaford remain.

The Vanguard Way, a long-distance footpath from London to Newhaven, passes through countryside east of the town.

Education[edit]

Primary schools[edit]

There are many primary schools including

  • Lewes New School[44]
  • Morley House (Lewes Old Grammar School's junior department)[45]
  • Pells School
  • St. Pancras School
  • South Malling School
  • Southover School[46]
  • Wallands School
  • Western Road School[47]

Western Road and Southover School, despite being separate schools, are housed in linked buildings. The original Southover buildings are of red brick in the Queen Anne style, dating back to the early 20th century. The additions to it now forming the Western Road buildings date from after 1945. The two schools share a field.

Secondary schools[edit]

There are two secondary schools in the town and one nearby;

Further education[edit]

Sussex Downs College has one of its campuses in Lewes, and provides a range of courses including A levels, GCSEs, Functional Skills and Access courses and vocational qualifications such as NVQs and BTECs.[51]

Culture[edit]

Located four miles (6 km) outside of Lewes is Glyndebourne opera house. Founded in 1934, the venue draws large audiences for its Summer Festival and has attracted a host of international talent throughout its history.

A number of local classical music series operate in the town, including the Nicolas Yonge Society;[52] the Westgate Series [53] based at the Westgate Chapel; and the baroque and early classical Workshop Series.[54] The Lewes Concert Orchestra[55] was founded in 1993.

The principal town museum is Barbican House Museum at Lewes Castle, which hosts the Lewes Town Model[56] as well as four galleries of Sussex archaeology. Anne of Cleves House has various collections relating to the history of Lewes.

There is also the Hop Gallery[57] in the former Star Brewery in Market Street; St Anne's Gallery[58] in the High Street and occasional art exhibitions mounted at the Town Hall. The Foundry Gallery[59] was converted by Artemis Arts from the former Market Lane Garage in 2006 for use for art events.

The Lewes Film Club, which also produces short movies (including the recent adaptation of George Orwell's Animal Farm), and Film at All Saints (the Film Club in collaboration with Lewes Town Council), show films based in the All Saints Centre, a former church. Lewes Cinema, previously based at All Saints, intend to resume film showing at a new venue in autumn 2012.

Local dance schools and clubs include Lewes Dance Club,[60] East Sussex Dance and ballet groups. Starfish Youth Music [61] is based at Priory School and the young bands who take part regularly perform in local venues such as the Paddock and the All Saints' Centre.

Popular music gigs take place at a number of venues and pubs across the town including the Lewes Con Club, the Snowdrop Inn, the Volunteer Pub, the Lewes Arms, The John Harvey Tavern, The Pelham Arms and The Lansdown. The Elephant and Castle hosts the Saturday Folk Club. The Royal Oak hosts a regular Thursday night folk sessions which attracts leading musicians.[62]

A monthly comedy club based at the Con Club was created in 2010.

Annual arts events include ArtWave[63] and the children's Patina Moving On Parade.[64] An annual Lewes Guitar Festival which started in 1999 has not operated since the late 2000s.

Lewes has been influenced by its close proximity to the University of Sussex and Brighton University in terms of significant numbers of academics and students living in the town.

The Headstrong Club[65] whose notable members include Thomas Paine was relaunched in 1987[66] and continues to operate.

A branch of the popular Skeptics in the Pub[67] movement was created in 2011 in Lewes, based at the Elephant and Castle.

The novel Loss of Light [68] by DM Stone is a black comedy thriller set in Lewes and Brighton.

Media[edit]

The Sussex Express newspaper, based in Lewes, was established in 1837 and serves much of East Sussex. It has four editions and includes extensive coverage of the local sports scene. It is part of the Johnston Press network of newspapers.[69]

Viva Lewes was founded as a weekly web magazine in January 2006 and also as a monthly print handbook in October 2006 covering events and activities in and around the Lewes area.[70]

Bright 106.4 FM radio station, based in Burgess Hill, broadcasts to an area which extends to Lewes.

Lewes has its own RSL radio station, Rocket FM,[71] which broadcasts via FM and the Internet for three weeks in October/November each year, covering the Bonfire period.

In November 2012, EE launched a series of advertisements promoting its 4G mobile service. All of the adverts, which featured actor Kevin Bacon, were filmed in Lewes.

Radio Lewes http://www.radiolewes.org.uk a 24/7 internet based webcast station, is run by members of the Lewes based charity The Oyster Project[72] as well as promoting local musicians it also offers up-to-date news for the local community and particularly people with disabilities, the charity has been founded and is run by people with disabilities.

Sport[edit]

Lewes Priory Cricket Club is based at the Stanley Turner Ground, Kingston Road. The club were Sussex League champions in 1986 and 1990 and Division 2 winners in 1999, 2006 and 2008. The club has active senior, junior and social sections

Lewes Rugby Football Club, founded in 1930, runs several rugby teams at various competitive levels, including the senior men's sides, the women's, girls' and junior teams. Lewes RFC's home turf is the Stanley Turner Ground, Kingston Road.

The local football team is Lewes F.C.. The club were founded in 1885 and play at the Dripping Pan. The town is also home to Lewes Bridge View which has adult teams competing in the Mid Sussex Football League and Lewes and District Sunday League in addition to a number of junior teams across age groups.

Lewes Swimming Club was reconstituted in 1975 by Christine Parfect and others. The club has 300+ members and organises swimming sessions at Lewes, Ringmer, Newlands School, Newhaven and Seaford Head pools during term-time.

Lewes Wanderers Cycling Club was reconstituted in 1950. The club organises regular time trials throughout the summer.

Lewes Racecourse, located immediately to the west of the town on the slopes of the Downs, operated for 200 years until closed in 1964. It is still used as a training course, and there are several stables nearby.[73] Race days are held at nearby Plumpton Race Course.

Lewes Athletic Club caters for junior and senior athletes. The club trains at the all weather 400m track at the end of Mountfield Road, and other locations in the area.

There are a number of Service Clubs in Lewes of which one is the Lewes Lions Club which is a member of Lions Clubs International, the largest Service Organisation in the world. The club runs various events including the Christmas Concert in December each year with the LGB Brass and the annual "International 'Toad-In-The-Hole' Competition" and holds street collections to raise funds so as to assist people and organisations in and around Lewes.[74]

Lewes Tennis/Hockey Club (Southdown Sports Club). The club has 16 tennis courts, 4 squash courts, 2 netball courts and a floodlit astro/hockey pitch.

Notable people[edit]

Among the many notable former residents of Lewes is Thomas Paine (1737–1809), who was employed as an excise officer in the town for a time from 1768 to 1774 when he emigrated to the American colonies. The Paine association sits at the centre of a radical tradition that is represented today by writers working in the town.[citation needed]

The sciences and natural enquiry are represented by Gideon Mantell who is credited with the first discovery and identification of fossilised dinosaur (iguanodon) teeth. Lewes doctor Richard Russell popularised the resort of Brighton.

Lewes is the birthplace of sixteenth century madrigalist Nicholas Yonge. In the 1960s it was home to Charlie Watts of the Rolling Stones, as it is now to other musicians, notably Herbie Flowers, Arthur Brown and Tim Rice-Oxley from Keane.

Daisy Ashford lived at Southdown House, 44 St Anne’s Crescent from 1889 to 1896 where she wrote The Young Visiters. Edward Perry Warren, an eccentric American collector, lived in Lewes House. In 1919 Virginia Woolf briefly owned – but never lived in – the Round House, a windmill in Pipe Passage, before moving to her final home, Monk's House in Rodmell. Diarist John Evelyn spent his boyhood at Southover Grange.

British comedian Sean Lock recently moved to Lewes. Also, Mark Williams, who played the part of Arthur Weasley in the Harry Potter film series, lives in the town.

Jonathan Harvey, the classical composer, lived in the town until his death in 2012.[75][76]

Crime[edit]

The fact that Lewes has a Crown Court, and a prison, is reflected by the fact that many notorious people have been connected with the town. During the 1916 Easter Rising in Ireland several prominent figures involved in it were in Lewes Prison, including Éamon de Valera (1882–1975); Thomas Ashe (1885–1917); Frank Lawless (1871–1922); and Harry Boland (1887–1922). Others have included George Witton (1874–1942) involved in shooting prisoners during the Boer War.

Lewes assizes saw many important trials. In 1949 serial killer John George Haigh was sentenced to death. In 1956 suspected serial killer John Bodkin Adams had his committal hearing in Lewes before being sent to the Old Bailey, London for trial. He was subsequently tried and convicted in Lewes in 1957 for fraud, lying on cremation forms and obstructing a police search. An early case was that of Percy Lefroy Mapleton (1860–1881) hanged for murder and the subject of the first composite picture on a wanted poster.

Crime rates in Lewes[77] (per 1000 population) 2005-2006
Locally Nationally
Robbery 0.17 1.85
Theft of a motor vehicle 1.67 4.04
Theft from a motor vehicle 4.59 9.56
Sexual offences 0.83 1.17
Violence against a person 16.75 19.97
Burglary 2.99 5.67

Twin towns[edit]

Lewes is twinned with Waldshut-Tiengen, Germany, since 1974 and with Blois, France, since 1963, although informal links between these two towns began in 1947.[78]

Etymology[edit]

One theory has it that the name Lewes comes from the plural form of Anglo-Saxon "Hlaew", which means "hill".[79] This refers to the hills of the South Downs or ancient burial mounds within the area; but A Dictionary of British Place Names[80] says that it derives "From the rare OE word lǣw ‘wound, incision’, here used in a topographical sense ‘gap’."

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "East Sussex in Figures". East Sussex County Council. Retrieved 26 April 2008. 
  2. ^ Office for National Statistics : Census 2001 : Parish Headcounts : Lewes. Retrieved 3 November 2009.
  3. ^ Wilson, John Marius (1870-2). "Descriptive Gazetteer entry for Lewes". Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales. Great Britain Historical GIS Project. Retrieved 21 September 2008. 
  4. ^ http://cdn1.libsyn.com/radiolewes/battle_of_lewes_lecture.m4a?nvb=20100925185416&nva=20100926190416&t=070f9293a3062edb7a32d
  5. ^ Gordon, Kevin. "Martyrs remembered in day of speeches". Sussex Express. 
  6. ^ "Oolannin sota" (in Finnish). Bomarsundssällskapet r.f. Retrieved 5 March 2014. 
  7. ^ "Lewes Town Council". Lewes Town Council. 2007. p. 1. Retrieved 17 February 2009. 
  8. ^ "List of Councillors, 2008". Escis.org.uk. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  9. ^ "Lewes Town Council". Lewes-town.co.uk. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  10. ^ "Lewes District Council". Lewes.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  11. ^ "Non-emergency enquiries." (Archive) Sussex Police. Retrieved on 13 February 2011. "Sussex Police Headquarters Church Lane, Lewes East Sussex, BN7 2DZ."
  12. ^ Dolan, Graham. "The Greenwich Meridian". Retrieved 17 November 2013. 
  13. ^ "The borough of Lewes: Introduction and history", A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 7 (1940), pp. 7-19, Accessed: 19 May 2008
  14. ^ SSSI Citation — Lewes Downs (PDF). Natural England. Retrieved 12 October 2008. 
  15. ^ SSSI Citation — Lewes Brooks (PDF). Natural England. Retrieved 12 October 2008. 
  16. ^ SSSI Citation — Southerham Works Pit (PDF). Natural England. Retrieved 12 October 2008. 
  17. ^ "''Railway Land Project''". Railwaylandproject.org. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  18. ^ see List of earthquakes in the United Kingdom
  19. ^ The flooded railway station featured on the cover of that week's Private Eye with the caption "Your Rains Tonight"
  20. ^ "Lewes Flood Action Website". Lewes-flood-action.org.uk. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  21. ^ Climate Summary for Lewes, UK
  22. ^ "Weatherbase.com". Weatherbase. 2013.  Retrieved on 9 July 2013.
  23. ^ Details of Church of St. Anne, Lewes from Corpus of Romanesque Sculpture in Britain and Ireland[dead link]
  24. ^ a b The Buildings of England: Sussex - Ian Nairn, Nikolaus Pevsner
  25. ^ Stephen Bamber. "Southover Church Website - Who We Were". Southover.org.uk. Retrieved 18 June 2009. 
  26. ^ "Official Website". Film at All Saints. Retrieved 10 May 2012. 
  27. ^ http://www.eastsussex.gov.uk/yourcouncil/agendasreportsminutes/countycouncil/reports/CC25Jul2000ReportOfScrutinyCommitteeForEnhancingTheEnvironment.pdf
  28. ^ Lewes Town Profile
  29. ^ Times Writers (5 November 2009). "Tonight’s the night: bonfires and fireworks". Times (London). 
  30. ^ "Lewes Bonfire Council". Lewes Bonfire Council. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  31. ^ "Lewes Chamber of Commerce". Leweschamber.org.uk. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  32. ^ "Common Cause Cooperative". Commoncause.org.uk. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  33. ^ "Lewes launches its own currency". BBC News. 9 September 2008. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  34. ^ The Times: Town's pound note bucks the downturn[dead link]
  35. ^ Joanna Simmons (1 November 2008). "Report from The Guardian on the Lewes Pound". London: Guardian. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  36. ^ Harford, Tim (3 May 2008). "The Undercover Economist on Local Currency". Slate.com. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  37. ^ http://www.skeltonworkshops.co.uk/
  38. ^ Vorticism and Abstract Art in the First Machine Age, Volume 1, By Richard Cork p.117
  39. ^ John May (1999) Catalogue Essay: The Kiss - A Lewes Story, Exhibition: Rodin in Lewes
  40. ^ http://www.publicsculpturesofsussex.co.uk/object?id=75
  41. ^ http://www.publicsculpturesofsussex.co.uk/object?id=246
  42. ^ http://www.sussexexpress.co.uk/news/local/lewes-set-to-host-giant-sculpture-by-jon-edgar-1-4880608
  43. ^ "‘’British History Online‘’". British-history.ac.uk. 22 June 2003. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  44. ^ Lewes New School - Website
  45. ^ "Lewes Old Grammar School :: One of Sussex's leading schools". Oldgrammar.e-sussex.sch.uk. Retrieved 18 June 2009. 
  46. ^ "Welcome to Southover School". Southoverschool.net. Retrieved 18 June 2009. 
  47. ^ "Western Road Community Primary School". Eastsussex.gov.uk. 27 March 2006. Retrieved 18 June 2009. 
  48. ^ "Lewes Old Grammar School :: One of Sussex's leading schools". Oldgrammar.e-sussex.sch.uk. Retrieved 18 June 2009. 
  49. ^ "Priory School - Lewes". Priory.e-sussex.sch.uk. Retrieved 18 June 2009. 
  50. ^ Ringmer Community College and Sixth Form http://www.ringmeracademy.org.uk/
  51. ^ Sussex Downs College
  52. ^ "Nicolas Yonge Society". Nyslewes.org.uk. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  53. ^ Westgate Series[dead link]
  54. ^ "Workshop Series". Workshop Series. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  55. ^ "Lewes Concert Orchestra". Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  56. ^ "Lewes Town Model". Lewes Town Model. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  57. ^ Hop Gallery
  58. ^ St Anne's Galleries
  59. ^ Foundry Gallery
  60. ^ Lewes Dance Club
  61. ^ Starfish Youth Music
  62. ^ Folk at the Royal Oak
  63. ^ ArtWave Festival
  64. ^ Patina Parade
  65. ^ Headstrong Club
  66. ^ /Tom Paine in Lewes
  67. ^ Lewes Skeptics
  68. ^ [1]
  69. ^ Sussex Express
  70. ^ Viva Lewes
  71. ^ Rocket FM
  72. ^ Radio Lewes
  73. ^ Lewes Racecourse
  74. ^ "Lewes Lions Club". Archived from the original on 3 August 2012. [dead link]
  75. ^ http://www.fabermusic.com/news/story/jonathan-harvey-1939-2012.aspx?ComposerId=297
  76. ^ Tilden, Imogen (5 December 2012). "Jonathan Harvey dies aged 73". The Guardian. 
  77. ^ Crime Statistics
  78. ^ "Lewes Twinning Association". Retrieved 16 September 2013. 
  79. ^ Whynne-Hammond, Charles (2007). English Place-namesExplained. Countryside Books. p. 229. ISBN 978-1-85306-911-6. 
  80. ^ A. D. Mills (2011)|A Dictionary of British Place Names, A.D.Mills, O.U.P.

External links[edit]