Southwark Cathedral

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"St Saviour, Southwark" redirects here. For the civil parish of 1541-1930, see Southwark St Saviour.
Not to be confused with St George's Cathedral, Southwark.
Southwark Priory, its medieval use, is not to be confused with smaller Southwick Priory both of which were pilgrimage sites in England.
Southwark Cathedral
Cathedral and Collegiate Church of St Saviour and St Mary Overie
Southwark Cathedral is located in Central London
Southwark Cathedral
Southwark Cathedral
Shown within Central London
51°30′22″N 0°5′23″W / 51.50611°N 0.08972°W / 51.50611; -0.08972Coordinates: 51°30′22″N 0°5′23″W / 51.50611°N 0.08972°W / 51.50611; -0.08972
Location Southwark
Country England
Denomination Church of England
Website www.southwarkcathedral.org.uk
Architecture
Style Gothic, Gothic Revival
Years built 1106-1897
Administration
Diocese Southwark (since 1905)
Province Canterbury
Clergy
Bishop(s) Christopher Chessun
Dean Andrew Nunn
Subdean Bruce Saunders, Canon Pastor
Precentor Gilly Myers
Canon(s) vacant, Canon Chancellor and Theologian[1]
Canon Missioner Stephen Hance
Canon Treasurer Leanne Roberts
Succentor Stephen Stavrou
Curate(s) Wendy Robins (Hon Canon and Cathedral Chaplain)
Laity
Director of music Peter Wright
Organist(s) Stephen Disley
Verger Paul Timms

Southwark Cathedral (/ˈsʌðɨk/)[2] or The Cathedral and Collegiate Church of St Saviour and St Mary Overie, Southwark, London, lies on the south bank of the River Thames close to London Bridge. It is the mother church of the Anglican Diocese of Southwark. It has been a place of Christian worship for more than 1,000 years, but a cathedral only since the creation of the diocese of Southwark in 1905.

Between 1106 and 1538 it was the church of an Augustinian priory, Southwark Priory, dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Following the dissolution of the monasteries, it became a parish church, with the new dedication of St Saviour's. The church was in the diocese of Winchester until 1877, when the parish of St Saviour's, along with other South London parishes, was transferred to the diocese of Rochester. [3] The present building retains the basic form of the Gothic structure built between 1220 and 1420, although the nave is a late 19th-century reconstruction.

Borough Market is immediately to its south and the Hall of the Worshipful Company of Glaziers and Painters of Glass is on the riverside part of Montague Close on its north.

History[edit]

Legendary origins[edit]

The 16th-century London historian John Stow recorded an account of the origins of the Southwark Priory of St Mary that he had heard from Bartholomew Linsted, who had been the last prior when the priory was dissolved.[4] Linsted claimed it had been founded as a nunnery "long before the [Norman] Conquest" by a maiden named Mary, on the profits of a ferry across the Thames she had inherited from her parents. Later it was converted into a college of priests by "Swithen, a noble lady". Finally in 1106 it was refounded as an Augustinian priory.

The tale of the ferryman's daughter Mary and her benefactions became very popular, but later historians tried to rationalise Linsted's story. Thus the author of an 1862 guidebook to the then St Saviour's church suggested it was probable that the "noble lady" Swithen had in fact been a man – Swithun, Bishop of Winchester from 852 or 853 until his death in 863.[5]

In the 20th century this identification was accepted by the Revd Thomas P. Stevens, Succentor and Sacrist, and later Honorary Canon, of Southwark Cathedral, who wrote a number of guidebooks to the cathedral, and a history that was revised and reprinted many times. He went on to date the foundation of the supposed original nunnery to "about the year 606", although he provided no evidence to support the date.[6] Although recent guidebooks are more circumspect, referring only to "a tradition", an information panel at the east end of the cathedral still claims that there had been "A convent founded in 606 AD" and "A monastery established by St Swithun in the 9th century".

Saxon and Norman[edit]

The nave of Southwark Cathedral.

The earliest reference to the site was in the Domesday Book survey of 1086, when the "minster" of Southwark seems to have been under the control of William the Conqueror's half-brother, Bishop Odo of Bayeux.

It is unlikely that this minster pre-dated the conversion of Wessex in the mid-7th century, or the foundation of the "burh" c. 886. There is no proof for suggestions that a convent was founded on the site in 606 nor for the claim that a monastery was founded there by St Swithun in the 9th century.

The Old English minster was a collegiate church serving an area on the south side of the Thames. In 1106, during the reign of Henry I it became an Augustinian priory, under the patronage of the Bishops of Winchester, who established their London palace immediately to the west in 1149. A remaining wall of the palace refectory, with a rose window, survives in Clink Street.

The Priory was dedicated to the Virgin Mother as 'St Mary' but had the additional soubriquet of "Overie" ("over the water") to distinguish it from the many other churches in the City with the same name.

Some fragments of 12th century fabric survive.[7] The church in its present form, however, dates to between 1220 and 1420, making it the first Gothic church in London.

Gothic reconstruction[edit]

The church was severely damaged in the Great Fire of 1212. Rebuilding took place during the thirteenth century, although the exact dates are unknown.[8] In its reconstructed state - the basic layout of which survives today - the church was cruciform in plan, with an aisled nave of six bays, a crossing tower, transepts, and a five bay choir. Beyond the choir stood a lower retrochoir or "Lady Chapel", the form of which can also be interpreted as group of four chapels with separate gabled roofs, two opening from the choir, and two from each aisle.[9]

There was a chapel dedicated to Mary Magdalen, for the use of the parishioners, in the angle between the south transept and the choir,[10] and another chapel was later added to the east of the retrochoir.[8] This was to become known as the "Bishop's chapel" as it was the burial place of Bishop Lancelot Andrewes.[11]

In the 1390s, the church was again damaged by fire, and in around 1420 the Bishop of Winchester Henry Beaufort, assisted with the rebuilding of the south transept and the completion of the tower.

During the 15th century the parochial chapel was rebuilt, and the nave and north transept were given wooden vaults[8] following the collapse of the stone ceiling in 1469.[10] Some of the carved bosses from the vault (destroyed in the 19th century) are preserved in the cathedral.[12]

The 15th-century poet John Gower lived in the priory precinct and is entombed in the church, with a splendid memorial, with polychrome panels. There is also a recumbent effigy of a knight in timber (rather than brass or stone) and it is suggested by the church that this dates from the 13th century. If so then this is one of the oldest such memorials and some credence can be given to the suggestion by its lack of heraldic emblems.

16th and 17th centuries[edit]

A 1616 drawing showing Old London Bridge with Southwark Priory (now the Cathedral) in the foreground.

In around 1520 Bishop Fox carried out a programme of improvement, installing a stone altar screen, a new west doorway with a window above[13] and a new window in the east gable of the choir.[14]

Along with all the other religious houses in England, the priory was dissolved by Henry VIII, being surrendered to the crown in 1540. In that year St Mary Overie received the new dedication of St Saviour and became the church of a new parish, which combined those of St Mary Magdalen (the attached parochial chapel) and the nearby church of St Margaret, which was deconsecrated. The parishioners leased the priory church and rectory from the Crown until 1614, when they purchased the church outright for £800.[15]

During the reign of Queen Mary heresy trials were held in the retrochoir. In January 1555, six high-ranking clergymen, including the Bishop of Gloucester, were condemned to death there.[15]

As the parish church for the Bankside area, St Saviour's had close connections with the great Elizabethan dramatists. William Shakespeare's brother, Edmund, was buried there in 1607. His grave is unmarked, but a commemorative stone was later placed in the paving of the choir. The Cathedral instituted a festival to commemorate this cultural history in the 1920s which endured into the late 20th century.[citation needed]

There is a large stained glass window dedicated to William Shakespeare, depicting scenes from his plays, at the base of which is an alabaster statue[12] representing the playwright reclining, holding a quill. Two dramatists, John Fletcher and Philip Massinger were buried in the church. Along with Edward Alleyne they were officers and benefactors of the parish charities and of St Saviour's Grammar School.

John Harvard was born in the parish, and baptised in the church on 29 November 1607. He is commemorated by the Harvard Chapel in the north transept, [16] paid for by Harvard University alumni resident in England. His father, Robert, a local butcher and inn-holder, was a business associate of Shakespeare's family and a parochial, school and church officer with the playwright's colleagues.

The connection with the bishops of Winchester continued after the Reformation. One, Lancelot Andrewes, part-author of the Authorised Version, who died in 1626,[17] was buried in a small chapel at the east end that afterwards became known as the "Bishop's Chapel". After the destruction of the chapel in 1830, his tomb was moved to a new position, immediately behind the high altar.[18]

It was from the tower of St Saviour's that the Czech artist Wenceslas Hollar drew his Long View of London from Bankside in 1647, a panorama which has become a definitive image of the city in the 17th century.

19th century[edit]

The tower and east end of the Cathedral, restored by George Gwilt the Younger in the 19th century

By the early 19th century the fabric of the church had fallen into disrepair. All the medieval furnishings were gone, and the interior was as Francis Bumpus later described it, "pewed and galleried to a fearful extent."[19] Between 1818 and 1830, the tower and choir were restored by George Gwilt Jun.[8] In his efforts to return the church to its thirteenth century appearance, Gwilt removed the early sixteenth century windows at the east end of the choir and, lacking firm evidence as to the original design, substituted an elevation of his own invention, with three lancet windows, and a circular one in the gable above.[18] The transepts were restored, less sympathetically, by Robert Wallace.[8] The Bishop’s Chapel and parochial chapel were removed, but plans for the demolition of the retrochoir were averted, and it was restored by Gwilt in 1832.

At a vestry meeting held in May 1831 it was decided to remove the nave roof, which had become unsafe, leaving the interior open to the weather, and to hold all future services in the choir and transepts.[20] In 1839, the roofless nave was demolished to within seven feet of the ground,[21] and rebuilt to a design by Henry Rose.[8]

The new nave was at a higher level than the surviving mediaeval eastern part, and closed off from it by a glazed screen. It had a plaster vault carried on iron columns, and a wooden gallery around three sides.[22] It was widely criticised, notably by Pugin who wrote "It is bad enough to see such an erection spring up at all, but when a venerable building is demolished to make way for it, the case is quite intolerable."[23]

On the initiative of Anthony Thorold, Bishop of Rochester, the nave was once again rebuilt between 1890 and 1897[21] by Arthur Blomfield, in a manner intended to recreate its 13th century predecessor as accurately as possible, and to preserve the few surviving mediaeval fragments.[24]

The main railway viaduct connecting London Bridge station to Blackfriars, Cannon Street and Charing Cross stations passes only eighteen metres from the southeast corner of the cathedral, blocking the view from the south side. This was a compromise when the railway was extended along this viaduct in 1852; the alternative was to demolish the building completely to allow a more direct passage for the line.

Since 1900[edit]

The collegiate parish church of St Saviour was designated as a cathedral in 1905 when the Church of England Diocese of Southwark was created. The nearby early-18th-century church of St Thomas became the new cathedral's chapter-house.[25]

There are memorials to Isabella Gilmore and the victims of the Marchioness disaster, and monuments to Nelson Mandela and Desmond Tutu. In 2001 Mandela opened a new northern "cloister" on the site of the old monastic one, with a refectory, shop, conference centre, education centre and museum. In 2002, these Millennium buildings received an award for being one of the best new buildings of the year.

On 16 November 1996 the cathedral became a focus of controversy when it hosted a twentieth-anniversary service for the Lesbian and Gay Christian Movement. Jeffrey John, the Dean of St Albans and former bishop-elect of Reading, was Canon Theologian of Southwark.

Other information[edit]

The 15th century church monument to the poet John Gower. Unusually, the polychrome paintings on it have been kept renewed.

The cathedral is used by London South Bank University for its annual honorary degree ceremony, by Regent's College for its graduation ceremonies, and by King's College London for its medical and dental degree ceremonies, an association stemming from its merger with Guy's and St Thomas' teaching hospitals, St Thomas' having started as an infirmary attached to the Priory of St Mary. The cathedral also hosts the London Nautical School's annual Christmas Carol Service.

There are two other cathedrals in Southwark: the Roman Catholic St George's Cathedral Southwark and the Greek Orthodox St Mary's at Camberwell New Road.

The interior of the Cathedral was used for the filming of the wedding scenes in the film The Slipper and the Rose (1976) (as revealed by director Bryan Forbes in his DVD commentary).[citation needed] Parts of the Doctor Who episode "The Lazarus Experiment" take place at Southwark Cathedral but, although the exterior appears, the interior shots were filmed at Wells Cathedral.

Dean and chapter[edit]

  • Dean – The Very Revd Andrew Nunn (since 21 January 2012 installation)[26]
  • Sub-Dean & Canon Pastor – The Revd Canon Bruce Saunders (Canon Pastor since 23 November 2003;[27] additionally Sub-Dean since 22 January 2012;[28] previously Canon Missioner, 1997–2003)
  • Canon Precentor – The Revd Canon Gilly Myers (since 9 September 2012 installation)[29]
  • Canon Chancellor and Theologian – The Revd Canon Dr Jane Steen (since early 2005;[30] until 14 April 2013)[1]
  • Canon Treasurer – The Revd Canon Leanne Roberts (since 11 September 2011 installation)[31]
  • Canon Missioner – The Revd Canon Stephen Hance (since 13 January 2013)[32]

Cathedral choirs[edit]

Main Cathedral Choir[edit]

The Cathedral Choir is supported financially by the St Olave's & St Saviour's Schools Foundation, which stems from the two parochial schools set up in the 1560s which still hold their commemoration and annual services at the cathedral as their 'foundation' church.[33] As the cathedral does not have a choir school, the boys and girls of the Cathedral Choir are drawn from schools throughout London and surrounding areas. There are six Lay Clerks in the Cathedral Choir and up to six Choral Scholars. Three of the Lay Clerks are supported by endowments from The Ouseley Trust; the Vernon Ellis Foundation and the Friends of Cathedral Music.

The Cathedral Choir performed the theme song to the television series Mr. Bean.

Former choristers of Southwark Cathedral include David Gedge, who served as Organist of Brecon Cathedral from 1966 until 2007,[34][35][36][37] and Chuka Umunna, now Member of Parliament for Streatham and Shadow Secretary of State for Business, Innovation and Skills.[38][39]Ernest Lough, who later made a celebrated recording of O for the Wings of a Dove with the choir of the Temple Church under George Thalben-Ball, auditioned unsuccessfully for a position as chorister at Southwark Cathedral.[40] Hubert Chesshyre, a lay clerk of Southwark Cathedral from 1971 until 2003,[41] was also a member of the British Royal Household. Chesshyre was responsible for the granting of arms both to the cathedral itself[42] and to the Suffragan Bishops of Kingston-upon-Thames, Woolwich, and Croydon.[43]

Merbecke Choir[edit]

In 2004 the Cathedral founded the Southwark Cathedral Merbecke Choir. It is intended to be the place both for boys and girls who leave the Cathedral Choirs and also other young singers who wish to maintain their sight-reading skills acquired as choristers and explore a wide range of repertoire under expert tuition.

The choir sings Compline on the 4th Sunday of each month and performs a seasonal concert of music each term. It also sings for livery companies in the City of London and for other organisations. In 2006 it performed as part of the Queen's Christmas Broadcast, which was recorded at the cathedral.

The Choir is named after the Tudor composer, John Merbecke (1510–1585), who wrote one of the most popular settings of the Book of Common Prayer Communion Service. In 1543 Merbecke and three other companions were tried for heresy in the retrochoir at Southwark. He was found guilty and condemned to death, but his sentence was commuted by Stephen Gardiner the Bishop of Winchester, who decided that, as a mere musician, Merbecke "knew no better".

Thursday Singers[edit]

The Thursday Singers are made up of people from the local community. There is no audition. They sing for Festival Eucharists which fall on a weekday. They also sing one service of Choral Evensong most terms and lead the singing at the Cathedral's Carol Sing-In before Christmas.[citation needed]

Organ[edit]

The Cathedral's organ was built by Lewis & Co. of Brixton, and completed in 1897. Thomas Christopher Lewis, the company's founder, was renowned for building instruments that had a bright, vibrant tone which, in part, was due to his use of low wind pressures. Consequently, he was somewhat out-of-step with the trend at the time, which was tending towards high wind pressures and rather thicker tone. The instrument's action was, and is, electro-pneumatic with slider chests, and the main case was designed by Arthur Blomfield.

Apart from routine maintenance, the instrument remained untouched until 1952, when Henry Willis & Sons undertook a major rebuild, during which the wind pressures were increased. The balanced Swell pedal and the hitch-down Solo pedal were replaced by Willis's Infinite Speed and Gradation pedals. The Choir organ - which had been housed in front of the Swell - was relocated to the north side and a new console was installed adjacent to it (the original console was on the south side). The Choir organ's Flauto Traverso was replaced by a Nazard, and a Tierce was provided on a new slider. A number of new couplers were also provided and the Violon unit (32'-16'-8') was extended by 12 pipes to create a Viola 4'.

Some years after the rebuild it was thought that the Willis changes, though well-intentioned, detracted too much from the original concept, so it was decided to restore the instrument to the Lewis specifications. The Durham-based firm of Harrison and Harrison was engaged and the work was carried out in two stages. In 1986, the electrics were renewed and although the Willis console was retained, it was given a solid state action with eight memory levels for the combination pistons and four for the Crescendo pedal. Also, the Willis swell pedals were replaced by balanced pedals.[44]

In 1991, the main work was undertaken, including the re-voicing of the stops on Lewis's original wind pressures. A Lewis Flauto Traverso rank was obtained for the Choir organ, to replace the one discarded by Willis, and the Nazard and Tierce were removed - meaning that the Great organ's Octave Quint is now the instrument's only mutation register. The two prepared for drawstops on the Pedal were also disposed of. Thus, the stop list is now as Lewis left it, except for the Viola 4' which was retained because it was a gift in memoriam.[44]

Among the past organists of Southwark Cathedral are Edgar Tom Cook, known for his lunchtime organ broadcasts on the BBC, and the organ builder Ralph Downes.

See also[edit]

General:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "New Archdeacons for Southwark Diocese". 16 December 2013. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  2. ^ "Southwark", in The Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World (1952), New York: Columbia University Press.
  3. ^ Worley 1905, p. 34.
  4. ^ Stow, John (1908), Kingsford, C. L., ed., A Survey of London 2, Oxford: Clarendon Press, p. 56 
  5. ^ Benson, Samuel (1862), A Guide to St Saviour's Church, London: W. Drewett, p. 5 
  6. ^ Stevens, T. P. (1930), Southwark Cathedral 606-1930, London: Sampson Low & Co., p. 11 
  7. ^ Cherry and Pevsner 1990, p. 566.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Cherry and Pevsner 1990, p. 564.
  9. ^ Bumpus 1930, p. 379 - 80.
  10. ^ a b Worley 1905, p. 17.
  11. ^ Worley 1905, p. 29.
  12. ^ a b "Area 1 (Nave)". Southwark Cathedral. 
  13. ^ Worley 1905, p. 18–9.
  14. ^ Worley 1905, p. 30.
  15. ^ a b Worley 1905, p. 22.
  16. ^ Worley 1905, p. 84.
  17. ^ Worley 1905, p. 25.
  18. ^ a b Worley 1905, p. 43.
  19. ^ Bumpus 1930, p. 305.
  20. ^ Worley 1905, p. 32.
  21. ^ a b Bumpus 1930, p. 385.
  22. ^ "XIX.— SATURDAY, MAY 1, 1880. Visit to St. Mary Overie". Transactions of the St. Paul's Ecclesiological Society 1. 1880. 
  23. ^ Worley 1905, pp. 32–3.
  24. ^ Worley 1905, pp. 57–8.
  25. ^ Worley 1905, p. 36.
  26. ^ Diocese of Southwark – Dean announced
  27. ^ The Bridge – November 2003, page 3
  28. ^ Diocese of Southwark – New Sub-Dean installed
  29. ^ Diocese of Southwark – Cathedral appoints new Precentor
  30. ^ Diocese of Southwark – Two New Residentiary Canons
  31. ^ Diocese of Southwark – Busy patronal festival for Southwark Cathedral
  32. ^ Diocese of Southwark – Canon Missioner appointed for Diocese
  33. ^ see St Olave's Grammar School and St Saviour's and St Olave's Church of England School for Girls.
  34. ^ David Gedge, A Country Cathedral Organist Looks Back (n.p.: David Gedge, 2009).
  35. ^ Helen Burrows, review of A Country Cathedral Organist Looks Back 1939-1978, in Church Times (2 November 2006). Accessed 18 April 2013.
  36. ^ W.B. Henshaw, 'David Gedge', Biographical Dictionary of the Organ. Accessed 18 April 2013.
  37. ^ David M. Cummings, ed., International Who's Who in Music and Musician's Directory 2000/2001 (In the Classical and Light Classical Fields) (17th edn., Cambridge: Melrose, 2000), i, 224.
  38. ^ 'Chuka Umunna Coy About Leadership Ambitions', Sky News (1 October 2012). Accessed 18 April 2013.
  39. ^ Alice Foster, 'Streatham MP Chuka Umunna would be "arrogant" to talk about Labour leadership bid', Streatham Guardian (2 October 2012). Accessed 18 April 2013.
  40. ^ Douglas Martin, 'Ernest Lough, Choirboy Whose Voice Endured on Famous Recording, Dies at 88', The New York Times (6 March 2000). Accessed 19 April 2013.
  41. ^ 'Hubert Chesshyre, Esq, CVO, FSA', Debrett's People of Today. Accessed 19 April 2013.
  42. ^ in SE1, Issue 38 (August 2001), p. 3
  43. ^ The Coat of Arms, NS 12/179 (Autumn 1997), pp. 112–15
  44. ^ a b A specification of the organ can be found on the National Pipe Organ Register.

Sources[edit]

  • Bumpus, T. Francis (1930). The Cathedrals of England and Wales. London: T. Werner Laurie. 
  • Cherry, Bridget; Pevsner, Nikolaus (1990) [1983]. London 2: South. The Buildings of England. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-071047-7. 
  • Worley, George (1905). Southwark Cathedral. Bell's Cathedrals. London: George Bell & Sons. Retrieved 7 October 2011. 

External links[edit]