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Souverainism (from the French word "souverainisme", i.e. the ideology of sovereignty) or sovereigntism is a doctrine which supports acquiring or preserving political independence of a nation or a region. It opposes federalism and approaches independentist movements.
In Europe, such political movements aim at a Europe of the nations, so that every country could see its independence and differences respected.
Supporters of the doctrine regard themselves as Euro-realists, opposed to the Euro-federalists, and call for a confederal Europe. Souverainism is thus opposed to federalism, and some[who?] estimate that it can involve nationalism, particularly in France where the parties lean on it.
Philippe de Villiers, writing in Le Figaro on 16 February 2006 regarding the Bolkestein directive, described souverainism as "the sole reasonable economic policy" and defined it as protecting against the outsider and setting the citizens free.
The souverainiste doctrine is particularly influential in France, where numerous political movements adhere to it:
- Action Française (monarchist, far-right reactionary)
- Arise the Republic (Gaullist and republican)
- Mouvement pour la France (nationalist)
- Mouvement Républicain et Citoyen (left-wing)
- National Front (far right nationalist)
- Nouvelle Action Royaliste (monarchist)
- Rassemblement démocrate (centrist and monarchist)
- Rassemblement pour la France (Gaullist and republican])
- Parti Québécois (nationalist and social democratic)
- Bloc Québécois (nationalist and social democratic, represents Quebec in Canada's federal parliament)
- Option nationale (nationalist and progressive)
- Québec solidaire (social democratic)
In the Canadian province of Quebec, souverainisme or sovereigntism refers to the Quebec sovereignty movement, which argues for Quebec to become sovereign and not remain part of the Canadian federation. Many leaders in the movement, notably René Lévesque, have preferred the terms sovereignty and sovereigntist over alternative labels of independentist and separatist, although this terminology may be objected to by opponents.
During the 2008 Canadian parliamentary dispute, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper controversially used the word "separatist" in the English version of a televised speech to the nation, but used the French word for "sovereigntist" in the French version.
- Autonomism (political doctrine)
- Tax competition between countries
- Taxation and Equity
- Unfair competition
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