List of Russian inventors

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This is a list of inventors from the Russian Federation, Soviet Union, Russian Empire, Tsardom of Russia and Grand Duchy of Moscow, including both ethnic Russians and people of other ethnicities.

This list also includes those who were born in Russia or its predecessor states but later emigrated, and those who were born elsewhere but immigrated to the country or worked there for a considerable time, (producing inventions on Russian soil).

For Russian inventions in chronological order, see the Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records.

Alphabetical list[edit]

A[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Bruno-abakanowicz.png Bruno Abakanowicz
(1852–1900)
 Russian Empire
 France
(Poland/Lithuania origin)
Integraph, spirograph, parabolagraph[1]
Spirograph designs
Valerian Abakovsky
(1895–1921)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
 Latvia
aerowagon [2]
Vitaly Abalakov
(1906–1986)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
camming devices, Abalakov thread (V-thread) gearless ice climbing anchor [3][4]
Evgeny Abramyan.jpg Evgeny Abramyan
(1930)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
 Georgia
halyard for the first extra-vehicular activity
Space suit worn by Leonov during the first EVA
Vsevolod Abramovich
(1890–1913)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Abramovich Flyer
Hovannes Adamian
(1879–1932)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
(Armenia/Azerbaijan/Germany)
tricolor principle of the color television[5]
Franz Aepinus
(1724–1802)
 Holy Roman Empire
 Russian Empire
achromatic microscope
Georgy Adelson-Velsky
(1922)
 Soviet Union
 Russia
 Israel
AVL tree datastructure, Kaissa (the first World Computer Chess Champion)
Anatoly Alexandrov
(1903–1994)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
anti-mine demagnetising of ships, naval nuclear reactors (including one for the first nuclear icebreaker)[6][7]
Alexandre Alexeieff
(1901–1982)
 Russian Empire
 France
pinscreen animation (with his wife Claire Parker)[8]
AlekseevRE bust.jpg Rostislav Alexeyev
(1916–1980)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
ekranoplan, Soviet high-speed hydrofoils[9][10]
Zhores Alferov.jpg Zhores Alferov
(born 1930)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
heterotransistor (with Herbert Kroemer), continuous-wave-operating diode laser (with Dmitri Garbuzov)[11][12]
Genrich Altshuller
(1926–1998)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
TRIZ ("The Theory of Solving Inventor's Problems")[13]
Structure of TRIZ
Andreev vas.jpg Vasily Andreyev
(1861–1918)
 Russian Empire
standard balalaika[14][15]
A souvenir balalaika
Stamp of Ukraine s708.jpg Oleg Antonov
(1906–1984)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
An-series aircraft, including Antonov A-40 winged tank and Antonov An-124 (the largest serial cargo aircraft, later modified to world's largest fixed-wing aircraft Antonov An-225)[16]
Arcimovich.jpg Lev Artsimovich
(1909–1973)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
first tokamak[17]
Tokamak scheme

B[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Georgy Babakin
(1914–1971)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
first soft landing space vehicle (Luna 9)[18]
WRossineSelfPortrait1907.jpg Vladimir Baranov-Rossine
(1888–1944)
 Russian Empire
 France
(Ukraine)
(self-portrait)
Optophonic Piano, pointillist or dynamic military camouflage[19]
Vladimir Barmin
(1909–1993)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
first rocket launch complex (Baikonur spaceport)[20]
Basov.jpg Nikolay Basov
(1922–2001)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
co-inventor of laser and maser[21]
Laser beams
Ernest Beaux.jpg Ernest Beaux
(1881–1961)
 Russian Empire
 France
Chanel No. 5[22]
Stamp behterev.jpg Vladimir Bekhterev
(1857–1927)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Bekhterev’s Mixture (a medicine with a sedative effect)[23]
Stamp Soviet Union 1991 CPA 5183.jpg Nikolay Benardos
(1842–1905)
 Russian Empire
arc welding (specifically carbon arc welding, the first arc welding method)[24]
The first arc welding method, ElectroHephaestus
Alexander Bereznyak
(1912–1974)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
(left on photo)
first rocket-powered fighter aircraft, BI-1 (together with Isaev)[25]
Georgy Beriev
(1903–1979)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
(Georgian origin)
Be-series amphibious aircraft[26]
Fyodor Blinov.jpg Fyodor Blinov
(1827–1902)
 Russian Empire
first tracked vehicle (a wagon on continuous tracks), steam-powered caterpillar tractor[27][28]
Blinov's caterpillar steam tractor
Sam Born
 Russian Empire
 United States
lollipop-making machine[29]
A particularly large lollipop
Botezat.jpg Georgy Bothezat
(1882–1940)
 Russian Empire
 United States
quadrotor helicopter (The Flying Octopus)[30]
De Bothezat's quadrotor helicopter.
Sergey Brin, Web 2.0 Conference.jpg Sergey Brin
(born 1973)
 Soviet Union
 United States
with Larry Page, invented Google web search engine[31]
Mikhail Britnev
(1822–1889)
 Russian Empire
first metal-hull icebreaker (Pilot)[32]
Icebreaker Pilot on a postage stamp
Nikolay Brusentsov
(born 1925)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
ternary computer (Setun)[33]
Gersh Budker
(1918–1977)
 Soviet Union
electron cooling, co-inventor of collider[34][35]
Butlerov A.png Aleksandr Butlerov
(1828–1886)
 Russian Empire
hexamine, formaldehyde, formose reaction (the synthesis of sugar)[36]
Formaldehyde formula

C[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Vladimir Chelomey
(1914–1984)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
first space station (Salyut 1), further space stations of Salyut series, Proton rocket (the most used heavy lift launch system)[37]
Cerenkov.jpg Pavel Cherenkov
(1904–1990)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Cherenkov detector[38]
Evgeniy Chertovsky
(born 1902)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
pressure suit[39]
Alexander Chizhevsky
(1897–1964)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
air ionizer (Chizhevsky's chandelier)[40]
A modern air ionizer
Andrey Chokhov
(c. 1545–1629)
Grand Duchy of Moscow
Tsardom of Russia
Tsar Cannon, the largest bombard by caliber but inoperative[41]

D[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Vasily Degtyaryov.jpg Vasily Degtyaryov
(1880–1949)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
first self-loading carbine, Degtyaryov-series firearms, co-developer of Fedorov Avtomat (the first self-loading rifle)[42]
Akinfy demidov.jpg Akinfiy Demidov
(1678–1745)
Tsardom of Russia
 Russian Empire
co-developer of rebar, cast iron cupola, lightning rod (all found in the Leaning Tower of Nevyansk)[43]
Yuri Denisyuk
(1927–2006)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
3D holography[44]
Denisyuk holography scheme
Aleksandr Dianin
(1851–1918)
 Russian Empire
Bisphenol A, Dianin's compound[45]
Bisphenol A formula
Doliwo-Dobrowolsky.jpg Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky
(1862–1919)
 Russian Empire
(Poland, Germany)
three-phase electric power (first 3-phase hydroelectric power plant, 3-phase electrical generator, 3-phase motor and 3-phase transformer)[46]
3-phase electrical generator on exhibition in Frankfurt,1891
Nikolay Dollezhal
(1899–2000)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
AM-1 reactor for the first nuclear power plant and other RBMK-type reactors, pressurized water reactor (VVER)[47]
Alexey Dushkin
(1904–1977)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
deep column station[48]

E[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Ivan Elmanov
 Russian Empire
first monorail (the so-called "Road on Pillars" near Moscow, with horse-drawn carriages)[49]

F[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Karl Gustavovich Faberge.jpg Peter Carl Fabergé
(1846–1920)
 Russian Empire
Fabergé Eggs[50]
Nicolas Florine
(1891–1972)
 Russian Empire
 Belgium
(born in Georgia)
first tandem rotor helicopter to fly freely[51]
A modern tandem rotor helicopter
Ivan fedorov monument lviv 20060602.jpg Ivan Fyodorov
(c. 1510–1583)
Grand Duchy of Moscow
Tsardom of Russia
Coat of Arms of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.svg Poland-Lithuania
invented multibarreled mortar, introduced printing in Russia[52]
Fedorov depicted in his typography
Svyatoslav Fyodorov
(1927–2000)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
radial keratotomy[53]
V G Fyodorov.jpg Vladimir Fyodorov
(1874–1966)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Fedorov Avtomat (first self-loading battle rifle, arguably the first assault rifle)[54]

G[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Boris Borisovich Galitzine
(1862–1916)
 Russian Empire
electromagnetic seismograph[55]
An electric seismograph
Dmitri Garbuzov
(1940–2006)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
 United States
continuous-wave-operating diode lasers (together with Zhores Alferov), high-power diode lasers[56]
Georgy Gause
(1910–1986)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
gramicidin S, neomycin, lincomycin and other antibiotics[57]
Gramicidin S formula
E. K. Gauzen
 Russian Empire
three bolt equipment (early diving costume)[58][59]
A Soviet diving helmet
Geim.jpg Andrey Geim
(born 1958)
 Soviet Union
 United Kingdom
graphene[60]
Nestor Genko
(1839–1904)
 Russian Empire
Genko's Forest Belt (the first large-scale windbreak system)[61]
Valentin Glushko on a 2008 Russian coin; RR5110-0084R.png Valentyn Glushko
(1908–1989)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
hypergolic propellant, electric propulsion, Soviet rocket engines (including world's most powerful liquid-fuel rocket engine RD-170)[62]
Leonid Gobyato.jpg Leonid Gobyato
(1875–1915)
 Russian Empire
first modern man-portable mortar[63]
Gobyato's mortar
Igor Gorynin.jpg Igor Gorynin
(born 1926)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
weldable titanium alloys, high strength aluminium alloys, radiation-hardened steels[64][65]
Boris Grabovsky
(1901–1966)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
cathode commutator, an early electronic TV pickup tube[66][67]
Mikhail Gurevich
(1893–1976)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
(left on photo)
MiG-series fighter aircraft, including world's most produced jet aircraft MiG-15 and most produced supersonic aircraft MiG-21 (together with Artem Mikoyan)[68]

H[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Waldemar Haffkine
(1860–1930)
 Russian Empire
  Switzerland
developed and used first vaccines against cholera and bubonic plague[69][70]
An injection of anti-plague vaccine

I[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Ilizarov.jpg Gavriil Ilizarov
(1921–1992)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
Ilizarov apparatus, external fixation, distraction osteogenesis[71][72][73]
Sergey Ilyushin
(1894–1977)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Il-series fighter aircraft, including Ilyushin Il-2 bomber (the most produced military aircraft in history) [74]
Aleksei Isaev
(1908–1971)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
(second left on photo)
first rocket-powered fighter aircraft, BI-1 (together with Bereznyak)[25]
Isidore
Grand Duchy of Moscow
Russian vodka[75]

J[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Moritz Hermann von Jacobi 1856.jpg Boris Jacobi
(1801–1874)
 Prussia
 Russian Empire
electrotyping (an application of electroplating to typography), electric boat[76]

K[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Michael Kalashikov.jpg Mikhail Kalashnikov
(born 1919)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
AK-47 and AK-74 assault rifles (produced more than all other types of assault rifles combined)[77]
Nikolay Kamov
(1902–1973)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
armored military autogyro, Ka-series coaxial rotor helicopters[78]
KustodiyevSemenov Kapitsa.JPG Pyotr Kapitsa
(1894–1984)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
(left on portrait by Boris Kustodiev, with Nikolay Semyonov right)
first ultrastrong magnetic field creating techniques, basic low-temperature physics inventions[79]
The liquid helium in the superfluid phase
Georgii Karpechenko
(1899–1941)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
rabbage (the first ever non-sterile hybrid obtained through the crossbreeding)[80][81]
Radis.JPG
Yevgeny Kaspersky
(born 1965)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
Kaspersky Anti-Virus, Kaspersky Internet Security, Kaspersky Mobile Security anti-virus products[82]
Kaspersky Anti-Virus Logo
Adolphe Kégresse
(1879–1943)
 France
 Russian Empire
Kégresse track (first half-track and first off-road vehicle with continuous track), dual clutch transmission[84]
Nicholas II Packard Twin-6 with Kégresse track
Alexander Kemurdzhian
(1921–2003)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
first space exploration rover (Lunokhod)
Yulii Borisovich Khariton 1924.jpg Yulii Khariton
(1904–1996)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
chief designer of the Soviet atomic bomb, co-developer of the Tsar Bomb
Joe One, the first Soviet atomic test.
Anatoly Kharlampiev
(1906–1979)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Sambo (martial art)[85]
Sport sambo
Konstantin Khrenov
(1894–1984)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
underwater welding[86]
Kibalchich.jpg Nikolai Kibalchich
(1853–1881)
 Russian Empire
pioneer of rocketry[87]
A Soyuz-U, at Baikonur Site 1/5
Semyon Kirlian
(1898–1978)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Kirlian photography
Kirlian photo of two coins
Konstantin Konstantinov.jpg Konstantin Konstantinov
(1817–19 – 1871)
 Russian Empire
device for measuring flight speed of projectiles, ballistic rocket pendulum, launch pad, rocket-making machine[88]
Trajectory of a bullet
Sergey Korolyov 140-190 for collage.jpg Sergey Korolyov
(1907–1966)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
(born in Ukraine)
first successful intercontinental ballistic missile (R-7 Semyorka), R-7 rocket family, Sputniks (including the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite), Vostok program (including the first human spaceflight)
Vostok spacecraft model
Korotkov.jpeg Nikolai Korotkov
(1874–1920)
 Russian Empire
auscultatory technique for blood pressure measurement
Korsakov01.jpg Semen Korsakov
(1787–1853)
 Russian Empire
punched card for information storage
Korsakov's linear homeoscope
Koshkin, 1898-1940.jpg Mikhail Koshkin
(1898–1940)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
T-34 medium tank, the best and most produced tank of World War II[89]
Ognjeslav Kostovic.jpg Ogneslav Stepanovich Kostovich
(1851–1916)
 Serbia
 Russian Empire
arborite (high-strength plywood)[90][91]
Gleb Kotelnikov.jpg Gleb Kotelnikov
(1872–1944)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
knapsack parachute, drogue parachute[92][93]
A modern knapsack parachute packed
Alexey Krylov 1910s.JPG Alexei Krylov
(1863–1945)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
gyroscopic damping of ships
Kulibin I P.jpg Ivan Kulibin
(1735–1818)
 Russian Empire
egg-shaped clock, candle searchlight, elevator using screw mechanisms, self-rolling carriage (for the first time featuring a flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearing), an early optical telegraph[94][95][96]
Kulibin's project of the one-arch bridge over Neva River.
Igor Kurchatov
(1903–1960)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
first nuclear power plant, first nuclear reactors for submarines and surface ships

L[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
DALachinov.gif Dmitry Lachinov
(1842–1902)
 Russian Empire
mercury pump, economizer for electricity consumption, electrical insulation tester, optical dynamometer, photometer, elecrolyser[97]
The details of electrical insulation tester depicted in a Lachinov's book
Semyon Lavochkin
(1900–1960)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
La-series aircraft, the first operational surface-to-air missile S-25 Berkut
Nikolai Lebedenko
 Russian Empire
Tsar Tank, the largest armored vehicle in history[98]
Sergey Lebedev.jpg Sergei Lebedev
(1874–1934)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
commercially viable synthetic rubber
Lisitsyns,
Ivan Fyodorovich
and his brother
Nazar Fyodorovich
 Russian Empire
Russian samovar[99]
A typical samovar
Lodygin stamp.jpg Alexander Lodygin
(1847–1923)
 Russian Empire
 United States
electrical filament, incandescent light bulb with tungsten filament
Lodygin's lamp draw
Lomonosovportrait.jpg Mikhail Lomonosov
(1711–1765)
Tsardom of Russia
 Russian Empire
night vision telescope, off-axis reflecting telescope, coaxial rotor, original Russian hard-paste porcelain (together with Dmitry Vinogradov), re-discovery of smalt[100]
Lomonosov's drawings for his discovery of Venus atmosphere
IuriiLomonosov.jpg Yury Lomonosov
(1876–1952)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
 United Kingdom
first successful mainline diesel locomotive[101]
The Юэ 001 locomotive
Aleksandr Loran
(1849 – after 1911)
 Russian Empire
fire fighting foam, foam extinguisher[102]
Modern usage of fire fighting foam.
Oleg losev.jpg Oleg Losev
(1903–1942)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
light-emitting diode, crystadine
Red, green and blue LEDs
Gleb Lozino-Lozinskiy
(1909–2001)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
Buran (spacecraft), Spiral project[103][104]
Buran carried by the An-225
Arkhip Lyulka
(1908–1984)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
first double jet turbofan engine, other Soviet aircraft engines[105]

M[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Aleksandr Makarov
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
 Germany
orbitrap[106]
Ion trajectories in an Orbitrap
SO Makarov 01.jpg Stepan Makarov
(1849–1904)
 Russian Empire
Icebreaker Yermak, the first true icebreaker able to ride over and crush pack ice
Icebreaker Yermak on the Baltic Sea before 1917
Machno.jpg Nestor Makhno
(1888–1934)
 Russian Empire
 France
(Ukraine)
tachanka
Victor Makeev
(1924–1985)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
first intercontinental submarine-launched ballistic missile
Scheme of R-27 missile of Makeev
Dmitri Maxutow Leutnant.jpg Dmitri Maksutov
(1896–1964)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Maksutov telescope
Maksutov-Cassegrain telescope.
Sergey Malyutin.jpg Sergey Malyutin
(1859–1937)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
(self-portrait)
matryoshka doll (together with craftsman Vasily Zvyozdochkin)[107]
Original matryoshka doll by Malyutin and Zvyozdochkin
Boris Mamyrin
(1919–2007)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
reflectron (ion mirror)[108]
Ilya Mechnikov nobel.jpg Ilya Mechnikov
(1845–1916)
 Russian Empire
 France
probiotics
DIMendeleevCab.jpg Dmitri Mendeleev
(1834–1907)
 Russian Empire
Periodic table, a type of pycnometer, pyrocollodion, co-developer of Icebreaker Yermak, also credited with determining the ideal vodka proof as 38% (later rounded to 40%)[109]
Artem Mikoyan
(1905–1970)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
(Armenia)
(right on photo)
MiG-series fighter aircraft, including world's most produced jet aircraft MiG-15 and most produced supersonic aircraft MiG-21 (together with Mikhail Gurevich)[68]
Alexander Mikulin
(1895–1985)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Mikulin AM-34 and other Soviet aircraft engines, co-developer of the Tsar Tank[98][110]
Mikulin and his staff presenting Mikulin AM-34
Mikhail Mil
(1909–1970)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Mi-series helicopter aircraft, including Mil Mi-8 (the world's most-produced helicopter) and Mil Mi-12 (the world's largest helicopter)
Pavel Molchanov
(1893–1941)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
radiosonde
Alexander Morozov
(1904–1979)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
T-54/55 (the most produced tank in history), co-developer of T-34[111][112]
Mosin.jpg Sergei Mosin
(1849–1902)
 Russian Empire
Mosin–Nagant rifle, one of the most produced ever
Motorins,
Ivan Feodorovich
(1660s – 1735)
and his son
Mikhail Ivanovich
(?–1750)
Tsardom of Russia
 Russian Empire
Tsar Bell, the largest bell in the world[113]
1989 CPA 6077.jpg Vera Mukhina
(1889–1953)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
welded sculpture[114]
Yevgeny Murzin
(1914–1970)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
ANS synthesizer

N[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Alexander Nadiradze
(1914–1987)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
(born in Georgia)
First meteorological missile "M1-Meteo". First mobile ICBM (RT-21 Temp 2S), also RSD-10 Pioneer and (RT-2PM Topol)[115]
Nartov.jpg Andrey Nartov
(1683–1756)
Tsardom of Russia
 Russian Empire
first lathe with a mechanic cutting tool-supporting carriage and a set of gears, fast-fire battery on a rotating disc, screw mechanism for changing the artillery fire angle, gauge-boring lathe for cannon-making, early telescopic sight[116][117][118]
An old lathe (b marks the carriage)
Sergey Nepobedimiy
(born 1921)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
first supersonic anti-tank guided missile Sturm, other Soviet rocket weaponry[119]
Nikolai Nikitin
(1907–1973)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
prestressed concrete with wire ropes structure (Ostankino Tower, The Motherland Calls), Nikitin-Travush 4000 project (precursor to X-Seed 4000)
Ostankino Tower (on the left)
Ludvig Emmanuel Nobel,.jpg Ludvig Nobel
(1831–1888)
 Sweden
 Russian Empire
first successful oil tanker[120]
A modern oil tanker
Konstantin Novoselov at MIPT.jpg Konstantin Novoselov
(born 1974)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
 United Kingdom
graphene[60] (youngest Nobel Laureate since 1973)[121]

O[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Theophil Wilgodt Odhner
(1845–1903)
 Sweden
 Russian Empire
the Odhner Arithmometer (a mechanical pinwheel calculator)
Lucien Olivier
(1838–1883)
 Russian Empire
(Belgian or French origin)
Russian salad (Olivier salad)

P[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Alexey Pajitnov - 2575833305 (crop).jpg Alexey Pajitnov
(born 1956)
 Soviet Union
 United States
Tetris[122]
Tetris figures
Ivan Pavlov nobel.jpg Ivan Pavlov
(1849–1936)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
classical conditioning[123]
One of the Pavlov’s dogs with an implanted cannula.
Vasily petrov.jpg Vasily Petrov
(1761–1834)
 Russian Empire
continuous electric arc, arc welding[124]
Ilya Repin Portrait of the Surgeon Nikolay Pirogov 1881.jpg Nikolay Pirogov
(1810–1881)
 Russian Empire
early use of ether as anaesthetic, first anaesthesia in a field operation, various kinds of surgical operations
Diethyl ether
Pirotsky.jpg Fyodor Pirotsky
(1845–1898)
 Russian Empire
electric tram
Miller's line where Pirotsky's tram was tested
Ivan Plotnikov
(1902–1995)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
kirza leather[125]
Kirza boots.
Nikolai Polikarpov.jpg Nikolai Polikarpov
(1892–1944)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Po-series aircraft, including Polikarpov Po-2 Kukuruznik (world's most produced biplane)
Ivan Polzunov
(1728–1766)
 Russian Empire
first two-cylinder steam engine
Polzunov's steam engine
Pomortsev.jpg Mikhail Pomortsev
(1851–1916)
 Russian Empire
nephoscope
Nephoscope measures the parameters of clouds
Alexander Stepanovich Popov.jpg Alexander Popov
(1859–1906)
 Russian Empire
lightning detector (the first lightning prediction system and also first radio receiver), co-inventor of radio
Popov and his radio
Nikolay Popov
(1931–2008)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
first fully gas turbine main battle tank (T-80)[126]
Porokhovschikov.jpg Aleksandr Porokhovschikov
(1892 – c. 1942)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Vezdekhod (the first prototype tank, or tankette, and the first continuous track amphibious ATV)[127]
Vezdekhod tank in 1915
SEV-3 and Seversky.jpg Alexander Procofieff de Seversky
(1894–1974)
 Russian Empire
 United States
ionocraft, first gyroscopically stabilized bombsight, also developed air-to-air refueling
Aleksandr Prokhorov.jpg Alexander Prokhorov
(1916–2002)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
co-inventor of laser and maser
Laser beams
Petro prokopovich.jpg Petro Prokopovych
(1775–1850)
 Russian Empire
(Ukraine)
beehive frame, queen excluder and other beekeeping novelties
A shallow super frame filled with honey
Sergei-Prokudin-Gorski-Larg.jpg Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky
(1863–1944)
 Russian Empire
 France
early colour photography method based on three colour channels, also colour film slides and colour motion pictures

R[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Ramzin.JPG Leonid Ramzin
(1887–1948)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
straight-flow boiler (Ramzin boiler)[128]
Peter der-Grosse 1838.jpg Peter I of Russia (Romanov)
(1672–1725)
Tsardom of Russia
 Russian Empire
decimal currency, yacht club, sounding line with separating plummet (sounding weight probe)[129][130][131]
Sounding line throwing
Ida Rosenthal
(1886–1973)
 Russian Empire
 United States
(born in Belarus, Jewish descent)
modern brassiere (Maidenform), the standard of cup sizes, nursing bra, full-figured bra, the first seamed uplift bra (all with her husband William)[132][133][134]
A modern brassiere
Boris Rozing.jpg Boris Rosing
(1869–1933)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
CRT television (first TV system using cathode ray tube on the receiving side)[135][136]
Eugene Roshal
(born 1972)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
FAR file manager, RAR file format, WinRAR file archiver[137]
FAR Manager screenshot

S[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Alexander Sablukov
(1783–1857)
 Russian Empire
centrifugal fan[138]
Components of a centrifugal fan
Andrei Sakharov
(1921–1989)
 Soviet Union
explosively pumped flux compression generator, co-developer of the Tsar Bomb, co-developer of tokamak
Franz San Galli.jpg Franz San Galli
(1824–1908)
 Russian Empire
(Italian and German descent, born in Poland)
radiator, modern central heating[139][140]
A household radiator
Pavel Shilling.jpg Pavel Schilling
(1780–1836)
 Russian Empire
(Estonia)
shielded cable, electric mine and electromagnetic telegraph[141]
Cooke and Wheatstone's telegraph, inspired by Schilling's one
Severin Guy Illich.png Guy Severin
(1926–2008)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
extra-vehicular activity supporting system[142]
Leonty Shamshurenkov
(1687–1758)
Tsardom of Russia
 Russian Empire
a device for lifting the Tsar Bell, the first self-propelling carriage (a precursor to both bicycle and automobile), projects of an original odometer and self-propelling sledge[95][143]
A reconstruction of Shamshurenkov's self-running carriage
Pyotr Shilovsky.png Pyotr Shilovsky
(1871 – after 1924)
 Russian Empire
 United Kingdom
gyrocar[144]
Shilovsky's gyrocar in 1914, London
Vladimir Grigoryevich Shukhov 1891.jpg Vladimir Shukhov
(1853–1939)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
thermal cracking (Shukhov cracking process), thin-shell structure, tensile structure, hyperboloid structure, gridshell, modern oil pipeline, cylindric oil depot[145]
Chouvaloff.jpg Pyotr Shuvalov
(1711–1762)
Tsardom of Russia
 Russian Empire
invented canister shot mortar, introduced licorne into wide usage
A "secret" canister shot mortar
Igor Sikorsky
(1889–1972)
 Russian Empire
 United States
first four-engine fixed-wing aircraft (Russky Vityaz), first airliner and purpose-designed bomber (Ilya Muromets), modern helicopter, Sikorsky-series helicopters
Sikorsky Skycrane carrying a house
Vladimir Simonov
(born 1935)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
APS Underwater Assault Rifle, SPP-1 underwater pistol[146][147]
Nikolay Slavyanov.gif Nikolay Slavyanov
(1854–1897)
 Russian Empire
shielded metal arc welding[148]
Alexander Smakula
(1900–1983)
 Russian Empire
 United States
(Ukraine)
anti-reflective coating
Yefim Smolin
Tsardom of Russia
 Russian Empire
table-glass (stakan granyonyi)[149]
A classic table-glass
Igor Spassky.gif Igor Spassky
(born 1926)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
Sea Launch platform and over 200 nuclear submarines, including the world's largest submarines of Typhoon class
Starevich 1.jpg Ladislas Starevich
(1882–1965)
 Russian Empire
 France
(Polish descent)
puppet animation, live-action/animated film[150][151]
Scene from The Cameraman's Revenge animation (1911)
Boris Stechkin
(1891–1969)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
co-developer of Sikorsky Ilya Muromets and Lebedenko's Tsar Tank, developer of many Soviet heat and aircraft engines[98][152]
Alexander stoletov.jpg Aleksandr Stoletov
(1839–1896)
 Russian Empire
first solar cell based on the outer photoelectric effect
A modern solar cell
Pavel Sukhoi
(1895–1975)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Su-series fighter aircraft
Andrei Sychra
(1773–76 – 1850)
 Russian Empire
(born in Lithuania, Czech ancestry)
Russian seven-string guitar
Vladimir Syromyatnikov
(1933–2006)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
Androgynous Peripheral Attach System and other spacecraft docking mechanisms
The original APAS-75 docking unit draw

T[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Andrey Ternovskiy
(born 1992)
 Russian Federation
creator of Chatroulette, the first random webcam chat website
Leon Theremin.jpg Léon Theremin
(1896–1993)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
 United States
 Russian Federation
theremin, burglar alarm, terpsitone, Rhythmicon (first drum machine), The Thing (listening device)
Etherwave Theremin
Andrey Tikhonov
(1906–1993)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
magnetotellurics
Mikhail Tikhonravov
(1900–1974)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
co-developer of Sputnik 1 (the first artificial satellite) together with Korolyov and Keldysh, designer of further Sputniks
Sputnik 1 replica
Gavriil Tikhov
(1875–1960)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
feathering spectrograph
Scheme of a spectrograph work
Tokarev Fedor.jpg Fedor Tokarev
(1871–1968)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
TT-33 semiautomatic handgun and SVT-40 self-loading rifle (main Soviet guns of World War II)
A Soviet soldier with TT-33
Tsiolkovsky.jpg Konstantin Tsiolkovsky,
(1857–1935)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
spaceflight (theory principles that led to numerous inventions)
Tsiolkovsky's drawings of astronaut in space
Tswett 01.jpg Mikhail Tsvet
(1872–1919)
 Russian Empire
chromatography (specifically adsorption chromatography, the first chromatography method)
A modern gas chromatography system
Alexei Tupolev
(1925–2001)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
the Tupolev Tu-144 (first supersonic passenger jet)
Tupolev poststamp.jpg Andrei Tupolev
(1888–1972)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
turboprop powered long-range airliner (Tupolev Tu-114), turboprop strategic bomber (Tupolev Tu-95)

U[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Vladimir Utkin
(1923–2000)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
railcar-launched ICBM (RT-23 Molodets), other Soviet rockets[153]
RT-23 in the St Petersburg railway museum

V[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Vladimir Vakhmistrov
(1897–1972)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
first bomber with a parasite aircraft (Zveno project)
Автопортрет. 1868.jpg Viktor Vasnetsov
(1848–1926)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
budenovka military hat
Red Army soldiers in budenovkas
Vladimir Veksler
(1907–1966)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
synchrophasotron, co-inventor of synchrotron[35][154]
A modern synchrotron scheme
Ivan Vyrodkov
(? – 1563–64)
Grand Duchy of Moscow
Tsardom of Russia
siege tower[155]

W[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Paul Walden.jpg Paul Walden
(1863–1957)
 Russian Empire
 Germany
(born in Latvia, Baltic German descent)
Walden inversion, Ethylammonium nitrate (the first room temperature ionic liquid)

Y[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Yablochkov 1.jpg Pavel Yablochkov
(1847–1894)
 Russian Empire
Yablochkov candle (first commercially viable electric carbon arc lamp)
Yablochkov demonstrates his illumination in Paris, 1878
Alexander Yakovlev
(1906–1989)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Yak-series aircraft, including Yakovlev Yak-40 (the first regional jet)
Yurkevich Normandia Model.jpg Vladimir Yourkevitch
(1885–1964)
 Russian Empire
 France
 United States
modern ship hull design
Sergei Yudin
(1891–1954)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
cadaveric blood transfusion and other medical operations[156]
World War II syringe for blood transfusion

Z[edit]

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Alexander Zalmanov
(1875–1965)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
turpentine bath
Cardiovuscular turpentine treatment statistics
1908-kl-t-zamenhof.jpg Ludwik Łazarz Zamenhof
(1859–1917)
 Russian Empire
(Poland)
Esperanto language
Zavoisky.JPG Yevgeny Zavoisky
(1907–1976)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
EPR spectroscopy, co-developer of NMR spectroscopy[157]
Simulated EPR spectrum of the CH3 radical.
Nikolay Zelinsky
(1861–1953)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
the first effective filtering activated charcoal gas mask in the world
A modern Russian gas mask
NikolaiYegorovichZhukovsky.jpg Nikolai Zhukovsky
(1847–1921)
 Russian Empire
 Russian SFSR
an early wind tunnel, co-developer of the Tsar Tank[98][158]
A modern wind tunnel
Zworykin docgrab.jpg Vladimir Zvorykin
(1889–1982)
 Russian Empire
 United States
Iconoscope, kinescope
Zworykin's draft of a UV-microscope, similar to iconoscope
Zvyozdochkin.jpg Vasily Zvyozdochkin
(1876–1956)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
matryoshka doll (together with painter Sergey Malyutin)[159]
Matryoshka doll taken apart

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bruno Abdank-Abakanowicz (1886). Les intégraphes. Paris: Gauthier-Villars.  (French)
  2. ^ "Invention of the Aerowagon". What Poll?. Retrieved 2010-04-11. 
  3. ^ The Mechanical Advantage
  4. ^ Abalakov thread
  5. ^ Adamian in Great Soviet Encyclopedia[dead link] (Russian)
  6. ^ Alexandrov's biography (Russian)
  7. ^ Alexandrov's biography (Russian)
  8. ^ Bendazzi, Giannalberto (1995). Cartoons: One Hundred Years of Cinema Animation. Paris, France: Indiana University Press. ISBN 2-910027-75-9
  9. ^ Biography of Alexeev[dead link]
  10. ^ Alexeev's work on Ekranoplan
  11. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000 – Information for the Public
  12. ^ Alferov's biography at nobelprize.org
  13. ^ Altshuller's biography (Russian)
  14. ^ Vasily Andreyev article on the city site of Bezhetsk (Russian)
  15. ^ History of balalaika (Russian)
  16. ^ Antonov's biography (Russian)
  17. ^ Artsimovich's biography (Russian)
  18. ^ Babakin's Biography (Russian)
  19. ^ Baranoff-Rossiné biography
  20. ^ Barmin's biography (Russian)
  21. ^ Basov Nikolay Gennadiyevich
  22. ^ Ernest Beaux biography
  23. ^ БЕХТЕРЕВА МИКСТУРА (MixturaBechtereva) at medicinelib.ru (Russian)
  24. ^ Biography of Bernardos by A. A. Chekanov (Russian)
  25. ^ a b Bereznyak-Isayev BI (Russian)
  26. ^ Beriev's biography (Russian)
  27. ^ The inventor of tractor (Russian)
  28. ^ Our armor is strong and our tanks are fast and our people are full of courage (Russian)
  29. ^ History of the Just Born
  30. ^ "Helicopter Development in the Early Twentieth Century". centennialofflight.gov. Accessed 10 May 2010.
  31. ^ BBC Profile: The Google founders
  32. ^ Вестник Регистра морского судоходства России (Russian)
  33. ^ Russian Virtual Computer Museum – Hall of Fame – Nikolay Petrovich Brusentsov. Retrieved 2010-01-25.
  34. ^ Academician Gersh Itckovich Budker (Russian)
  35. ^ a b The brief history of particle accelerators (Russian)
  36. ^ Read, J. (1935), Text-Book of Organic Chemistry, London: G Bell & Sons.
  37. ^ The history of Chelomey's OKB (Russian)
  38. ^ Cherenkov's biography at Nobelprize.org
  39. ^ Vita Germetika: A Brief History of Creating and Development of Soviet-Russian space suits (Russian)
  40. ^ Chizhevsky Science Center
  41. ^ Guinness Book of Records
  42. ^ Degtyaryov's biography (Russian)
  43. ^ The office of the first Russian oligarch (Russian)
  44. ^ Virtual Museum: Yuri Nikolaevich Denisyuk (Russian)
  45. ^ Michael D. Gordin, J. Chem Education 83 (2006), 561–565 at the Wayback Machine (archived September 13, 2006)
  46. ^ Dolivo-Dobrovolsky in Great Soviet Encyvlopedia (Russian)
  47. ^ "Nikolay A. Dollezhal". Brief History. N.A. Dollezhal Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering. Retrieved 2008-05-11.  (Russian)
  48. ^ Mayakovskaya at the official site of the Moscow Metro
  49. ^ The Unknown Russian Monorail (Russian)
  50. ^ The House of Fabergé
  51. ^ Jean Boulet, Histoire de l'hélicoptère : racontée par ses pionniers, 1907–1956, Paris : Ed. France-Empire, 1982 (French)
  52. ^ Ivan Fyodorov's biography (Russian)
  53. ^ Ophthalmology for all (Russian)
  54. ^ C. Taylor The fighting rifle – A complete study of the rifle in combat, ISBN 0-87947-308-8
  55. ^ About Prince B. B. Galitzine by Alexey Krylov (Russian)
  56. ^ Investigation of the influence of the AlGaAs-GaAs heterostructure parameters on the laser threshold current and the realization of the continuous emission at the room temperature, Zh. I. Alferov, V.M. Andreev, D.Z. Garbuzov, and others, Sov. Phys. Semiconductors 4
  57. ^ Gause, GF. 1960. The search for new antibiotics. New Haven: Yale University Press. 97pp.
  58. ^ A Brief History of Diving (Russian)
  59. ^ History of diving in Russia (Russian)
  60. ^ a b It’s a thinner winner bbc.co.uk 19 October 2006
  61. ^ Genko's Forest Belt at the site dedicated to protected areas of Ulyanovsk Oblast (Russian)
  62. ^ "Valentin Glushko biography". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  63. ^ Gobyato's biography (Russian)
  64. ^ Gorynin's biography on the web page of Prometey (Russian)
  65. ^ Igor Gorynin's article on Personalities of Saint Petersburg (Russian)
  66. ^ Early Television Foundation
  67. ^ Grabovsky Boris Pavlovich and his "Telephote". Myths and reality by Yury Rubchenko (Russian)
  68. ^ a b Migavia.ru – official site of MiG "OKB" successor enterprise
  69. ^ History of Haffkine Institute
  70. ^ Haffkine's biography (Russian)
  71. ^ A Genius of Osteogenesis (Russian)
  72. ^ Lee Beadling «Ilizarov discovered the miracle of distraction osteogenesis»
  73. ^ Leif Paringl Kristiansen «Reconstructive surgery of the human tibia by use of external ring fixator and the Ilizarov method» (with permission of Svetlana Ilizarov)
  74. ^ Ilyushin's biography at The Heroes of the Country site (Russian)
  75. ^ Pokhlebkin V. V. / Похлёбкин В. В. (2007). The history of vodka / История водки. Moscow: Tsentrpoligraph / Центрполиграф. p. 272. ISBN 5-9524-1895-3. 
  76. ^ Jacobi's biography (Russian)
  77. ^ Poyer, Joe. The AK-47 and AK-74 Kalashnikov Rifles and Their Variations. North Cape Publications. 2004.
  78. ^ Kuznetsov, G.I.OKB Kamov. 50 years
  79. ^ Kapitsa's biography at nobelprize.org
  80. ^ Karpechenko, G.D., Polyploid hybrids of Raphanus sativus X Brassica oleracea L., Bull. Appl. Bot. 17:305–408 (1927)
  81. ^ Biotechnomogy timeline at bio.org
  82. ^ Kaspersky Lab
  83. ^ "Kaspersky Anti-Virus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. 20 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-29. 
  84. ^ Citroën-Kegresse halftracks in the Polish Army
  85. ^ Creation of Sambo – by Michail Lukashev, first published in Physical Culture and Sport magazine N9-10/91.(Russian)
  86. ^ Khrenov's biography (Russian)
  87. ^ Biography
  88. ^ School Encyclopedia Russica (Russian)
  89. ^ George Parada (n.d.), "Panzerkampfwagen T-34(r)" at Achtung Panzer! website, retrieved on 17 November 2008.
  90. ^ Ognjeslav Kostović – čovek koji je živeo u budućnosti[dead link] (Serbian)
  91. ^ Manojlo srpski Ikar (Serbian)
  92. ^ Parachuting – who invented the first parachute (Russian)
  93. ^ Russian parachute of Kotelnikov (Russian)
  94. ^ Samokatka of Kulibin (Russian)
  95. ^ a b Коляски Шамшуренкова и самокатка Кулибина / The carriages of Shamshurenkov and samokatka of Kulibin (Russian)
  96. ^ Automobile Invention
  97. ^ Rzhosnitsky B. N. Dmitry Aleksandrovich Lachinov. Moscow-Leningrad: Gosenergoizdat, 1955 / Ржонсницкий Б. Н. Дмитрий Александрович Лачинов. — М.—Л.: Госэнергоиздат, 1955 (Russian)
  98. ^ a b c d Lebedenko (or Tsar) Tank
  99. ^ Самовары Лисицыных / Samovars of Lisitsyns at the site of Sloboda, a Tula-based newspaper (Russian)
  100. ^ Early helicopter technology
  101. ^ Heywood, Anthony, Modernising Lenin's Russia: Economic Reconstruction, Foreign Trade, and the Railways, 1917–1924, p. 209. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-521-62178-X
  102. ^ Loran and the fire extinguisher at p-lab.org (Russian)
  103. ^ Lozino-Lozinskiy's biography at RussianSpaceWeb.com
  104. ^ Lozino-Lozinskiy's biography at Encyclopedia Astronautica
  105. ^ Lyulka's biography (Russian)
  106. ^ Hu Q, Noll RJ, Li H, Makarov A, Hardman M, Graham Cooks R (2005). "The Orbitrap: a new mass spectrometer". Journal of mass spectrometry : JMS 40 (4): 430–443. doi:10.1002/jms.856. PMID 15838939. 
  107. ^ Malyutin's biography (Russian)
  108. ^ Mamyrin, B. A.; Karataev, V. I.; Shmikk, D. V.; Zagulin, V. A. The mass-reflectron, a new nonmagnetic time-of-flight mass spectrometer with high resolution Sov. Phys. JETP, 1973, 37, 45
  109. ^ The short history of naval science (Russian)
  110. ^ Mikulin's biography at The Heroes of the Country (Russian)
  111. ^ Morozov's biography at the Heroes of the country (Russian)
  112. ^ Halberstadt, Hans Inside the Great Tanks The Crowood Press Ltd. Wiltshire, England 1997 94–96 ISBN 1-86126-270-1
    "The T-54/T-55 series is the hands down, all time most popular tank in history."
  113. ^ Slobodskoy, Archpriest Seraphim (1996), "Bells and Russian Orthodox Peals", The Law of God, Jordanville, N.Y.: Holy Trinity Monastery, p. 624, ISBN 0-88465-044-8 
  114. ^ The history of welding (Russian)
  115. ^ Nadiradze's biography (Russian)
  116. ^ Nartov Andrey Konstantinovich (Russian)
  117. ^ Nartov's biography at hronos.km.ru (Russian)
  118. ^ Nartov's biography (Russian)
  119. ^ Sergei Pavlovich Nepobedimiy at astronautix.com
  120. ^ Tolf, Robert W. (1976). "4: The World's First Oil Tankers". The Russian Rockefellers: The Saga of the Nobel Family and the Russian Oil Industry. Hoover Press. ISBN 0-8179-6581-5. 
  121. ^ Sample, Ian (5 October 2010). "Nobel prize for physics goes to Manchester University scientists". The Guardian (London). 
  122. ^ 4 maart 2009. "Tetris 1985 History of Games part 07". YouTube. Retrieved 2009-11-20. 
  123. ^ Pavlov and, I. P. (1927/1960). Conditional Reflexes. New York: Dover Publications (the 1960 edition is an unaltered republication of the 1927 translation by Oxford University Press http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Pavlov/).
  124. ^ Petrov Vasily Vladimirovich at weldworld.ru (Russian)
  125. ^ Kirza (Russian)
  126. ^ Chief designer of the T-80 tank dies (Russian)
  127. ^ The Vezdekhod – a legend of the Soviet military history
  128. ^ "Леонид Константинович Рамзин Leonid Konstantinovich Ramzin". Leonid. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  129. ^ The history of Russian ruble and kopeck at the law-theory.ru (Russian)
  130. ^ Oldest International Yacht Clubs
  131. ^ Monarchs can be good at anything (Russian)
  132. ^ Lin, Patricia. Ida Kaganovich Rosenthal
  133. ^ Maidenform Inc., company website, company history section. Retrieved June 2004 from http://www.maidenform.com/custserv/custserv.jsp?sectionId=33
  134. ^ "Maidenform, Inc. – Company History". Fundinguniverse.com. Retrieved 2010-09-29. 
  135. ^ "History of the Cathode Ray Tube". About.com. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  136. ^ The beginnings of a blue screen (Russian)
  137. ^ Interview with Roshal (Russian)
  138. ^ A History of Mechanical Fan (Russian)
  139. ^ Family Sangalli / San Galli
  140. ^ The hot boxes of San Galli (Russian)
  141. ^ Virtual Museum of Information technology (Russian)
  142. ^ Severin, Guy Ilich at the Russian Academy of Sciences website (Russian)
  143. ^ Leonty Luk'yanovich Shamshurenkov (Russian)
  144. ^ The Schilovski Gyrocar
  145. ^ Vladimir Grigorievich Shukhov's biography at Shukhov Tower Foundation site.
  146. ^ SPP-1 (Russian)
  147. ^ Modern weapons of underwater fighters (Russian)
  148. ^ Slavyanov's biography (Russian)
  149. ^ The Day of Granenyi Stakan at hronograf.narod.ru (Russian)
  150. ^ An illustrated biography of Starevich (Spanish)
  151. ^ Entomology and Animation: A Portrait of an Early Master Ladislaw Starewicz (May 2000 6-page article from Animation World Magazine)
  152. ^ Stechkin's biography at The Heroes of the Country (Russian)
  153. ^ Utkin's biography at the Heroes of the Country site (Russian)
  154. ^ Who and when invented synchrophasotron? (Russian)
  155. ^ Russian Fortresses, 1480–1682, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-84176-916-9
  156. ^ Shamov V.N. The transfusion of stored cadaver blood Lancet 1937; 2, August 7:306–309
  157. ^ Gareth R. Eaton et al. (1998). Foundations of modern EPR. World Scientific. pp. 45–46. ISBN 981-02-3295-0. Retrieved 2010-09-30. 
  158. ^ Zhukovsky's biography (Russian)
  159. ^ Vasily Zvyozdochkin – the farther of Russian Matryoshka (Russian)