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A Soviet Republic, a republic ruled by soviets (workers' councils), may refer to one of the following:
- Bolshevik Russia and the Russian SFSR after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and during the Russian Civil War;
- The Soviet Union as a whole;
- Any of the Republics of the Soviet Union;
- Any of several short-lived communist revolutionary governments that were established after the Russian Revolution under its influence:
- Arbeiter- und Soldatenräte (Workers' and Soldiers' Councils) established throughout Germany, beginning in Kiel, during the German Revolution of November 1918, including Bremen, Braunschweig, Würzburg, Munich (Bavarian Soviet Republic (1918–1919)) and Alsace (Alsace Soviet Republic (8–22 November 1918)).
- Bukharan People's Soviet Republic (October 1920–September 1924), established by Bolshevik communists on the territory of the Emirate of Bukhara.
- Bukharan Soviet Socialist Republic (September 1924–February 1925), short-lived successor of the Bukharan People's Soviet Republic, predecessor of Uzbek SSR.
- Chinese Soviet Republic, also known as the "Jiangxi Soviet" (1931–1934): led by Mao Zedong's faction of the Communist Party of China.
- Commune of the Working People of Estonia (November 1918–February 1919).
- Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic (January–April 1918) in the south of Finland only: Social Democratic Party of Finland.
- Galician Soviet Socialist Republic (9 July–21 September 1920), created in Soviet-occupied territory during the Polish–Soviet War.
- Hunan Soviet (ca. 1927): Communist Party of China.
- Hungarian Soviet Republic (1919): Hungarian Communist Party.
- Limerick Soviet (15–27 April 1919) established by Limerick trade union council during a general strike against British military rule.
- Lithuanian–Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (February–August 1919).
- Persian Socialist Soviet Republic also known as the Soviet Republic of Gilan (June 1920–September 1921).
- Republic of Užice (1941), a Partisan-governed military state during World War II.
- Slovak Soviet Republic (16 June–7 July 1919), directly supported by the Hungarian one.
- Soviet Republic of Naissaar, on an island in the Baltic Sea (1917–1918).
- The system of government implemented in the Soviet Union and other soviet republics.
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