Soyuz-TM

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Not to be confused with Soyuz 7K-TM.
Soyuz-TM
Soyuz acoplada MIR.jpg
Soyuz-TM spacecraft. Compare the antennae on the orbital module to those on Soyuz-T. Differences reflect the change from the Igla rendezvous system used on Soyuz-T to the Kurs rendezvous system used on Soyuz-TM.
Manufacturer Korolev
Country of origin  Soviet Union
 Russia
Operator Soviet space program/Russian Federal Space Agency
Applications Carry three cosmonauts to Mir and ISS and back
Specifications
Design life Up to six months docked to station
Orbit regimes Low Earth orbit
Production
Status Out of service
Launched 34
First launch Soyuz TM-1, 1986
Last launch Soyuz TM-34, 2002
Related spacecraft
Derived from Soyuz-T
Derivatives Soyuz-TMA

The Soyuz-TM crew transports (T - транспортный - Transportnyi - meaning transport, M - модифицированный - Modifitsirovannyi - meaning modified) were fourth generation (1986–2002) Soyuz spacecraft used for ferry flights to the Mir and ISS space stations. It added to the Soyuz-T new docking and rendezvous, radio communications, emergency and integrated parachute/landing engine systems. The new Kurs rendezvous and docking system permitted the Soyuz-TM to maneuver independently of the station, without the station making "mirror image" maneuvers to match unwanted translations introduced by earlier models' aft-mounted attitude control.

The final Soyuz-TM flight was Soyuz TM-34, which launched April 25, 2002 and landed November 10, 2002.[1]

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