Soyuz-TM

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Soyuz-TM
Soyuz acoplada MIR.jpg
Soyuz-TM spacecraft. Compare the antennae on the orbital module to those on Soyuz-T. Differences reflect the change from the Igla rendezvous system used on Soyuz-T to the Kurs rendezvous system used on Soyuz-TM.
General information
Manufacturer Korolev
Country of origin  Soviet Union
 Russia
Applications Carry three cosmonauts to Mir and ISS and back
Orbit regimes Low Earth orbit
Operator Soviet space program/Russian Federal Space Agency
Lifetime Up to six months docked to station
Derived from Soyuz-T
Derivatives Soyuz-TMA
Production
Status Out of service
Launched 34
First launch Soyuz TM-1, 1986
Last launch Soyuz TM-34, 2002

The Soyuz-TM crew transports (T - транспортный - Transportnyi - meaning transport, M - модифицированный - Modifitsirovannyi - meaning modified) were fourth generation (1986–2002) Soyuz spacecraft used for ferry flights to the Mir and ISS space stations. It added to the Soyuz-T new docking and rendezvous, radio communications, emergency and integrated parachute/landing engine systems. The new Kurs rendezvous and docking system permitted the Soyuz-TM to maneuver independently of the station, without the station making "mirror image" maneuvers to match unwanted translations introduced by earlier models' aft-mounted attitude control.

The final Soyuz-TM flight was Soyuz TM-34, which launched April 25, 2002 and landed November 10, 2002.[1]

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