Soyuz-TM spacecraft. Compare the antennae on the orbital module to those on Soyuz-T. Differences reflect the change from the Igla rendezvous system used on Soyuz-T to the Kurs rendezvous system used on Soyuz-TM.
|Country of origin|| Soviet Union
|Operator||Soviet space program/Russian Federal Space Agency|
|Applications||Carry three cosmonauts to Mir and ISS and back|
|Design life||Up to six months docked to station|
|Orbit regimes||Low Earth orbit|
|Status||Out of service|
|First launch||Soyuz TM-1, 1986|
|Last launch||Soyuz TM-34, 2002|
The Soyuz-TM crew transports (T - транспортный - Transportnyi - meaning transport, M - модифицированный - Modifitsirovannyi - meaning modified) were fourth generation (1986–2002) Soyuz spacecraft used for ferry flights to the Mir and ISS space stations. It added to the Soyuz-T new docking and rendezvous, radio communications, emergency and integrated parachute/landing engine systems. The new Kurs rendezvous and docking system permitted the Soyuz-TM to maneuver independently of the station, without the station making "mirror image" maneuvers to match unwanted translations introduced by earlier models' aft-mounted attitude control.
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- "Soyuz ISS Missions". NASA.