Salyut 1 (left) and Soyuz 10 during a docking attempt.
|Operator||Soviet space program|
|Mission duration||1 day, 23 hours, 45 minutes, 54 seconds|
|Spacecraft type||Soyuz 7K-OKS|
|Manufacturer||Experimental Design Bureau OKB-1|
|Launch mass||6,800 kilograms (15,000 lb)|
|Callsign||Гранит (Granit - "Granite")|
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||22 April 1971, 23:54:06UTC|
|Launch site||Baikonur 1/5|
|End of mission|
|Landing date||24 April 1971, 23:40:00UTC|
|Landing site||120 kilometres (75 mi) NW of Karaganda|
|Perigee||209 kilometres (130 mi)|
|Apogee||258 kilometres (160 mi)|
|Epoch||23 April 1971|
Soyuz 10 (Russian: Союз 10, Union 10) was launched on 22 April 1971 as the world's first mission to the world's first space station, the Soviet Salyut 1. The docking was not successful and the crew returned to Earth without having entered the station. It would be the first of numerous docking failures in the Soviet space station program.
Soyuz 10 was launched on 22 April 1971 to dock with Salyut 1. The spacecraft was the first of the upgraded Soyuz 7K-OKS, featuring the new "probe and drogue" docking mechanism with internal crew transfer capability, intended for space station visits.
The cosmonauts Vladimir Shatalov, Aleksei Yeliseyev, and Nikolai Rukavishnikov were able to navigate their Soyuz 10 spacecraft to the Salyut 1 station, yet during docking they ran into problems. The automatic control system failed during approach due to a serious design oversight - when soft dock was performed, the control system sensed an abnormality in the spacecraft's alignment and began firing the attitude control jets to compensate. With Soyuz 10 being pushed to one side by the attitude control system, it became impossible to achieve hard dock and large quantities of propellant were expended doing so. The crew could jettison the docking probe and leave it stuck in Salyut 1's port, but this would make it impossible for future Soyuz missions to dock and thus the space station would have to be abandoned. Eventually ground controllers figured out that the cosmonauts could release the probe by throwing a circuit breaker in the docking mechanism. This procedure worked and undocking was completed. The automatic control system would be redesigned on future Soyuz spacecraft.
The mission was aborted, yet the technical problems did not cease and the Soyuz spacecraft had difficulties detaching from the Salyut 1 space station. After finally undocking, one last hitch presented itself when toxic fumes began to fill the capsule during re-entry, causing Rukavishnikov to pass out – all three crew members were recovered unscathed however. It presaged an ill omen for the next mission.
|Flight Engineer||Aleksei Yeliseyev
|Test Engineer||Nikolai Rukavishnikov
|Flight Engineer||Valeri Kubasov|
|Test Engineer||Pyotr Kolodin|
|Flight Engineer||Vladislav Volkov|
|Test Engineer||Viktor Patsayev|
- Soyuz T-13, a mission to manually dock to the crippled Salyut 7 space station.
- Soyuz T-15, a mission to ferry equipment from Salyut 7 to Mir, which had to manually maneuver and dock to Mir.
- McDowell, Jonathan. "SATCAT". Jonathan's Space Pages. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
- Mir Hardware Heritage - 1.7.3 (wikisource)
- "Baikonur LC1". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2009-03-04.
- The mission report is available here: http://www.spacefacts.de/mission/english/soyuz-10.htm