|Mission name||Soyuz TMA-1|
|Launch pad||Gagarin's Start|
|Launch date||October 30, 2002
|Landing||May 4, 2003
49.39° N; 61.2° E
|Mission duration||185 days 22 hours 53 minutes 14 seconds|
|Number of orbits||~3,020|
|Orbital period||88.7 minutes|
|From left to right: Yuri Lonchakov, Sergei Zalyotin and Frank de Winne|
Soyuz TMA-1a. was a Soyuz mission to the International Space Station (ISS) launched by a Soyuz FG launch vehicle with a Russian-Belgian cosmonaut crew blasted off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. This was the fifth Russian Soyuz class shuttle to fly to the International Space Station. It is also the first flight of the TMA-class Soyuz spacecraft. Soyuz TM-34 was the last of the prior Soyuz-TM spacecraft to be launched.
The Soyuz is a three-seat spacecraft is to transport astronauts to the ISS and then there will always be one attached to the ISS for a rescue vehicle for the crew of the outpost. The onboard resources and properties of propellant loaded in the reentry capsule of the Soyuz limit safe operation of the craft in space to six months; thus, Russia committed to fly a new or refurbished Soyuz to the ISS every six months to replace the previous one. These missions to replace the Soyuz at the ISS became known as "taxi" flights.
|Position||Launching crew||Landing crew|
|Commander||Sergei Zalyotin, RKA
|Nikolai Budarin, RKA
|Flight Engineer||Frank De Winne, ESA
|Kenneth Bowersox, NASA
|Flight Engineer||Yury Lonchakov, RKA
|Donald Pettit, NASA
Mission parameters 
- Mass: 7,220 kg (15,910 lb), gross
- Perigee: 193 km
- Apogee: 235 km
- Inclination: 51.6°
- Period: 88.7 minutes
Docking with ISS 
- Docked to ISS: November 1, 2002, 05:01 UTC (to Pirs module)
- Undocked from ISS: May 3, 2003, 22:43 UTC (from Pirs module)
- Section ref: Astro
- Gross mass: 7,220 kg (15,910 lb).
- Unfuelled mass: 6,320 kg (13,930 lb).
- Height: 6.98 m (22.90 ft).
- Diameter: 2.20 m (7.20 ft).
- Span: 10.70 m (35.10 ft).
- Thrust: 3.92 kN (881 lbf).
- Specific impulse: 305 s.
Mission highlights 
In the spring of 2001, a taxi mission to the space station was being scheduled to take place on October 2002. At first the crew was to be Commander Sergei Zalyotin and Flight Engineer Frank De Winne; however, a report released on February 2002 stated that American musician Lance Bass was interested in joining the crew for a one-week mission on board the Russian spacecraft. The mission began to fall through, and by September 2002 they had discontinued the training of Lance Bass due to the mission organizers' failure to meet the terms of the contract. They filled the vacant seat left by Lance Bass with Russian cosmonaut Yuri Lonchakov.
While the Soyuz TMA-1 was on orbit, the Feb 2003 Columbia shuttle accident occurred and required a change in crew changeout process. The Soyuz system would become the sole method for crew to launch to and return from ISS, until the space shuttle was returned to service in July 2005.
Soyuz TMA-1 disembarked from ISS on May 4, 2003 and immediately began its return to Earth, marking the first entry and descent for this Soyuz class. A technical malfunction caused the Soyuz control system to abandon the gentler controlled entry and descent and instead fall back to the harsher ballistic reentry and descent. This resulted in a steep and off target landing of the spacecraft. The craft landed 300 miles short of the planned area, and the crew was subjected to severe gravitational loads. Communication with the Soyuz was lost because one antenna was ripped off during descent, and two more did not deploy. The crew regained communications through an emergency transmitter after landing. Due to this event, future crews would be provided with a satellite phone to establish contact with recovery forces.
a.T – транспортный – Transportnyi – meaning transport, M – модифицированный – Modifitsirovannyi – meaning modified, A – антропометрический, – Antropometricheskii meaning anthropometric).