Soyuz (rocket)

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This article is about the original Soyuz. For later derivatives, see Soyuz (rocket family).
Soyuz 11A511
Soyuz rocket rolled out to the launch pad.jpg
A Soyuz rocket being rolled out to the launch pad at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.
Function Carrier rocket
Manufacturer OKB-1
Country of origin USSR
Size
Height 45.6 metres (150 ft)
Diameter 10.3 metres (34 ft)
Mass 308,000 kilograms (679,000 lb)
Stages 2
Capacity
Payload to
LEO
6,450 kilograms (14,220 lb)
Associated rockets
Family R-7
Derivatives Soyuz-U
Soyuz-U2
Soyuz-FG
Soyuz-2
Launch history
Status Retired
Launch sites Baikonur Sites 1/5 & 31/6
Total launches 30
Successes 28
Failures 2
First flight 28 November 1966
Last flight 24 May 1975
Notable payloads Soyuz
Boosters (Stage 0) - Block A/B/V/G
No boosters 4
Engines 1 RD-107
Thrust 994.3 kilonewtons (223,500 lbf)
Specific impulse 315 sec
Burn time 118 seconds
Fuel RP-1/LOX
First Stage - 11S59
Engines 1 RD-108
Thrust 977.7 kilonewtons (219,800 lbf)
Specific impulse 315 sec
Burn time 292 seconds
Fuel RP-1/LOX
Second Stage - 11S510
Engines 1 RD-0110
Thrust 294 kilonewtons (66,000 lbf)
Specific impulse 330 sec
Burn time 246 seconds
Fuel RP-1/LOX

The Soyuz (Russian: Союз, meaning "union", GRAU index 11A511) was a 1960s Soviet expendable carrier rocket designed by OKB-1 and manufactured by State Aviation Plant No. 1 in Kuybyshev, Soviet Union. It was used to launch Soyuz spacecraft as part of the Soyuz programme, initially on unmanned test flights, followed by the first 19 manned launches of the programme.[1]

The 11A511 first flew in 1966, and was derived from the Voskhod 11A57 rocket, but introduced a new, uprated core stage and strap-ons, which became standard for all R-7 derived launch vehicles to replace the numerous older variants in use on the 8A92, 11A57, and 8K78M.[2] it was a member of the R-7 family of rockets. It was a two-stage rocket, with four liquid-fuelled strap-on boosters clustered around the first stage, with a Block I second stage.[citation needed]

The aborted Soyuz 18-1 launch in 1975 was the final manned flight of the 11A511 and as it occurred shortly before the ASTP mission, the United States requested that the Soviets provide details about this failure. They stated that Soyuz 19 would be using a newer model of booster (i.e. the 11A511U) and Soyuz 18-1's malfunction had no bearing on it.

Soyuz rockets are assembled horizontally in the MIK Building at the launch site. The rocket is then rolled out, and erected on the launch pad.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wade, Mark. "Soyuz". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2009-04-16. 
  2. ^ ""Soyuz" - series launch vehicles". Samara Space Centre.