Space Shuttle retirement

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Shuttle Atlantis begins the last mission of the Space Shuttle program
Space Shuttle Atlantis touches down for the final time, July 21, 2011, at the end of STS-135
Atlantis welcome home ceremony after last mission

The retirement of NASA's Space Shuttle fleet took place from March to July 2011. Discovery was the first of the three active space shuttles to be retired, completing its final mission on March 9, 2011; Space Shuttle Endeavour did so on June 1. The final shuttle mission was completed with the landing of Atlantis on July 21, 2011, bringing about the end of the 30-year Space Shuttle program.

The Shuttle was originally conceived of and presented to the public in 1972 as a 'Space Truck' which would, among other things, be used to build a United States space station in low earth orbit in the early-1990s and then be replaced by a new vehicle. When the concept of the U.S. space station evolved into that of the International Space Station, which suffered from long delays and design changes before it could be completed, the service life of the Space Shuttle was extended several times until 2011 when it was finally retired.[citation needed]

In 2010 the Shuttle was formally scheduled for retirement with Atlantis being taken out of service first after STS-132 in May of that year, but the program was once again extended when the two final planned missions were delayed until 2011.[1] Later, one additional mission was added for Atlantis for July 2011, extending the program further. Counter-proposals to the shuttle's retirement were considered by Congress[2] and the prime contractor United Space Alliance as late as spring 2010.[3]

Hardware developed for the Space Shuttle met various ends with conclusion of the program, including donation, disuse and/or disposal, or reuse. An example of reuse, is that one of the three Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) was converted to a permanent module for the International Space Station.[4]

Fate of surviving STS program hardware[edit]

Empty status board in the Vehicle Assembly Building

Orbiters[edit]

On April 12, 2011, NASA announced a selection of locations for the remaining Shuttle orbiters:[5][6][7]

Shuttle
Name
Shuttle
Designation
Retirement Destination
Enterprise 1977 Approach and Landing Test mission patch.png Enterprise* OV-101 Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum,
New York City, New York
Space Shuttle Discovery Tribute.jpg Discovery OV-103 Udvar-Hazy Center,
Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum,
Chantilly, Virginia
Space Shuttle Atlantis Tribute2.jpg Atlantis OV-104 Kennedy Space Center,
Merritt Island, Florida
Space Shuttle Endeavour Tribute.jpg Endeavour OV-105 California Science Center,
Los Angeles, California.

* Prior to move to New York, Enterprise was displayed at the Udvar-Hazy Center, Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum, Chantilly, Virginia, where Discovery has taken its place.

Space Shuttle Atlantis towed back to the Orbiter Processing Facility for the last time at the end of the Shuttle program

Museums and facilities not selected to receive an orbiter were disappointed. Elected officials representing Houston, Texas, location of the Johnson Space Center; and Dayton, Ohio, location of National Museum of the United States Air Force called for Congressional investigations into the selection process, though no such action has been taken to date.[8] Local and Congressional politicians in Texas questioned if partisan politics played any role in the selection.[9] Chicago media questioned the decision not to include the Adler Planetarium in the list of facilities receiving orbiters, pointing to Chicago's 3rd-largest population in the United States. The chair of the NASA committee that made the selections pointed to the guidance from Congress that the orbiters go to facilities where the most people could see them, and the ties to the space program that Southern California (home to Edwards Air Force Base, where nearly half of shuttle flights have ended and home to the plants which manufactured the orbiters and the Space Shuttle Main Engines), the Smithsonian (curator of the nation's air and space artifacts), the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex (where all shuttle launches have originated from and a large tourist draw) and the Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum (which served as the recovery ship for Project Mercury and Project Gemini) possess.[10]

The NASA Inspector General released a report on an audit of the selection process for the orbit display locations in August 2011. The report highlighted issues which led to the final decision. The Museum of Flight in Seattle, Washington, March Field Air Museum, Riverside, California, Evergreen Aviation and Space Museum, McMinnville, Oregon, National Museum of the U.S. Air Force, Dayton, Ohio, San Diego Air and Space Museum, San Diego, Space Center Houston, Houston, Texas, Tulsa Air and Space Museum & Planetarium, Tulsa, Oklahoma and U.S. Space and Rocket Center, Huntsville, Alabama scored poorly on international access. Additionally Brazos Valley Museum of Natural History and the Bush Library at Texas A&M, in College Station, Texas scored very poorly on museum attendance, regional population and was the only facility found to pose a significant risk in transporting an orbiter there. Overall, the California Science Center scored first and Brazos Valley Museum of Natural History scored last. The 2 most controversial locations which were not awarded an orbiter, Space Center Houston and National Museum of the U.S. Air Force finished 2nd to last and near the middle of the list respectively. The report noted a scoring error, which if corrected would have placed the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force in a tie with the Intrepid Museum and Kennedy Visitor Complex (just below the California Science Center), although due to funding concerns the same decisions would have been made.[11]

The Museum of Flight in Seattle, Washington was not selected to receive a real orbiter but instead will receive the 3 story full-body trainer from the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX. Museum officials, though disappointed that they wouldn't receive a space flown orbiter, pointed to plans to allow the public to go inside the trainer, something not possible with a real orbiter.[12]

Space Shuttle Discovery on display at the Udvar-Hazy Center for restorations

Payload hardware[edit]

  • Spacelab Pallet Elvis – handed over to the Swiss Museum of Transport, Switzerland, in March 2010.[13]
  • One of the two Spacelabs—on display at Bremen Airport, Germany.[13]
  • Another Spacelab is on display at the Udvar-Hazy center behind Discovery
  • MPLM Leonardo: converted to the ISS Permanent Multipurpose Module.[4]
  • MPLM Rafaello: removed from the bay of Atlantis, fate unknown
  • MPLM Donatello: the unused MPLM, some parts were cannibalized for Leonardo, the fate of the rest of it is unknown
  • Various space pallets used since STS-1: the fates of these objects range from space center storage to scrap to museum pieces

Tiles[edit]

NASA ran a program to donate thermal protection system tiles to schools and universities for $23.40 USD each (the fee for S&H).[14] About 7000 tiles are available on a first-come, first-served basis, but limited to one each per institution.[14] For comparison, each orbiter uses over 24 thousand tiles.[15]

SSME[edit]

A total of about 42 reusable SSMEs (Pratt & Whitney RS-25/26) have been part of the STS program, with three used per orbiter per mission.[16] The decision was made to retain all engines with plans to make use of them in future launch vehicles[17]

SSME nozzles[edit]

Worn out engine nozzles are typically considered scrap, although nine nozzles may be refurbished for display on the donated orbiters, so the actual engines can be retained by NASA.[18]

Canadarm (SRMS) & OBSS[edit]

Three Shuttle arms were used by NASA; the arms of both Discovery and Atlantis will be left in place for their museum display.[19] Endeavour's arm is to be removed from the orbiter for separate display in Canada.[19] The OBSS extension of Endeavour's arm was left on the International Space Station, for use with the station's robotic arm.[19]

Information technology[edit]

In December 2010, as NASA prepared for the STS program ending, an audit by the NASA Office of Inspector General (OIG) found that information technology had been sold or prepared for sale that still contained sensitive information.[20] NASA OIG recommended NASA be more careful in the future.[20]

Other shuttle hardware[edit]

Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39 A+B[edit]

The twin pads originally built for the Apollo program are now inactive. LC-39B was deactivated first on January 1, 2007. Three lightning towers were added to the pad and it was temporarily "re-activated" in April 2009 when Endeavour was placed on standby to rescue the STS-125 crew (the STS-125 mission was the last to visit the Hubble Space Telescope, which meant that the ISS was out of range) if needed; Endeavour was then moved over to LC-39A for STS-126. In October 2009 the prototype Ares I-X rocket was launched from 39B. The pad was then permanently deactivated and is now being dismantled and modified for the Space Launch System program, and possibly other launch vehicles. Like the Apollo structures before them, the shuttle structures were scrapped. 39A was deactivated in July 2011 after STS-135 was launched. It remains as it did on July 8, 2011 complete with a mobile launcher platform. On January 16, 2013, it was erroneously reported[who?] that NASA planned to abandon the pad, but the actual plan is to, like pad B, convert it for other rockets without dismantling it.[citation needed] If NASA did plan to permanently decommission the pads, they would have to restore them to their original Apollo-era appearance as both pads are on the National Historic Register.[citation needed]

Vehicle Assembly Building[edit]

After STS-135, the VAB was used as a storage shed for the decommissioned shuttles before they were sent to museums. High Bay 3 is now being gutted of all equipment and given upgraded platforms, to support the Space Launch System and potentially the SpaceX Falcon Heavy as well as other vehicles. After the shuttle was decommissioned, NASA opened the VAB for public tours, which ended on February 11, 2014 as NASA prepares the VAB for future launch vehicles.[21]

Mobile Launcher Platforms[edit]

The twin launch platforms are currently being modified for the Space Launch System with a large tower resembling those used in the Apollo program. Work is expected to be complete by 2016.[citation needed]

Crawler-Transporter[edit]

The Crawler-Transporters were used as the mobile part of the pad with the shuttles; the two vehicles were deactivated and are being upgraded for the SLS program. The crawlerways used for transporting launch vehicles from the VAB to the twin pads of KSC are also being extensively renovated for the SLS program.[22]

Mate-Demate Devices[edit]

Used to mate the shuttle on the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, the Mate-Demate Devices were dismantled and scrapped.[citation needed]

Shuttle Carrier Aircraft[edit]

Two modified Boeing 747s were used to fly the shuttles back to KSC when they landed at Edwards AFB. N911NA was retired on February 8, 2012 and is now a parts hulk for the "SOFIA" 747. The other aircraft, N905NA was used to send Discovery, Endeavour and Enterprise to their museums and in September 2012 was found to have few parts for Sofia. It is currently a museum piece at the Johnson Space Center.

NASA recovery ships[edit]

Used to retrieve the SRBs, MV Liberty Star and Freedom Star are now separated. Liberty Star was renamed as TV Kings Pointer and was transferred to the Merchant Marine Academy in New York for use as a training vessel. It will remain on call in case NASA needs it for further missions. Freedom Star was transferred to the James River Reserve Fleet on September 28, 2012 and placed under ownership of the Department of Transportation.

Orbiter Processing Facility[edit]

The buildings used to process the shuttles after each mission were decommissioned. OPF-1 was leased to Boeing in January 2014 for processing the X-37B spaceplane[23] while OPF-3 is also used by Boeing for the manufacture and testing of the CST-100 spacecraft.[24] OPF-2 currently remains inactive.

Shuttle Landing Facility[edit]

The runway at KSC is currently used as a normal runway for the center and neighboring Cape Canaveral's daily operations.[citation needed] It may be used to land the X-37B and Sierra Nevada Dream Chaser spaceplanes.[citation needed]

Former planned Space Shuttle successors[edit]

Atlantis about 30 minutes after final touchdown

In the 1980s and 1990s, one of the planned successors to STS was called "Shuttle II". At one point before retirement, extension of the Space Shuttle program for an additional five years while a replacement can be developed, was considered by the U.S. government.[2]

For comparison to an earlier retirement, when the Saturn IB was last flown in 1975 for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, the Shuttle development program was already well underway. However, the Shuttle did not fly until 1981, which left a six-year gap in U.S. manned spaceflight. Because of this and other reasons, the U.S. space station Skylab burned up in the atmosphere.[25]

Constellation Program[edit]

Following the destruction of Space Shuttle Columbia, in early 2004 then President George W. Bush, announced his Vision for Space Exploration which called for the completion of the American portion of the International Space Station by 2010 (due to delays this would not happen until 2011), the retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet following its completion, to return to the moon by 2020 and one day to Mars.[26] A new vehicle would need be developed, it eventually was named the Orion spacecraft, a six person variant would have serviced the ISS and a four person variant would have traveled to the Moon. The Ares I would have launched Orion, and the Ares V heavy-lift vehicle (HLV) would have launched all other hardware. The Altair lunar lander would have landed crew and cargo onto the moon. The Constellation program experienced many cost overruns and schedule delay, and was openly disliked by President Barack Obama.[27][28]

In February 2010, Obama's administration proposed eliminating public funds for the Constellation program and shifting greater responsibility of servicing the ISS to private companies.[29] During speech at the Kennedy Space Center on April 15, 2010, Obama proposed the design selection of the new HLV that would replace the Ares-V would not occur until 2015.[30] The U.S. Congress drafted the NASA Authorization Act of 2010 and President Obama signed it into law on October 11 of that year.[31] The authorization act officially canceled the Constellation program.[31]

Current and future Space Shuttle successors[edit]

Beyond low Earth orbit[edit]

Artist's rendering of the SLS launching Orion
Orion plan circa 2013

The NASA Authorization Act of 2010 required a new heavy lift vehicle design to be chosen within 90 days of its passing.[32] The authorization act called this new HLV the Space Launch System (SLS). The Orion spacecraft was left virtually unchanged from its previous design. The Space Launch System will launch both Orion and other necessary hardware.[33] The SLS is to be upgraded over time with more powerful versions. The initial capability of SLS is required to be able to lift 70 mt into LEO, it is then planned to be upgraded to 105 mt and then eventually to 130 mt.[34][35]

Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), an unmanned test flight of Orion's crew module, is planned to be launched in 2014 on a Delta IV Heavy rocket.[35] Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1) is the unmanned initial launch of SLS, which is planned for 2017.[35] The first manned flight of Orion and SLS, Exploration Mission-2 (EM-2) is to launch between 2019 and 2021; it is a 10-14 day mission planned to place a crew of four into Lunar orbit.[35] As of March 2012, the destination for EM-3 and the remainder of the focus for this new program is still in-flux.[36]

ISS crew and cargo resupply[edit]

The ISS is planned to be funded until at least 2020.[37] There has been discussion to extend it to 2028 and possibly beyond that.[38] Until another US manned spacecraft is ready, crews will travel to and from the International Space Station exclusively aboard the Russian Soyuz spacecraft.[39]

Commercial Resupply Services[edit]

The Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) development program began in 2006 with the purpose of creating commercially operated unmanned cargo vehicles to service the ISS.[40] The program is a fixed price milestone-based development program, meaning that each company that received a funded award had have a list of milestones with a dollar value attached to them that they didn't receive until after they had successful completed the milestone.[41] Private companies are also required to have some "skin in the game" which refers raising an unspecified amount of private investment for their proposal.[42]

On 23 December 2008, NASA awarded Commercial Resupply Services contracts to SpaceX and Orbital Sciences Corporation.[43] SpaceX will use its Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon spacecraft.[44] Orbital Sciences will use its Antares rocket and Cygnus spacecraft. The first Dragon resupply mission occurred in May 2012.[45] The first Cygnus resupply mission is expected to occur in late 2013.[46] The CRS program provides for all America's ISS cargo needs; with the exception of a few vehicle-specific payloads that are delivered on the European ATV and the Japanese HTV.[47]

Commercial Crew Program[edit]

The Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) program was initiated in 2010 with the purpose of creating commercially operated manned spacecraft capable of delivering at least four crew members to the ISS, staying docked for 180 days and then returning them back to Earth.[48][48] Like COTS, CCDev is also a fixed price milestone-based developmental program that requires some private investment.[41]

In the first phase of the program, NASA provided a total of $50 million divided among five American companies, intended to foster research and development into human spaceflight concepts and technologies in the private sector. In 2011, during the second phase of the program, NASA provided $270 million divided among four companies.[49] During the third phase of the program, NASA provided $1.1 billion divided among three companies.[50] This phase of the CCDev program is expected to last from 3 June 2012 to 31 May 2014.[50] The winners of this latest round were SpaceX's DragonRider (derived from the Dragon cargo vehicle), Boeing's CST-100 and Sierra Nevada's Dream Chaser.[51] The United Launch Alliance is working on human-rating their Atlas V rocket as part of the latter two proposals. NASA wants to have two Commercial Crew vehicles in-service, these spacecraft are expected to begin delivering crew around 2017.[52][53]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b "Shuttle flights would continue under new proposal". Orlando Sentinel. March 3, 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2010. 
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  19. ^ a b c Chris Gebhardt – "Discovery’s retirement plans provide insight into the fate of the robotic arms" (November 17, 2010) – nasaspaceflight.com
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  34. ^ S.3729 – National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010
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External links[edit]