Space industry

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Space industry refers to economic activities related to manufacturing components that go into Earth's orbit or beyond, delivering them to those regions, and related services.[1][2] Owing to the prominence of the satellite-related activities, some sources use the term satellite industry interchangeably with the term space industry.[3] The term space business has also been used.[4] A narrow definition encompasses only hardware providers (primarily related to launch vehicles and satellites).[2] This definition does not exclude certain activities, such as space tourism.[5] Thus more broadly, space industry can be described as the companies involved in the space economy, and providing goods and services related to space.[2] Space economy has been defined as "all public and private actors involved in developing and providing space-enabled products and services. It comprises a long value-added chaining, starting with research and development actors and manufacturers of space hardware and ending with the providers of space-enabled products and services to final users."[6]

Segments and revenues[edit]

The three major sectors of the space industry are: satellite manufacturing, support ground equipment manufacturing, and the launch industry. The satellite manufacturing sector is composed of satellite and their subsystems manufacturers. The ground equipment sector is composed of manufacturing items like mobile terminals, gateways, control stations, VSATs, direct broadcast satellite dishes, and other specialized equipment. The launch sector is composed of launch services, vehicle manufacturing and subsystem manufacturing.[3]

With regards to the worldwide satellite industry revenues, in the period 2002 to 2005 those remained at the 35–36 billion USD level.[3] In that, majority of revenue was generated by the ground equipment sector, with the least amount by the launch sector.[7] Space-related services are estimated at about 100 billion USD.[8] The industry and related sectors employ about 120,000 people in the OECD countries,[8] while the space industry of Russia employs around 250,000 people.[9] Capital stocks estimated the worth of 937 satellites in Earth's orbit in 2005 at around 170 to 230 USD billion.[8] In 2005, OECD countries budgeted around US$45 billion for space-related activities; income from space-derived products and services has been estimated at US$110–120 billion in 2006 (worldwide).[10] Space industry is heavily dominated by the G7 countries, due to their extensive investment in the aerospace industry.[10]

History and trends[edit]

Space industry began to develop after World War II, as rockets and then satellites entered into military arsenals, and later found civilian applications.[1] It retains significant ties to the governments. In particular, the launch industry features a significant government involvement, with some launch platforms (like the space shuttle) being operated by governments.[3][11][12] In recent years, however, private spaceflight is becoming realistic, and even major government agencies, such as NASA, have begun relying on privately operated launch services.[13][14] Some future developments of the space industry that are increasingly being considered include new services such as space tourism.[5]

Relevant trends in the 2008–2009 for the space industry have been described as:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Joan Lisa Bromberg (October 2000). NASA and the Space Industry. JHU Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-8018-6532-9. Retrieved 10 June 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c d Kai-Uwe Schrogl (2 August 2010). Yearbook on Space Policy 2008/2009: Setting New Trends. Springer. p. 49. ISBN 978-3-7091-0317-3. Retrieved 10 June 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c d Claire Jolly; Gohar Razi; OECD International Futures Programme; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2007). The space economy at a glance: 2007. OECD Publishing. p. 48. ISBN 978-92-64-03109-8. Retrieved 9 June 2011. 
  4. ^ Joan Lisa Bromberg (October 2000). NASA and the Space Industry. JHU Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-8018-6532-9. Retrieved 10 June 2011. 
  5. ^ a b Dimitrios Buhalis; Carlos Costa (2006). Tourism business frontiers: consumers, products and industry. Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-7506-6377-9. Retrieved 10 June 2011. 
  6. ^ Claire Jolly; Gohar Razi; OECD International Futures Programme; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2007). The space economy at a glance: 2007. OECD Publishing. p. 13. ISBN 978-92-64-03109-8. Retrieved 10 June 2011. 
  7. ^ Claire Jolly; Gohar Razi; OECD International Futures Programme; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2007). The space economy at a glance: 2007. OECD Publishing. p. 49. ISBN 978-92-64-03109-8. Retrieved 9 June 2011. 
  8. ^ a b c Claire Jolly; Gohar Razi; OECD International Futures Programme; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2007). The space economy at a glance: 2007. OECD Publishing. p. 15. ISBN 978-92-64-03109-8. Retrieved 10 June 2011. 
  9. ^ Ionin, Andrey. "Russia’s Space Program in 2006: Some Progress but No Clear Direction". Moscow Defense Brief (Centre for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies) (2(#8)). 
  10. ^ a b Claire Jolly; Gohar Razi; OECD International Futures Programme; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2007). The space economy at a glance: 2007. OECD Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 978-92-64-03109-8. Retrieved 10 June 2011. 
  11. ^ Joan Lisa Bromberg (October 2000). NASA and the Space Industry. JHU Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-8018-6532-9. Retrieved 10 June 2011. 
  12. ^ Walter Edward Hammond (1999). Space transportation: a systems approach to analysis and design. AIAA. p. 157. ISBN 978-1-56347-032-5. Retrieved 10 June 2011. 
  13. ^ Chris Dubbs; Emeline Paat-Dahlstrom; Charles D. Walker (1 June 2011). Realizing Tomorrow: The Path to Private Spaceflight. U of Nebraska Press. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-8032-1610-5. Retrieved 10 June 2011. 
  14. ^ Chris Dubbs; Emeline Paat-Dahlstrom; Charles D. Walker (1 June 2011). Realizing Tomorrow: The Path to Private Spaceflight. U of Nebraska Press. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-8032-1610-5. Retrieved 10 June 2011.