During the 16th century, Habsburg Spain and the Ottoman Empire fought for supremacy in the Mediterranean. A highlight was the battle of Lepanto where the Spanish-led fleet (allied with the Republic of Venice and the Papal States) won over the Ottoman fleet. In North Africa, the Spanish actions against the Barbary Pirates (Ottoman allies) were not successful for long. During this time, the Ottomans welcomed many Sephardi Jews and Conversos, fleeing from religious persecution in Spain, who introduced the Gutenberg press and theater, and supported a failed Morisco revolt. The silver brought from Spanish America caused massive inflation in Spain, that extended to the rest of Europe and even the Ottoman Empire.
Modern relations between the two countries started in 1782 when the Agreement of Peace, Friendship and Trade was signed.
Turkey and Spain are both members of the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Union for the Mediterranean.
The Joint Action Plan signed between Turkey and Spain on July 22, 1998 established the framework of the bilateral relations between the two countries.
There are approximately 40,000 Turks in Spain.
Trade volume between Turkey and Spain was €5.99 billion in 2011.
There are more than 150 Spanish firms operating in Turkey. The value of Spanish investments in Turkey is around €250 million. In 2008, more than 350,000 Spanish tourists visited Turkey.