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- 1383–1385 Crisis, when Castile intervened unsuccessfully in a Portuguese civil war, suffering a crushing defeat in the battle of Aljubarrota.
- War of the Portuguese Succession (1580-1583), when Spain defeated the Portuguese supporters of Antonio, Prior of Crato, and a coalition of French, English and Dutch forces. Philip II of Spain is recognized as King of Portugal
- Portuguese Restoration War (1640–1668), when Portugal overthrew the House of Habsburg and established the House of Braganza as the ruling dynasty and regained its full sovereignty
- War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1713)
- Spanish–Portuguese War (1735–1737)
- Spanish–Portuguese War (1761–1763)
- Spanish–Portuguese War (1776–1777)
- War of the Oranges in 1801, when Spain and France defeated Portugal in the Iberian Peninsula and the town of Olivenza was ceded to Spain; while Portugal defeated Spain in South America, conquering Misiones Orientales and part of Mato Grosso do Sul.
- Invasion of Portugal (1807), when Spain initially supported the French