Spanish immigration to the United States
|10,017,244 (direct descent)  26,735,713 (Hispanic American descent)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|California, New Mexico, Florida, Texas, New Jersey, New York, Chicago, Western United States|
|American English · American Spanish · European Spanish|
|Predominantly Roman Catholicism|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Spaniards · Basque Americans · Catalan Americans · French Americans · Italian Americans · Portuguese Americans · other European Americans · White Hispanic Americans · Portuguese people|
Spanish Americans (Spanish: hispano-americanos, norteamericanos de origen español or estadounidenses de origen español) are European Americans whose ancestors originate from the southwestern European nation of Spain. Spanish Americans are the longest-established European-American group with a continuous presence in Florida since 1565 and are the eighth-largest Hispanic group in the United States. About 50 million Americans are of Latin American descent and some of them have some Spanish ancestry due to Spanish colonialism of Mexico and South America (except Brazil), though Spanish-American usually refers only to a person originating from the country of Spain.
- 1 Immigration waves
- 2 Cultural
- 3 Socioeconomics
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Political participation
- 6 Spanish place names
- 7 Notables
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
In colonial times, there were a number of white settlements of Spanish populations in the present–day U.S. with governments answerable to Madrid. The first settlement was at St. Augustine, Florida, in 1565, followed by others in New Mexico, California, Arizona, Texas, and Louisiana. In 1598, San Juan de los Caballeros was established, near present day Santa Fe, New Mexico, by Juan de Oñate and about 1,000 other Spaniards.
After the establishment of the American colonies, an additional 250,000 immigrants arrived either directly from Spain, the Canary Islands or, after a relatively short sojourn, from present-day central Mexico. These Spanish settlers expanded European influence in the New World. The Canary Islanders settled in bayou areas surrounding New Orleans in Louisiana from 1778 to 1783 and in San Antonio de Bejar, San Antonio, Texas, in 1731.
Most of the Spanish settler descendants in present-day Texas, California, New Mexico, Colorado, and Arizona self-identified as Spanish-Americans to differentiate themselves nominally from the population of Mexican-Americans who came after the Mexican Revolution and more often identified as Mestizo, that is mixed native and European ancestry; others only self-identified as of European origin.
The earliest Spanish settlements in then northern Mexico were the result of the same forces that later led the English to come to North America. Exploration had been fueled in part by imperial hopes for the discovery of wealthy civilizations. In addition, like those aboard the Mayflower, most Spaniards came to the New World seeking land to farm, or occasionally, as historians have recently established, freedom from religious persecution. A smaller percentage of new Spanish settlers were descendants of Spanish Jewish converts and Spanish Muslim converts.
|Source: United States Census|
Basques stood out in the exploration of the Americas, both as soldiers and members of the crews that sailed for the Spanish. Prominent in the civil service and colonial administration, they were accustomed to overseas travel and residence. Another reason for their emigration besides the restrictive inheritance laws in the Basque Country, was the devastation from the Napoleonic Wars in the first half of the nineteenth century, which was followed by defeats in the two Carlist civil wars. (For more information about the Basque, and immigrants to the United States from this region, please see the article Basque Americans.)
19th and 20th centuries
Immigration to the United States from Spain was minimal but steady during the first half of the nineteenth century, with an increase during the 1850s and 1860s resulting from the social disruption of the Carlist civil wars. Much larger numbers of Spanish immigrants entered the country in the first quarter of the twentieth century—27,000 in the first decade and 68,000 in the second—due to the same circumstances of rural poverty and urban congestion that led other Europeans to emigrate in that period, as well as unpopular wars.The Spanish presence in the United States declined sharply between 1930 and 1940 from a total of 110,000 to 85,000. Many immigrants moved either back to Spain or to another country.
Beginning with the Fascist revolt against the Second Spanish Republic in 1936 and the devastating civil war that ensued, General Francisco Franco established a reactionary dictatorship for 40 years. At the time of the Fascist takeover, a small but prominent group of liberal intellectuals fled to the United States. After the civil war the country endured 20 years of Autarky, as Franco believed that post World War II Spain could survive or continue its activities without any European assistance.
As a result, in the mid-1960s, 44,000 Spaniards immigrated to the United States. In the 1970s, when Franco abandoned Spain's autarkic economic system, prosperity began to emerge in Spain, and Spanish immigration to the United States declined to about 3,000 per year. In the 1980s, as Europe enjoyed an economic boom, Spanish immigrants to the United States dropped to only 15,000. The 1990 U.S. census recorded 76,000 foreign-born Spaniards in the country, representing only four-tenths of a percent of the total populace.
Much as with French Americans, who are of French descent but mostly by way of Canada, the majority of the 24 million strong Spanish speaking population have come by way of Latin America, especially Mexico, but also Puerto Rico, Cuba, and other areas. Some are descendants of colonial settlers in the southwestern states, especially New Mexico, before they became part of the United States.
Spanish Americans are readily accepted into American society. The Spanish work ethic is compatible with the values of both pre– and post–industrial Europe. Leisure time is used to maintain essential social contacts and is identified with upward social movement.
Many Spanish Americans still retain aspects of their culture. This includes Spanish food, drink, art, annual fiestas. Spaniards have contributed to a vast number of areas in the United States. The influence of Spanish cuisine is seen in the cuisine of the United States throughout the country.
Spanish language in the United States
Spanish was the first European language spoken in North America. It was brought to the territory of what is the contemporary United States in 1513 by Juan Ponce de León. In 1565, the Spaniards founded St. Augustine, Florida, the oldest, continuously occupied European settlement in the modern U.S. territory.
Many Spanish Americans are more active in Catholic church activities than was common in past generations in Spain; they rarely change their religious affiliation and participate frequently in family–centered ecclesiastical rituals. In both Spain and the United States events such as first communions and baptisms are felt to be important social obligations that strengthen clan identity.
Since Spanish American entrance into the middle class has been widespread, the employment patterns described above have largely disappeared. This social mobility has followed logically from the fact that throughout the history of Spanish immigration to the United States, the percentage of skilled workers remained uniformly high. In the first quarter of the twentieth century, for example, 85 percent of Spanish immigrants were literate, and 36 percent were either professionals or skilled craftsmen. A combination of aptitude, motivation, and high expectations led to successful entry into a variety of fields.
Spanish communities in the United States, in keeping with their strong regional identification in Spain, have established centers for Basques, Galicians, Asturians, Andalusians, and other such communities.
|Immigration to the United States|
These figures show that there was never the mass emigration from Iberia that there was from Latin America. It is evident in the figures that Spanish immigration peaked in the 1910s and 1920s. The majority settled in Florida and New York, although there was also a sizable Spanish influx to West Virginia at the turn of the 20th century, mostly from Asturias.
Some of the first ancestors of Spanish Americans were Spanish Jews who spoke Ladino, a language derived from Castilian Spanish and Hebrew. In the 1930s and 1940s, Spanish immigration mostly consisted of refugees fleeing from the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) and from the Franco military regime in Spain, which lasted until his death in 1975. The majority of these refugees were businessmen and intellectuals, as well as union activists, and held strong liberal anti-authoritarian feelings.
2000 U.S Census
In the 2000 United States Census, 295,067 Americans specifically reported their ancestry as "Spaniard," which was a significant decrease from the 1990 Census, wherein those who reported "Spaniard" numbered 360,858. Another 2,187,144 reported "Spanish"  and 111, 781 people, reported "Spanish American." To this figures we must adhere some groups of Spanish origin or descent that specify their origin, instead of in Spain, in some of the Autonomous communities of Spain, specially Spanish Basques (9,296 people), Castillians (4,744 people), Canarians (3,096 people), Balearics (2,554 people) and Catalans (1,738 people). Less of 300 people indicated be of Asturian, Andalusian, "Gallego" and Valencian origin.
∂∆∆ℙℍℚ===1990 U.S. Census===
1980 U.S. Census
The Twentieth United States Census, 1980 was the first U.S. census that asked someones ancestry.
Spanish Americans are found in relative numbers throughout United States, particularly in the Southwestern and Gulf Coast. According to the 1980 U.S. census, 62.7% reported Spanish as their main ancestry, and 66.4% reported Spaniard as their main ancestry.
With the outbreak of the Spanish civil war in 1936 a number of intellectual political refugees found asylum in the United States. Supporters of the overthrown Spanish Republic, which had received aid from the Soviet Union while under attack from National rebel forces, were sometimes incorrectly identified with communism, but their arrival in the United States well before the "red scare" of the early 1950s spared them the worst excesses of McCarthyism. Until the end of the dictatorship in Spain in 1975 political exiles in the United States actively campaigned against the abuses of the Franco regime.
Spanish place names
Some Spanish placenames in the USA include:
- California - The state was named for a mythical land described in a popular Spanish novel from around 1500, Las sergas de Esplandián (The exploits of Esplandián) by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo.
- Florida - "Flowery".
- New Mexico
- Colorado - "Reddish".
- Montana - "Montaña", "Mountain".
- Texas "Tejas" in Spanish language and "slates" in English.
- Nevada - "Snowfall".
- Las Vegas " The Meadows".
- Oregon - "Orejón", "big ear" or could come from "Aragón".
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Spanish Americans.|
About Spanish Americans
- Spanish-American relations
- Spanish immigration to Hawaii
- Galician American
- Catalan American
- Isleño American
- Nuevomexicano (New Mexican Spanish)
- Origins of New Mexico Families: A Genealogy of the Spanish Colonial Period
- El Centro Español de Tampa
- Centro Asturiano de Tampa
- History of Ybor City
About Hispanic Americans and Spanish Canadians
- Hispanic Society of America
- Notable Hispanics
- Spanish Canadian
- White American
- White Hispanic
- White Latin American
- Hispanic and Latino Americans
- The Source: Gen
- Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2011
- Most dictionaries give this definition as the first or only definition for "Spanish American". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (3rd ed.) (1992). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-44895-6. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.) (2003). Springfield: Merriam-Webster. ISBN 0-87779-807-9. The Random House Dictionary of the English Language (2nd ed.) (1987). New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-50050-4. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles (2007). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-920687-2. Webster's New Dictionary and Thesaurus (2002). Cleveland: Wiley Publishing. ISBN 978-0-471-79932-0
- "A Spanish Expedition Established St. Augustine in Florida". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2012-06-29.
- Hernández González, Manuel. La emigración canaria a América (Canarian Emigration to the Americas). Pages 15 and 43 - 44 (about the expeditions and Canarian emigration in Texas), page 51 (about of the Canarian emigration to Louisiana). First Edition January, 2007
- New Mexico CultureNet - Cuartocentenario
- Kurlansky, Mark (1999). The Basque History of the World. New York: Walker. ISBN 0-14-029851-7.
- Chavez, Linda (March 25, 2011). "Hispanic population booms". Florida Today (Melbourne, Florida). pp. 9A.
- Perez, Juan M. (October 2005). The Hispanic Role in America "The hispanic Role in America". Coloquio Revista Cultural.
- Angela, Brittingham; G. Patricia de la Cruz. "Ancestry: 2000; Census 2000 Brief". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-12-11.
- "Table 1. First, Second, and Total Responses to the Ancestry Question by Detailed Ancestry Code: 2000". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- 1980 Census of Total U.S Population
- 1980,U.S Census by State
- 1990 & 1980 State population comparisons
- Colahan, Clark (2008). Spanish American Heritage. Multicultural America.
- Ramírez, Roberto R. (2004). We the People: Hispanic Population in the United States. Census 2000 Special Reports. U.S. Census Bureau.
- Pérez, Juan M. (October 2005). The Hispanic Role in America. Coloquio Revista Cultural.
- Survey: 2005 American Community Survey:Hispanic Origin. U.S. Census Bureau.
- Asturian-American Migration Forum. A discussion board for the descendants of Asturian-Americans.