Spanish general election, 1986

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Spanish general election, 1986
Spain
1982 ←
22 June 1986 → 1989

All 350 seats of the Congress of Deputies and 208 (of the 254) seats in the Senate
176 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies, 128 in the Senate
Turnout 20,524,858 (70.5%)
Decrease9.5 pp
  First party Second party Third party
  Felipe González Debate Estado Nación 1984.jpg Manuel Fraga Congreso Diputados.jpg Retrato de Adolfo Suárez.jpg
Leader Felipe González Manuel Fraga Adolfo Suárez
Party PSOE CP CDS
Leader since 13 October 1974 9 October 1976 29 July 1982
Last election 202 C + 157 S
48.1%
107 C + 67 S
26.4%[a]
2 C + 0 S
2.9%
Seats won
184 / 350
148 / 254
105 / 350
77 / 254
19 / 350
3 / 254
Seat change Decrease18 C
Decrease9 S
Decrease2 C
Increase10 S
Increase17 C
Increase3 S
Popular vote 8,901,718 5,247,677 1,861,912
Percentage 44.1% 26.0% 9.2%
Swing Decrease4.0 pp Decrease0.4 pp Increase6.3 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Retrato de Miquel Roca i Junyent.jpg IU 2007 02 Inaki Anasagasti-2.jpg
Leader Miquel Roca Gerardo Iglesias Iñaki Anasagasti
Party CiU IU EAJ/PNV
Leader since 1980 1982 1986
Last election 12 C + 6 S
3.7%
4 C + 2 S
4.1%
8 C + 9 S
1.9%
Seats won
18 / 350
11 / 254
7 / 350
1 / 254
6 / 350
9 / 254
Seat change Increase6 C
Increase5 S
Increase3 C
Decrease1 S
Decrease2 C
Steady0 S
Popular vote 1,014,258 935,504 309,610
Percentage 5.0% 4.6% 1.5%
Swing Increase1.3 pp Increase0.5 pp Decrease0.4 pp

Most voted party in each province. Every province is a multi-member district for the Congress.

Prime Minister before election

Felipe González
PSOE

Elected Prime Minister

Felipe González
PSOE

The 1986 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 22 June, to elect the 3rd Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. At stake were all 350 seats to the Congress of Deputies and 208 of 254 seats to the Senate. This was a snap election, since new elections were not due until October 1986.

The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party remained the largest party in the Congress of Deputies, winning 184 of the 350 seats.

Overview[edit]

Electoral system[edit]

Voting is on the basis of universal suffrage in a secret ballot. The Congress of Deputies 350 members are elected in 50 multi-member districts using the D'Hondt method and a closed-list proportional representation. Ceuta and Melilla elect one member each using plurality voting. Each district is entitled to an initial minimum of two seats, with the remaining 248 seats being allocated among the 50 provinces in proportion to their populations. Only lists polling above 3% of the total vote in each district (which includes blank ballots—for none of the above) are entitled to enter the seat distribution. Under articles 12 and 68 of the Constitution, the minimum voting age is 18.[1]

Elections to the Senate take place under a limited vote system. Each of the 47 peninsular districts (the provinces) is assigned 4 seats. In Baleares and Canarias, districts are the islands themselves, with the larger — Mallorca, Gran Canaria, and Tenerife — being assigned 3 seats each, and the smaller — Menorca, Ibiza-Formentera, Fuerteventura, Gomera, Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma — one each. Ceuta and Melilla are assigned 2 seats each, for a total of 208 directly elected seats. In districts electing 4 seats, electors may vote for up to 3 candidates; in those with 2 or 3 seats, for up to 2 candidates; and for 1 candidate in single member constituencies. Electors vote for individual candidates: those attaining the largest number of votes in each district are elected for a 4-year term of office.

In addition, the legislative assemblies of the self-governing or autonomous communities into which the provinces of Spain are grouped are entitled to appoint at least one senator each, as well as one senator for every million inhabitants, adding up a variable number of appointed seats to the directly-elected 208 senators.[2]

Apportionment[edit]

Escudo de España (colores THV).svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
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Foreign relations

Under Article 68 of the Spanish constitution, the boundaries of the electoral districts must be the same as the provinces of Spain and, under Article 141, this can only be altered with the approval of Congress.[1]

The apportionment of seats to provinces follows the largest remainder method over the resident population ("Padrón") with a minimum of two seats (Art. 162 of the Electoral Law).[3]

Eligibility[edit]

Dual membership of both chambers of the Cortes or of the Cortes and regional assemblies is prohibited, meaning that candidates must resign from regional assemblies if elected. Active judges, magistrates, public defenders, serving military personnel, active police officers and members of constitutional and electoral tribunals are also ineligible,[1] as well as CEOs or equivalent leaders of state monopolies and public bodies, such as the Spanish state broadcaster RTVE.[4]

Presenting candidates

Parties and coalitions of different parties which have registered with the Electoral Commission can present lists of candidates. Groups of electors which have not registered with the commission can also present lists, provided that they obtain the signatures of 1% of registered electors in a particular district.[4]

Background[edit]

In this election, the Communist Party of Spain joined with other minor left parties to form the electoral coalition Izquierda Unida; in Catalonia they ran as the Catalan Left Union. Similarly, the People's Alliance formed an electoral alliance with two other conservative parties to form the People's Coalition Coalición Popular.

Results[edit]

Party Votes % Seats +/–
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party 8,901,718 44.06 184 –18
People's Alliance 5,247,677 25.97 105 –2
Democratic and Social Centre 1,861,912 9.22 19 +17
Convergence and Union 1,014,258 5.02 18 +6
United Left 935,504 4.63 7 +3
Basque Nationalist Party 309,610 1.53 6 –2
Herri Batasuna 231,722 1.15 5 +3
Workers' Party of Spain – Communist Unity 229,695 1.14 0 New
Partido Reformista Democratico 194,538 0.96 0 0
Euskadiko Ezkerra 107,053 0.53 2 +1
Andalusian Party 94,008 0.47 0 0
Republican Left of Catalonia 84,628 0.42 0 –1
Coalicion Galega 79,972 0.40 1 New
Workers' Socialist Party 77,914 0.39 0 0
Aragonese Regionalist Party 73,004 0.36 1 New
Canarian Independent Group Coalition 65,664 0.33 1 New
Unio Valenciana 64,403 0.32 1 New
Party of the Communists of Catalonia 57,107 0.28 0 New
Partido Socialista Galego-Esquerda Galega 45,574 0.23 0 0
Falange Española De Las Jons 43,449 0.22 0 0
Communist Unification of Spain 42,451 0.21 0 0
Unitat Del Poble Valencia 40,264 0.20 0 0
Asamblea Canaria-Izquierda Nacionalista Canaria 36,892 0.18 0
The Greens 31,909 0.16 0
Lista Alternativa Verde 29,567 0.15 0
Vertice Español Reivindicacion Desarroll Ecologico 28,318 0.14 0
Unidad Popular Republicana 27,473 0.14 0
Galician Nationalist Bloc 27,049 0.13 0
Partido Obrero Socialista Internacionalista 21,853 0.11 0
Extremadura Unida 16,091 0.08 0
Partido Socialista Del Pueblo Andaluz 14,999 0.07 0
PSM Esquerra Nacionalista 7,539 0.04 0
Coalicion De Unidad Nacional 5,209 0.03 0
Revolutionary Workers' Party 5,126 0.03 0
Partit Socialdemocrata De Catalunya 4,885 0.02 0
Agrupacion De Electores Independientes 3,857 0.02 0
Coalicion Convergencia Leonesista 2,520 0.01 0
Regionalist Party of the Leonese Country 2,449 0.01 0
Esquerra Nacionalista Valenciana 2,116 0.01 0
Liga Obrera Comunista 1,952 0.01 0
Partido Moderado-Centristas De Navarra 1,932 0.01 0
Cultura Natural 1,886 0.01 0
Partido Regionalista Murciano 1,401 0.01 0
Partido Español Democrata 1,169 0.01 0
Partido Nacionalista De Castilla Y Leon 1,047 0.01 0
Coalicion Candidatura Por La Autonomia 758 0 0
Partido Proverista 756 0 0
Agrupacion Electoral"Agrup Independiente De Ceuta" 601 0 0
Partido Español Cristiano 254 0 0
Movimiento Comunista De Euskadi 0 0 0
Liga Komunista Iraultzailea 0 0 0
Invalid/blank votes 443,125
Total 20,524,858 100 350 0
Registered voters/turnout 29,117,613 70.49
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Vote share
PSOE
  
44.06%
AP
  
25.97%
CDS
  
9.22%
CiU
  
5.02%
IU
  
4.63%
EAJ-PNV
  
1.53%
HB
  
1.15%
MUC
  
1.14%
PRD
  
0.96%
EE
  
0.53%
PA
  
0.47%
ERC
  
0.42%
CG
  
0.40%
PST
  
0.39%
PAR
  
0.36%
AIC
  
0.33%
UV
  
0.32%
Others
  
3.12%
Blank
  
0.60%
Parliamentary seats
PSOE
  
52.57%
AP
  
30.00%
CDS
  
5.43%
CiU
  
5.14%
IU
  
2.00%
EAJ-PNV
  
1.71%
HB
  
1.43%
EE
  
0.57%
CG
  
0.29%
PAR
  
0.29%
AIC
  
0.29%
UV
  
0.29%

Investiture voting[edit]

24 July 1986
Investiture voting for Felipe González Márquez (PSOE)

Absolute majority: 176/350
Vote Parties Votes
YesY Yes PSOE (184)
184 / 350
No CP (91), CDS (19), CiU (18), IU (7), EE (2), CG (1), PAR (1), AIC (1), UV (1)
141 / 350
Abstentions PNV (6)
6 / 350
14 CP and all 5 HB deputies missed the voting.
Source: Historia Electoral

Opinion polls[edit]

Poll results are listed in the table below in reverse chronological order, showing the most recent first. The highest percentage figure in each polling survey is displayed in bold, and the background shaded in the leading party's colour. In the instance that there is a tie, then no figure is shaded but both are displayed in bold. The lead column on the right shows the percentage-point difference between the two parties with the highest figures. Poll results use the date the survey's fieldwork was done, as opposed to the date of publication. However, if such date is unknown, the date of publication will be given instead. Seat projections are included below the % estimation where available. "–" denotes no individual figure.

176 seats needed for a majority
Polling Firm Date Link PSOE AP IU CiU CDS Others Lead
Election Results 22 June 1986 HTML 44.1%
184
26.0%
105
4.6%
7
5.0%
18
9.2%
19
11.1%
17
18.1%
Exit polls
Aresco 11–13 June HTML 39.9%
167–180
28.7%
105–121
7.4%
6–12
4.5%
17–20
9.0%
13–19
10.5%
20
11.2%
Gallup 2–9 June PDF 40.0%
167
24.0%
101
6.0%
9
6.0%
20
9.0%
21
15.0%
32
16.0%
Demoscopia 5–8 June HTML 41.0%
167–194
24.0%
86–105
6.0%
10–16
6.0%
17–20
11.0%
15–29
12.0%
19–22
17.0%
Line Staff 29 May–7 June HTML[b] 42.2%
178–199
21.5%
71–90
6.6%
7–12
5.6%
20–21
12.6%
17–28
11.5%
22–32
20.7%
Demoscopia 24–27 May HTML 46.0%
194–210
25.0%
85–98
6.0%
6–7
6.0%%
16–17
8.0%
15–19
9.0%
16–17
21.0%
1986
Gallup 18–29 April HTML 43.5% 23.4% 4.0% 5.8% 8.0% 15.3% 20.1%
1985
Gallup 23 December HTML 38.2% 26.3% 5.8% 3.9% 6.3% 19.5% 11.9%
Gallup 22 September–9 October HTML 42.9% 28.0% 5.9% 3.1% 5.7% 14.4% 14.9%
Gallup 17 April HTML 42.3% 27.1% 6.1% 2.7% 5.3% 16.5% 15.2%
1984
Local Elections 8 May 1983 HTML 43.0% 25.6% 8.5% 4.2% 1.7% 17.0% 17.4%
Gallup 2 May PDF 45.4% 27.3% 8.2% 0.3% 18.1%
Aresco 26–29 April HTML 45.3% 30.2% 5.3% 3.8% 1.6% 13.8% 15.1%
1983
Election Results 28 October 1982 HTML 48.1%
202
26.4%
107
4.0%
4
3.7%
12
2.9%
2
14.9%
23
21.7%

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ People's Coalition (CP) results are compared to the People's Alliance (AP) results in the 1982 election.
  2. ^ This survey provides data ranges and approximations. In order to simplify, the average of those ranges is given.

References[edit]


Sources[edit]