Spanish general election, 1986
|Most voted party in each province. Every province is a multi-member district for the Congress.|
The 1986 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 22 June, to elect the 3rd Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. At stake were all 350 seats to the Congress of Deputies and 208 of 254 seats to the Senate. This was a snap election, since new elections were not due until October 1986.
The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party remained the largest party in the Congress of Deputies, winning 184 of the 350 seats.
Voting is on the basis of universal suffrage in a secret ballot. The Congress of Deputies 350 members are elected in 50 multi-member districts using the D'Hondt method and a closed-list proportional representation. Ceuta and Melilla elect one member each using plurality voting. Each district is entitled to an initial minimum of two seats, with the remaining 248 seats being allocated among the 50 provinces in proportion to their populations. Only lists polling above 3% of the total vote in each district (which includes blank ballots—for none of the above) are entitled to enter the seat distribution. Under articles 12 and 68 of the Constitution, the minimum voting age is 18.
Elections to the Senate take place under a limited vote system. Each of the 47 peninsular districts (the provinces) is assigned 4 seats. In Baleares and Canarias, districts are the islands themselves, with the larger — Mallorca, Gran Canaria, and Tenerife — being assigned 3 seats each, and the smaller — Menorca, Ibiza-Formentera, Fuerteventura, Gomera, Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma — one each. Ceuta and Melilla are assigned 2 seats each, for a total of 208 directly elected seats. In districts electing 4 seats, electors may vote for up to 3 candidates; in those with 2 or 3 seats, for up to 2 candidates; and for 1 candidate in single member constituencies. Electors vote for individual candidates: those attaining the largest number of votes in each district are elected for a 4-year term of office.
In addition, the legislative assemblies of the self-governing or autonomous communities into which the provinces of Spain are grouped are entitled to appoint at least one senator each, as well as one senator for every million inhabitants, adding up a variable number of appointed seats to the directly-elected 208 senators.
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Under Article 68 of the Spanish constitution, the boundaries of the electoral districts must be the same as the provinces of Spain and, under Article 141, this can only be altered with the approval of Congress.
Dual membership of both chambers of the Cortes or of the Cortes and regional assemblies is prohibited, meaning that candidates must resign from regional assemblies if elected. Active judges, magistrates, public defenders, serving military personnel, active police officers and members of constitutional and electoral tribunals are also ineligible, as well as CEOs or equivalent leaders of state monopolies and public bodies, such as the Spanish state broadcaster RTVE.
- Presenting candidates
Parties and coalitions of different parties which have registered with the Electoral Commission can present lists of candidates. Groups of electors which have not registered with the commission can also present lists, provided that they obtain the signatures of 1% of registered electors in a particular district.
In this election, the Communist Party of Spain joined with other minor left parties to form the electoral coalition Izquierda Unida; in Catalonia they ran as the Catalan Left Union. Similarly, the People's Alliance formed an electoral alliance with two other conservative parties to form the People's Coalition Coalición Popular.
|Spanish Socialist Workers' Party||8,901,718||44.06||184||–18|
|Democratic and Social Centre||1,861,912||9.22||19||+17|
|Convergence and Union||1,014,258||5.02||18||+6|
|Basque Nationalist Party||309,610||1.53||6||–2|
|Workers' Party of Spain – Communist Unity||229,695||1.14||0||New|
|Partido Reformista Democratico||194,538||0.96||0||0|
|Republican Left of Catalonia||84,628||0.42||0||–1|
|Workers' Socialist Party||77,914||0.39||0||0|
|Aragonese Regionalist Party||73,004||0.36||1||New|
|Canarian Independent Group Coalition||65,664||0.33||1||New|
|Party of the Communists of Catalonia||57,107||0.28||0||New|
|Partido Socialista Galego-Esquerda Galega||45,574||0.23||0||0|
|Falange Española De Las Jons||43,449||0.22||0||0|
|Communist Unification of Spain||42,451||0.21||0||0|
|Unitat Del Poble Valencia||40,264||0.20||0||0|
|Asamblea Canaria-Izquierda Nacionalista Canaria||36,892||0.18||0|
|Lista Alternativa Verde||29,567||0.15||0|
|Vertice Español Reivindicacion Desarroll Ecologico||28,318||0.14||0|
|Unidad Popular Republicana||27,473||0.14||0|
|Galician Nationalist Bloc||27,049||0.13||0|
|Partido Obrero Socialista Internacionalista||21,853||0.11||0|
|Partido Socialista Del Pueblo Andaluz||14,999||0.07||0|
|PSM Esquerra Nacionalista||7,539||0.04||0|
|Coalicion De Unidad Nacional||5,209||0.03||0|
|Revolutionary Workers' Party||5,126||0.03||0|
|Partit Socialdemocrata De Catalunya||4,885||0.02||0|
|Agrupacion De Electores Independientes||3,857||0.02||0|
|Coalicion Convergencia Leonesista||2,520||0.01||0|
|Regionalist Party of the Leonese Country||2,449||0.01||0|
|Esquerra Nacionalista Valenciana||2,116||0.01||0|
|Liga Obrera Comunista||1,952||0.01||0|
|Partido Moderado-Centristas De Navarra||1,932||0.01||0|
|Partido Regionalista Murciano||1,401||0.01||0|
|Partido Español Democrata||1,169||0.01||0|
|Partido Nacionalista De Castilla Y Leon||1,047||0.01||0|
|Coalicion Candidatura Por La Autonomia||758||0||0|
|Agrupacion Electoral"Agrup Independiente De Ceuta"||601||0||0|
|Partido Español Cristiano||254||0||0|
|Movimiento Comunista De Euskadi||0||0||0|
|Liga Komunista Iraultzailea||0||0||0|
|Source: Ministry of the Interior|
Investiture voting for Felipe González Márquez (PSOE)
Absolute majority: 176/350
|No||CP (91), CDS (19), CiU (18), IU (7), EE (2), CG (1), PAR (1), AIC (1), UV (1)|
|14 CP and all 5 HB deputies missed the voting.|
|Source: Historia Electoral|
Poll results are listed in the table below in reverse chronological order, showing the most recent first. The highest percentage figure in each polling survey is displayed in bold, and the background shaded in the leading party's colour. In the instance that there is a tie, then no figure is shaded but both are displayed in bold. The lead column on the right shows the percentage-point difference between the two parties with the highest figures. Poll results use the date the survey's fieldwork was done, as opposed to the date of publication. However, if such date is unknown, the date of publication will be given instead. Seat projections are included below the % estimation where available. "–" denotes no individual figure.
- People's Coalition (CP) results are compared to the People's Alliance (AP) results in the 1982 election.
- This survey provides data ranges and approximations. In order to simplify, the average of those ranges is given.